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J A P A ? 











With Tweiity-eiglit laps ai^d Flaijs and Numerous lUustratioijs 


JOHN MURRAY, Albemakle Stf.eet 

ir^^} KELLY & AVALSH, LiMxxK. {fZ^ll 
1 9 O 1 




This edition has been revised throughout with minute 
care, — as well the beaten as the unbeaten tracks. Several 
ol the Northern routes, which had been affected by the 
recent extension of the railway system, have been re- 
arranged, and a similar remark applies to some of those 
in the Island of Shikoku. 

The compilers gladly avail themselves of this op- 
portunity to express their thanks to various correspondents 
who have kindly supplied information. Further correc- 
tions or suggestions will be welcome at any time, 

Tokyo, October, 1900. 




1. General ; Books on Japan ; 
Maps 1 

2. Steam Communication 2 

3. Custom-HoTise 3 

4. Public Holidays 3 

5. Giiides 4 

6. Posts ; Telegraphs ; BarLks 4 

7. Currency 4 

8. Weights and Measvires ... 5 

9. Inns ; Travelling Exjpenses 6 

10. Climate ; Dress ; Time of 
Visit ., 8 

11. Provisions 9 

12. Means of Locomotion ; 
Luggage 10 

13. Where to Go and What to 
See 11 

14. Purchases ; Objects of Art 12 


15. Shipment of Goods 13 

16. Shooting 13 

17. Fishing 14 

18. Miscellaneous Hints 15 

19. Language 17 

20. The Shinto Religion 37 

21. Japanese Buddhism 41 

22. List of Gods and God- 
desses 44 

23. Christian Mission Stations 57 

24. Outline of Japanese His- 
tory 58 

25. Chronological Tables 60 

26. Celebrated Personages 70 

27. Population of the Chief 
Cities 88 

28. Outline Tours 89 

Glossary of Japanese Words ... 93 


Section I. — Eastern Japan. 

KouTE. Page. 

1. Yokohama 99 

2. Excursions from Yokohama 101 

3. From Yokohama to Tokyo 110 

4. Tokyo Ill 

5. Excursions from Tokyd . . . 140 

6. Miyanoshita and Hakone... 150 

7. The Peninsula of Izu 160 

8. Tries Island 165 

9. Fuji and Neighbourhood... 167 

10. Round the Base of Fuji to 
Lake Sh5ji and Kami-Ide 175 

11. Chichibu and the Temple 

of Mitsumine ."; 176 

12. Tokyo-TakasaM-Karuizawa 
Railway ; Myogi-san 178 

13. Karuizawa, and Asama- 
yama 181 



14. Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neigh- 
bourhood 186 

15. The Shimizu-goe and 
Milvuni-toge 193 

16. The Oyama-Maebashi Rail- 
way 195 

17. Nikko and Chuzenji 196 

18. From Chuzenji to Ikao 

over the Konsei-toge 213 

From Nikko to Ikao by 
the Valley of the Watarase- 

gawa ; Ashio 215 

Shiobara and Nasu 218 

The Provinces of Shimosa, 
Kazusa, and Boshu 220 

22. The East Coast Railway ... 227 



viii. Contents. 

Section IL — Routes Connecting Tokyo w ith Kyoto. 


23. The Tokaido 233 

24. The Nakasendo 248 

BouxE. Page. 
25. The Steamer Voyage from 
Yokohama to Kobe 254 

Section III. — Central Japan. 





The Karuizawa-Naoetsu- 

Niigata Kail way 259 

Ways to and from Kofu ... 268 
Valley of the Hayakawa . . . 279 
Mountains between the 
Fujikawa and the Tenryu- 

gawa 281 

Eapidsof the Tenryu-gawa 285 
Mountains of Hida and 

Etchu 287 

The Shrines of Ise 302 

Kobe and Neighbourhood 314 
Osaka and Neighbourhood 319 

35. Kyoto and Neighbourhood 323 
30. Nara and Neighbourhood 356 

37. Through Yamato to Koya- 
san and Wakayama in 
Kishu 365 

38. Through Kumano to Ise 383 

39. Minor Itinei'aries in the 
Province of Kishu 393 

40. LakeBiwa 394 

41. From Lake Biwa to Ama- 
no-Hashidate, Yushima, 
and the Mines of Ikuno ... 399 

42. From Tsuruga to Naoetsu 405 

Section IV. — Western Japan and the Inland Sea. 

43. The Inland Sea and Chief 
Places on and near its 
Northern Shore 411 

44. The Island of Awaji 424 

45. Matsue and the Temples of 
Izumo 429 

46. The Oki Islands 432 

Section Y. — The Island of Shieoku. 

47. North-Eastern Shikoku 437 

48. North- Western Shikoku ... 444 

49. Valley of the Yoshino-gawa 44S 

50. Western Shikoku from Ma- 
tsuyama to Uwajima 451 

51. Ways to and from KiJchi... 452 

Section VI. — The Island of Kyushu. 

52. Nagasaki and Neighbour- 
hood 459 

53. Unzen and the Shimabara 
Peninsula 463 

54. From Nagasaki across 
Central Kyushu to the 
North-East Coast 466 

55. Ascent of Sobo-san 472 

56. From Nagasaki to Mojl ... 473 

57. North- Western Kyushu ... 476 

58. Hiko-san and Y'abakei 480 

59. From Kiuuamoto to Nobe- 
oka and Oita 482 

60. South-Eas tern Kyushu 484 

61. Kagoshima and NeigbboTir- 
hood ; Volcanoes of Sakura- 
jima, Kirishima, and Kai- 
mon-dake 484 

G2. From Kagoshima to Yatsu- 
shiro via the Eapids of the 
Kumagawa 488 

63. Through Satsuma and 
Amakusa to Nagasaki 489 

64. The Gota Islands, Tsu- 
shima, and Ftisan 400 



Section VII. — Northern Japan. 

Route. Page. 

G5. The Northern Kail way 495 

66. Wakamatsu and Bandai- 
san 504 

67. From Wakamatsn to 
Nikk5 by the Valley of the 
Kinugawa 507 

68. From Niigata to "Waka- 
matsu 508 

69. From Inawashiro to Yone- 
zawa Tia Bandai-san and 
the Hibara-toge 508 

70. Matsushima and Kinkwa- 
zan 509 

Route. Page. 

71. From Sendai to Yamagata 513 

72. From Fukushima to Yone- 
zawa, Y'amagata, and Akita 513 

73. Other Ways to Akita 517 

74. From Yonezawa by the 
Miomote Valley to Mura- 
kami and Tsuru-ga-oka ... 517 

75. From Y^'onezawa to the Sea 
of Japan, and up the N. W. 
Coast to Aomori 519 

76. The North-East Coast 523 

77. LakeTowada 525 

78. The Tonami Peninsula 525 

Section VIII. — The Island of Yezo. 

79. Hakodate and Neighbour- 
hood 529 

80. Excursions from Hako- 
date 531 

81. From Hakodate to Otaru, 
Sapporo and Muroran ; 

Volcano Bay 534 

82. The South-East Coast and 
the Southern Kuriles 538 

83. From Kushiro to Abashiri 
and Northern Yezo 540 

Section IX. — Luchd and Formosa. 
84. The Luchu Islands 543 I 85. Formosa 544 


INDEX 553 


1. Japan ^^ P^^^^* ""^ «°^^'*- 

2. Key to Sectional Maps to face title-page. 

3. Distribution of Eainfall to face p. 9 

4. Shinto Temple of Izumo " I'- 

5. Buddliist Temple of Ikegami » P- 

6. Eastern Japan " P' 

7. Neighbourhood of Yokohama " P- ^^ 

8. City of Tokyo » P- ^^^ 

•). Temples and Tombs of Shiba on p. 118 

10. Tokyo and Neighbourhood to face p. 141 

11. Fuji and the Hakone District > P- 151 

12. Ikao and Kusatsu » P' ^^^ 

13 Nikko and Neighbourhood » p. 197 

14 Nikko Temples across p. 199 

15. Central Japan to face p. 231 

16.K5fu " ^-Z 

17. Geku Temple atlse o^ P- ^^^ 

18. Osaka and K6be to face p. 315 

r. -.r -. .. „ p. 323 

19. Kyoto " '■ 

20. Western Japan and the Inland Sea » P- 409 

,, ,,. .. on p. 421 

21. Miyajima ^ 

,^ _ - , - to face p. 457 

22. Kyushu ^ 

23. Neighbourhood of Nagasaki » P- ^^^ 

24. Kumamoto Castle o^ P- ^^'^ 

25. Northern Japan to face p. 493 

26. Matsushima " P' ^""^ 

27. South- Western Yezo " P- ^■^' 

28. Formosa " P' 


Handbook for Travellers 




1. General ; Books on Japan ; 
Maps 1 

2. Steam Communication .... 2 

3. Cixstom-Hoiise 3 

4. Public Holidays 3 

5. Guides 4 

G. Posts ; Telegraphs ; Banks. . 4 

7. Currency 4 

8. Weights and Measures .... 5 

9. Inns ; Travelling Expenses. 6 

10. CHmate ; Dress ; Time of 
Visit 8 

11 . Provisions 9 

12. Means of Locomotion ; 
Luggage 10 

13. Where to Go and What to 
See 11 


14. Purchases ; Objects of Art. 12 

15. Shipment of Goods 13 

16. Shooting 13 

17. Fishing 14 

18. Miscellaneous Hints 15 

19. Language 17 

20. The Shinto Keligion 37 

21. Japanese Buddhism 41 

22. List of Gods 44 

23. Christian Alission Stations. 57 

24. Outline of Japanese His- 
tory 58 

25. Chronological Tables 60 

26. Celebrated Personages 70 

27. Population 88 

28. Outline Tours 89 

Glossary of Japanese Words . . 93 

1.— Geneeal ; Books on Japan ; Maps. 

Japan, secluded for over two centuries from contact with the outer 
world, was burst open by the American expedition in 1853-4 under the 
command of Commodore Perry. Maldng a virtue of necessity, her rulers 
soon determined to Europeanise the country, as the best means of pre- 
serving its independence. Shiiw were bought, foreign naval and military 
instructors engaged, feudahsm replaced by a centralised autocracy, 
education reorganised on the pattern offered by Western nations, posts, 
telegraphs, and railways introduced, European dress, European manners, 
European amusements adopted, Buddhism disestablished, Christianity— 
if not encouraged at least no longer j)ersecuted. In short, in every 
sphere of activity, the old order gave way to the new. The change has 
been specially marked since the successful war %vdth China in 1894-5, the 
prestige then acquired having given an extraordinary imjietus to trade 

2 Introduction : — Books. Steam Communication. 

and industry on Euroijean lines. But even Japan, great as is the power 
of imitation and assimilation possessed by her people, has not been able 
completely to transform her whole material, mental, and social being 
within the limits of a single lifetime. Fortunately for the curious 
observer, she continues in a state of transition, -less Japanese and more 
European day by day, it is true, but still retaining characteristics of her 
own, especially in the dress, manners, and behefs of the lower classes. 
Those who wish to see as much as possible of the old order of things 
should come quickly. 

It is impossible, within the limits of this Introduction, to enter into 
those details of race, history, customs, religion, art, literature, etc., which, 
combmed with the • influence exercised more recently by Europe and 
America, have made Japan what she is to-day. The traveller who desires 
to travel intelligently— to do more than merely wander from hotel to 
hotel— may be referred to a series of sketches entitled Thmijs Japanese 
where, if he wishes for still more detailed information, he will lind 
references to the original authorities in each special branch. Of religion 
alone a short account seemed indispensable, as the temples are among 
Japan's cliief sights. An outhne of history and lists of gods and celebrat"- 
ed personages have been added, in order to assist the traveller to thread 
his way through the maze of proper names with which he will be con- 
fronted. In Japan, more than in any Western country, is it necessary 
to take some trouble in order to master such preliminary information ; 
for whereas England, France, Italy, Germany, and the rest, all resemble 
each other in then: main features, because all have alike grown up in a 
culture f undamentaUy identical, this is not the case with Japan. He, there- 
fore, who should essay to travel ■\\'ithout ha\dng learnt a word concerning 
Japan's past, would run the risk of forming opinions ludicrously erroneous. 
We would also specially recommend Griffis's Mikado's Empire and Rein's 
Japan and The Imlustries of Japan, as books which it would be profitable 
to read on the way out. Eein's works are, it is true, fitted only for the 
serious student,^ who is prepared for hard words and technical details ; 
but The Mikado's Empiye is calculated to appeal to all classes of readers. 
Of books on Japanese art, Anderson's Pictorial Arts of Japan is by far 
the best ; but it is expensive and bulky. Aston's short History of Japanese 
Litemiure deserves particular mention. Morse's Japanese Homes is an 
excellent description, not only of the dwellings of the people, but of all the 
articles connected with their daily life. Lafcadio Hearn, in his Glimpses 
of Unfamiiiur Japayi and other subsequent worlis, treats with intimate 
knowledge and sympathy of their manners, customs, and beliefs. In any 
case, a supply of books of some sort is indispensable to help to while 
away the fi-equent rainy days. 

The elaborate series of maps in course of publication for many 
years past at the Imperial Geological Office, may be obtained of Messrs. 
KeUy and Walsh, at Yokohama. 

2. — Steam Communication. 

Japan may be reached by the Canadian Pacific Company's steamers 
fi'om Vancouver in 13 days ; by the Pacific Mail or the Occidental and 
Oriental Company's steamers fi-om 8an Francisco in about IG days, or 18 
days if Honolulu be touched at; by the Northern Pacific Company's 
steamers from Tacoma in about IG days ; or else from Europe through the 
Suez Canal by the Peninsular and Oriental steamers from London or 
Brindisi, by the Messageries Maritimes from Marseilles, and by the 

Custom- Houae. Fublic Holidays. 3 

Norddeutscher Lloyd from Bremerliaven, Soiatliampton, or Genoa in about 
40 days. There are also outside steamers from London, notably tliose 
of the " Glen " and " Shire " Lines. Yokohama is the connecting port of 
all the above. 

The principal Japanese Company is the Nippoyi Yusen Kicai.^h'a 
(Japan Mail Steamship Company), which runs steamers from Yokohama 
almost daily to Kobe, weekly to Nagasaki and Shanghai, every third day 
to Hakodate and Otaru ; from Kobe weeldy to Sakai, Tsuruga, Niigata, 
and Hakodate, occupying altogether about sis weeks on the round trip ; 
also at longer intervals to Luchu and Formosa, and to the Bonin Islands. 
The Company also has regular lines to the piincipal Korean and Chinese 
ports and to Vladivostock in Siberia, also to Australia via Manila, and to 
Europe. Numerous smaller companies run steamers to the Inland Sea 
ports and other points on the coast, and also on some of the larger rivers 
and lakes ; but they are apt to be extremely unpunctual and dilatory. 

Boats — Icnown in the Treaty Ports as sampans — ply in all the har- 
bours, and land passengers from the steamers. The usual fare from ship 
to shore, or vice versa, is fi'om 15 to 25 sen per head. Steam launches 
from the hotels are in attendance at the larger places. 


strict examination of the luggage of passengers is made at the 
Custom-House, and the best way to avoid trouble and delay is to open 
up everything freely. Tobacco, liquors, cameras, bicycles, sporting gear, 
and most other articles, except ordinary personal effects, are liable to 

4. — Public Holidays. 

The Custom-House and other public offices observe the following 
holidays :— 

Jan. 1 ) 

„ 3> New Y'ear Holidays {Shd-gicatsu). 

„ 5) 

„ 30. Anniversary of death of K5mei Tenn5. the late Emperor. 
Feb. 11. Accession of Jimmvi Tenn5 in 660 B.C., and Promulgation 

of Constitution in 1889 (Kirien-setsu). 
Mar. 20. Spring Equinox ( Shunki Korei-sai). 
April 3. Death of Jimmu Tenno. 
Sept. 23. Autiimn Equinox {Shiiki- Korei-sai). 
Oct. 17. Harvest Thanksgiving to the Deities of Ise (Shinjo-sai, also 

called Kan-name Matsuri.) 
Nov. 3. Emperor's Birthday ( Tencho-setsu). 

„ 23. Second Harvest Festival (Shinjo-sai or Nil-name Matsuri). 

The foreign banks, besides observing Christmas, New Year, and some 
of the Japanese holidays, keep the Chinese New Year, the German Em- 
peror's birthday on the 27th January, the Queen's birthday on the 24th 
May, and the American and French national anniversaries (4th and 14th 

4 Introduction: — Guides. Posts. Telegraph.-^. Money. 

5. — Guides. 

Gnides understanding English can be procured of the Guides' Asso- 
ciation (Kaiyu-shn) at Yokohama and Kobe, with branches at Tokyo and 
Kyoto. Apply at any of the hotels. The fixed charge at present (1901)) is 
as follows : — 2h yen i)er day for a piirty of one or two tourists ; over two, 
50 sen added lor each tourist. In all cases the guide's travelling and hotel 
expenses must be paid by hLs employer. 

A guide is an absolute necessity to persons unacquainted with the 
language. Those kno\\'ing a little Japanese may feel themselves more 
their own masters by hiring a man-servant, or " boy," also able to cook, 
and having neither objection to performing menial functions, nor opinions 
of his own as to the route which it will be best to take. 

Ladies may sometimes find it convenient to hii-e a Japanese maid 
(genendly called amah by the foreign residents). Some of them speak 
English and act more or less as guides. 

G. — Posts ; Telegraphs ; Banks. 

The Imperial Japanese Post and Telegraph services are excellent. 
Letters and papers can be forwarded with perfect safety to the different 
stages of a journey. The Post-Office Order system is thoroughly efficient, 
and may be found useful by travellers who wish to avoid carrying about 
much money. 

In most towns of any size, the Post and Telegraph Offices are 
combined. Telegrams in any of the principal European languages cost 

5 sen per word, with a minimum charge of 'lb sen, addresses being charged 
for. A telegram in Japanese of 15 Kana characters costs 21) sen, the 
address of the receiver not being charged for. The foreign resiilents 
often avail themselves of this means of communication. Telephone 
Exchanges have been established in some of the large towns. 

There are at Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagasaki branches or agencies of 
the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, the Chartered Bank of India, Austra- 
lia, and China, and the National Bank of China. The facilities offered by 
such large Japanese Banks as the ilitsui, Mitsubishi, and the Specie 
Bank (S/wkin Giiikd), which are conducted on foreign lines, may also be 
availed of at Tokyo and in the interior. 

7. — Currency. 

The values are decimal, with the yen, equivalent to about two shillings 
English, or 50 cents U. S. gold, as the unit. One yen contains 100 sen, 
one sen contains 10 rin. The currency consists of gold, which is practical- 
ly never seen ; of silver pieces of 1 yen, 50 sen, 20 sen, 10 sen, and 5 sen ; 
of nickel pieces of 5 sen ; of cop^ier pieces of 2 sen, 1 sen, and 5 rin, and of 
paper money worth 1 yen, 5 yen, 10 yen, and various larger sums. 

It is best to travel with paper money, both because of its superior 
portabUity, and because it is better known to the inhabitants of the 
interior than silver or gold. One of the first things the tourist should do 
is to learn the difference between the various notes for the values 
above-mentioned. He is advised to take with him no notes of higher 
denomination than 10 yen, as it is often difficult to get change except in 
the big towns. 

Measures. Distances. 

8. — Weights and Measures, 

Distances are reckoned hj ri find cho, 36 c/i« going to the ri.* One 
n is equal to 2.44 English statute niiles7or, roughly speaking, to a trifle 
Tinder 2^ miles. One eho is equal to 358 English feet, or ^^ of a mile. 
The c/io is subdivided into GO /<-en (1 ken = Gtt. approximately), and the 
ken into 6 fthaku (1 shaku = 1 ft. approximately). The subdivisions of the 
shaku follow the decimal system. Throughout this work, the distances are 
given in ri and cho as well as in miles, as visitors to Japan drop very 
soon into the Japanese method of reckoning, which indeed must be learnt 
in any case, as coolies, jinrikisha-men, and others know nothing of 
English miles. A word of caution may here be given against the habit of 
certain Japanese having a superficial knowledge of English, who mis- 
translate the word ri by " mile." The following table, borrowed from 
Dr. N. Whitney, will be found useful : — 


Japanese Ri. 





































53. 6 J 











75 65 












100 05 







117 13 



12 2h 


124 4G 















156 19 







17. U« 

170 83 



178 15 








19 52 


197 67 


202 55 









219. G4 

































2 10 
























2 24 





































Long Measure {Kane). IQ hu = l sun (often translated "inch," but = 
1.19 inch of English measure); 10sfm = l shaku (nearly 1 foot English, 
actually 11.93 inches) ; G shaku = l ken; 10 shaku = 1 jo. The jo, equal to 
nearly 10 English feet, is the unit commonly employed in measuring 
heights and depths. 

Cloth Measure {Kvjira). 10 6u = l sun; 10 sun = l shaku, or nearly 12 
inches; 10 shaku = 1 jo. In this measure, the s/iafctt is J longer than in 
Long Measure. 

Land Measure ( Tsubo). The unit is the tsubo, nearly equivalent to 4 
square yards English. An acre is nearly equivalent to 1,210 tsubo. 

1 cho = 2^ acres, and 1 ri (square) = 6 sq. miles, approximately. 

* Some monntain districts have a longer r» of 50 cho. 

6 Introduclion: — Inns. Travelling Expenses. 

Measure of Capacity. 10 <7o = l sho, whicli contains about 108^ cubic 
inches, and is a little larger than 1 J quart ; 10 slid = 1 to, nearly half a 
bushel, or, for liquids, 4 gallons ; 10 to = 1 koku, which is a fraction less 
than 5 English bushels. 

Weights. The kin is about 1 J lb. avoirdupois ; 1 lb. avoir. = about 120 
rnomme. The kioan is equal to 1,000 momme {Q\ kin, or a little over 8J- lbs.). 

9. — Inns ; Tbavelling Expenses. 

The inns are given from personal knowledge or from the best 
accessible information, an asterisk being sometimes prefixed to the name 
of a house specially worthy of mention. A^Tiat is termed hatago at a 
Japanese inn includes supper, bed, and breakfast, for which a single 
charge is usually made. This varies according to the style and standing 
of the establishment, and ranges at present from 75 sen to '2J yen per head. 
Scanty as the entertiiinment may often appear to one fii-esh ftom the 
innumerable luxuries of a comfortable European hotel, it should be 
remembered that such things as fine lacquer and porcelain utensils, 
painted screens, and silk quilts, to say nothing of numerous well-dressed 
attendants, are expensive items to mine host, and are charged for ac- 
corflingly. Anything in the way of food or liquor ordered in addition to 
the meuls supplied is considered an extra. There is no charge for firing, 
lighting, attendance, or bath, provided always the traveller is content vdth 
what is given to every one else, neither is there any for tea. But it is 
usual, shortly after arriving and being shown into a room, or else in pay- 
ing one's account just before leaving, to make a present, known as ohadai 
or " tea-money." The latter course is recommended. With Japanese 
travellers, this tea-money varies with the rank of the individual, tlie 
amount of extra attention which he desires or has received, and with the 
quality of the accommodxition. Generally they are very liberal. The 
foreign tourist stands on a somewhat different footing, and there are 
seldom gradations of rank to be considered in his case. As a fan and 
practical solution of a vexed question, those who travel a la japoiutise and 
who are charged in accordance with the native scale, may be recommend- 
ed to make the amount of their chadai vary from 50 sen to 2 yen per 
night, according to the style of the establishment. If two or more 
persons are traveUing together, the chadai is increased, say, to one-half 
more for two, and double for three persons. In some localities, especially 
at bathing resorts, there is a fixed rate for the accommodation of foreign- 
ers, — IJ yen or 2 yen per night for room and bedding only, any food that 
may be ordered being charged for separately. In such places, which have 
come under European influence, it is usual to give a small gratuity to the 
servants in adchtion to the chadai, whereas in the old-fashioned inns such 
presents are not looked for. 

It is but fair that foreigners should pay more than natives, both for 
accommodation and for jiniikishas. They usually weigh more, they 
almost always want to travel more quickly, they give infinitely more 
trouble at an inn with their demands for fresh water in the bath, the 
occupation of a portion of the kitchen to cook their European food in, and 
a dozen other such requii-ements, to say nothing of their insisting on 
having separate rooms, while Japanese guests — even strangers to one 
another — are habitually required to share a room together. 

Though one should always choose the best inn in each place to sleep 
at, it will often be found more convenient to lunch at some wayside tea- 
house or eating-house. The more elegant repast at the higher class inn 

Inns: Travelling Expenses. 7 

frequently takes much longer to prepare than it is' worth ; besides which, 
most travellers carry their own proTisions. 

In the Europeanised hotels at such frequented spots as Nikko, 
Kamakura, MiyanOshita, Kyoto, Nagoya, etc., the general charge is from 
3 to 8 yen a day, everything included except wines. The charge per diem 
for a native servant is from 50 sen to 1 yen. The charges at the hotels 
under foreign management in the Open Ports are from 5 to 10 yen. 

The average charge (to foreigners) f or jinrikishas in the most frequent- 
ed portions of the country is now (1900) from 15 to 25 sen per ri, the same 
per hour, and yen 1.50 per diem. About 50 per cent is added to these rates 
in bad weather and at night. But the tendency of late years has been 
towards constantly increased rates, owing to the rise in the price of rice 
and other staple commodities. It is usual to give a small gi-atuity (salcate) 
to jinrildsha-men after a hard run of any distance. 

Perhaps one might say that the total cost to a traveller of average 
requirements, travelling at a reasonable speed, and having with him u 
guide, should not exceed 12 yen per diem. If he restricts himself to 
mountainous districts, the expense will be considerably less. A certain 
saving is also effected when two or three persons travel together. 

It will be seen from the above that the hostelries at which travellers 
in Japan put up are of three kinds, — the European hotel, the Euro- 
peanised or half-Em-opean half-Japanese hotel (hoteru), and the purely 
native inn (yadoya). The ryori-ya, or eating-house, supplies meals with 
less delay than the regular inns, but rarely offer sleeping accommodation. 
The tea-house (chaya) is different again, being a place where people 
neither sleep nor dine, but only halt for a short time to rest and take 
light refreshments. Residents in Japan however, often include inns 
under the denomination of tea-houses. Every little railway station has 
its tea-house, which undertakes to purchase the traveller's ticket and 
check his luggage. 

Many inns now provide chairs and tables. Beds are stiU very rare ; 
but good quilts (futon) are laid down on the mats, wherever may be most 
convenient ; pillows of sorts are now common, or else a small quilt will be 
rolled up as a pillow, and in summer a mosquito-net is provided. No inn 
in native style has a dining-room. Each guest dines in his own apart- 
ment at whatever time he (or more often the host) may select. 

Down to 18DU travellers had to be furnished with passports. These 
have now been abolished, and all that is necessary is compliance with the 
regulations requiring visitors at an inn to inscrilae their name, nationah- 
ty, age, profession, etc. in the register. It is a common Japanese custom 
to carry letters of introduction [annai-jo) from inn to inn. This offers 
advantages, especially in seasons of epidemic disease or under any other 
circumstances liable to cause the traveller to be viewed with suspicion, or 
when, for the purposes of any special investigation, he vkishes to be 
brought into intimate relations with his hosts along the road. Many inns 
keep printed forms of annai-jo, which they fill in with the traveller's 
name. Occasionally these, and the little paper slips in which toothpicks 
are wrapped up, as also the fans or towels which it is still the custom in 
many places to present on departui-e to those guests who have given a 
suitable chadai, are charming specimens of Japanese taste in small 
matters of every-day Ufe. 

Introduction : — Climate. Dress. 

10. — Climate ; Dress ; Time of Visit. 

Remember that Japan is not in the tropics, and bfing warm clothing 
•with yon, whatever bo the season of yonr visit ; also very light clothing, if 
your visit be in the suumier. Even in July, when the mean temperature 
of Tokyo is about 76° Fahrenheit, days may come when you will be glad 
of all your winter things. This applies still more to the mountains. On 
the other hand, be more careful of exposure to the sun than you would 
be in England. A sun helmet and a white umbreUa are useful additions 
to the traveller's wardrobe. 

Though garments of the roughest description vnll suffice for the 
country districts, bring good clothes, such as might be worn at home, in 
which to appear at the larger hotels, and to mix, if need be, in society, 
whether Japanese or foreign. Japanese officials now attend their 
offices in frock or morning coats, and Europeans visiting them should be 
similarly attired. At a few of the highest social functions, frock-coats and 
tall hats are expected. With regard to boots, it is advisable to wear such 
as can be pulled ofiE and on easily, as it is necessarij to remove one's boots 
every time one enters a house or temple, in order not to soil the mats on which 
the Japanese sit. Grave offence is given, and naturallv given, by the 
disregard of this cleanly custom. Light shoes or boots with elastic sides 
are therefore to be prefened, except for mountain work. If your boots 
give out, try the native straw sandals (waraji) with tho native sock (tabi), 
which give a better foothold that boots on smooth rocks. Many foreign- 
ers have found them excellent foot-gear, the only addition required being 
a small piece of cotton-wool to prevent chafing by the thong which passes 
between the great and second toes. Boots barely holding together can be 
made to last a day or two longer by tying waraji underneath them. 
Kanjiki, that is, iron clamps of triangular shape with spikes, are often 
fastened below the waraji for walking over snow. The native blue cotton 
gaiters called ki/ahan afford excellent protection froiu the attacks of 
ilies, and from the rank undergrowth so often found on the lower slopes 
of Japanese mountains. 

At Yokohama, Chinese tailors attend the hotels, and will fit out 
travellers with duck, crape, and other light clothing literally between a 
night and a morning. Washing is well and expeditiously done at the 
Open Ports and at the principal summer resorts. 

Roughly speaking, the Japanese stimmer is hot and occasionally 
wet ; September and the first half of October much wetter ; the late 
autumn and early winter cool, comparatively dry, and delightful; 
February and March disagreeable, with occasional snow and dirty weather, 
which is all the more keenly felt in Japanese inns devoid of fire-places; 
the late spring rainy and windy, with Ijeautifnl days interspersed. But 
different years vary greatly from each other. The average temperature of 
January, which is the coldest month, is between 3()^ and 37' Fahrenheit at 
Tokyo ; but there are frequent frosts at night during five months of the 
year, namely, from November to March inclusive. Skating, however, is 
rare. The average temperature of August is 78^ the thermometer some- 
times registering over 90°. The climate of Northern Japan from 
Sendai onwards is much colder in winter, though not appreciably cooler 
during July and August. A siiuilar remark applies even more forcibly to 
the entire West Coast, which is exposed to the icy winds that blow direct 
from Siberia. Kishu, Southern Shikoku, and Southern Kyushu are 
warmer aU the year round. 

kV a ^ 





4- jg^ssii 

^ O >/ 




Time of Visit. Provisions. 9 

Each traveller must judge for himself from the above remarks which 
Beason to select for his tour. If possible, he should be either in Tokyo or 
in Kyoto durinpj the first half of April to see the lovely display of cherry- 
blossoms, which are followed throughout the early summer by other 
flowers, — peonies, azaleas, wistarias, irises,— well- worth seeing both for 
their own sake and for that of the picturesque crowds of Japanese sight- 
seers whom they attract. Further north and higher in altitude, the blos- 
soms are two or three weeks later. If not able to visit Kyoto early in 
April, he should try to be there at the end of October or early in November, 
when the autumn leaves are in all their glory of red and gold. Tokyo is 
less favoured in this respect, but the chrysantheuiums there early in 
November are magnificent. The summer may most advantageously be 
devoted to Nikkd, to Miyanoshita, Ikao, Unzen, or other mineral bath 
resorts, or else to travelling in Yezo and in the high mountainous districts 
of the interior of the Main Island, which are i^racticaily inaccessible 
except between June and October. No high passes, such as the Sbibu-toge 
beyond Kusatsu or the Konsei-toge beyond Nikko, should be attempted 
before May. Fuji is only ascended during the hottest period of summer. 

11. — Provisions. 

Except at some of the larger towns and favourite hill or sea-side 
resorts, meat, bread, and other forms of European food are unknown. 
Even fowls are rarely obtainable ; for though plenty may be seen in 
almost every village, the people object to selling them — partly because 
they keep them for the sake of their eggs, partly on account of a lingering 
Buddhist dislike to taking life. Those, therefore, who cannot subsist on 
the native fare of rice, eggs, aiid fish (this, too, not to be counted on in 
the mountains), should carry their own supplies with them. Wines, 
spirits, aerated waters, and cigars are equally unobtainable ; but beer is to 
be met with in most towns, the Kirin Beer brewed at Yokohama Jbeing 
excellent, as are the Ehisu Beer of Tokyo and the Asahi Iker of Osaka. 
Beware of spuiious imitations. It is advisable to take one or two knives, 
forks, spoons, a corkscrew, a tin-opener, and the most elementary 
cooking utensils. Plates and glasses can be borrowed almost everywhere. 
Persons fairly easy to please and who wish to travel lightly, can reduce 
the size of their provision basket by using the rice, fish, and eggs of the 
country as auxiliary to what they carry with them. Curry-powder will 
often help to make insipid Japanese dishes palatable, and shoyu (soy) adds 
a zest to soups. When starting off for the first time, it is best to err on 
the side of taking too much. Many who view Japanese food hopefully 
from a distance, have found their spirits sink and their tempers embittered 
when brought face to face with its unsatisfying actuality. 

Fresh milk may now be obtained in many places. The yolk of an 
egg beaten up is considered by many to be a good substitute for it in tea 
or cofllee. It is essential to avoid all water into which rice-fields may- 
have drained. In the plains, water should be filtered and boiled before 

The following Japanese articles of food are considered palatable by 
most foreigners : — 

Kasuteira, sponge-cake. 

MifiO-shiru, bean-soup. 

Sakana no shio-yaki, broiled fish. 

Sakana no tempura, fish fritter. 

Sake, a strong liquor made from rice and generally token hot. 

10 Introduction : — 3Ieans of Locomotion. Luggage. 

Semhei, thin biscuits of various kinds. 

Tamago-yaki, a sort of omelette. 

Torwiafte, chicken wit np small and stewed. 

Ushi-nabe, beef similarly treated. 

TJnagi-mesM, layers of rice \vith eels done in soy. 

Yokan, sweet bean-paste. 

12. — Means of Locomotion ; Luggage. 

Take the railway wherever available. On those plains which no 
railway yet traverses, take a jinrildsha. Avoid the native basha (carriage), 
if you have either nerves to shatter or bones to shake ; and be chary of 
burdening yourself with a horse and saddle of your own in the interior, as 
all sorts of troubles are apt to arise with regard to shoeing, run-away 
grooms (betto), etc. Such, in a few words, is our advice, founded on long 
personal experience. Other possible conveyances are pack-horses (but the 
.Japanese pack-saddle is torture), cows, the kago, — a species of sjuall 
palanquin, uncomfortable at first, but not disliked by many old residents, 
— and lastly, chairs borne by four coolies ; but these have only recently 
been introduced from China, and are not found except at Miyanoshita, 
Nikko, and a very few other places much resorted to by foreigners. 
Persons obliged to use the pack-saddle will find considerable relief by 
improvising stirrups of rope. The pleasantest sort of trip for a healthy 
man is that in which walking and jinrikisha-riding are combined. In 
those hilly districts which make Japan so picturesque, walking is the only 
possible, or at least the only pleasant, method of progi-ession. The 
luggage is then taken on a pack-horse or on a coolie's back. Bicycles are 
Tised to a limited extent. One might even make long trips over the chief 
highways ; but hilliness, indifferent roads, and extremes of chiuate 
combine to prevent Japan from being a good field for the cyclist. 

Persons intending to go at all off the beaten tracks are advised to 
compress their luggage -vnthin nan-ow limits. T'his is specially neces- 
sary in the thinly populated mountainous parts of the country, where 
one coolie — not improbably a grandfather superannuated from regular 
work, or possibly a buxom lass — is often the sole means of transport that 
a village can supply, all the horses being generally with their masters 
miles away in the mountains. 

It is always best to avoid large boxes and portmanteaus, and to divide 
the luggage into two or three smaller pieces for convenience in piling on 
a coolie's hod, or for balancing the two sides of a pack-horse's load. The 
Japanese wicker baskets called yanagi^gori are much recommended, as 
cheap, portable, capacious, and contractable. The yanagi-gori (often 
called kori for short) consists of an oblong basket, with a second fitting 
over it to any depth as a cover, and is consequently convenient, not only 
for clothes and books, but for provisions, since the size of the basket 
diminishes as the stores are consumed, ■s\dthout any empty space 
being left for the remaining articles to rattle about in. A pair of these 
yanaqi-ijirrl — one for personal effects, the other for provisions — should 
suffice for him who intends to rough it. They should be provided with a 
large wrapper of oil-paper (abura-kumi) against the rain, and fastened 
either with cords which can be procured anywhere, or with stout leather 

As to Japanese roads, no general opinion can be expressed. Some- 
times excellent when first made, they are often kept in insufficient repair. 
Travellers must therefore not be astonished if they come across roads 

Where to Go and What to See. 11 

•which, though mentioned in this work as good for jinrikishas, have become 
almost impassable even for foot passengers, — the result of a single season 
of floods or typhoons. The changes in this respect are in proportion to 
the violence of the Japanese climate. It is furthermore probable that, 
the distances given in our itineraries differ slightly in some cases from 
the actual truth, notwithstanding all the care taken to obtain accurate 
information. It is hoped, however, that such discrepancies will never 
be so great as seriously to afEect the traveller's comfort. An apparent 
error of \ mile will occasionally be observed in the total mileage of the 
itineraries. This arises from the fact that, the mileage of each stage 
of a journey being given only within \ mile of the actual distance, the 
fractional errors thus arising, though balanced and allowed for as 
carefully as possible, sometimes unavoidably accumulate. On the other 
hand, the so-called total mileage is obtained, not by adding up the mileage 
column, but by direct calculation (also within ^ mile) of the value of the 
total in ri and cho. Distances are stated wherever possible. When the 
time for a walk is given instead, it must be understood to be that of an 
average pedestrian. 

Europeans usually avail themselves of the first-class railway cars 
wherever such are provided, and ladies in particular are recommended to 
do so, as not only are the other classes apt to be overcrowded, but the 
ways of the Japanese hourrjeoisie v/ith regard to clothing, the management 
of children, and other matters, are not altogether as our ways. Smoking 
is general even in the first-class, except in compartments specially labelled 
to the contrary. 

Sleeping-cars, dining-cars, and buffets are still extremely rare ; but 
neat little boxes of Japanese food (benio), sandwiches, tea, beer, cakes, and 
ice are offered for sale at the principal stations. The Railway Regulations 
permit holders of tickets for distances of over 50 miles to break their 
journey at the more important places Luggage is checked as in the 
United States, each first-class passenger being allowed to carry KJO lbs., 
and each second-class passenger 60 lbs., free of charge. 

Licensed porters (aka-boshi), distinguished by scarlet caps, are in 
attendance at the larger stations, and carry parcels for a small fixed charge. 

13 — Where to Go and What to See. 

" How long does it take to do Japan ? " is a question often asked. 
If by " doing " Japan be meant hurrying through its chief sights, the 
globe-trotter can manage this in three or four weeks, by adopting one of 
the Outline Tours given in Sect. '27. He who is bent on more serious 
observation will not find four months too much ; and one who has spent 
that time rarely fails to come again. Travellers' tastes differ widely. 
Some come to study a unique civilisation, some come in search of health, 
some to climb volcanoes, others to investigate a special art or industry. 
Those who desire to examine Buddhist temples will find what they 
want in fullest perfection at Kyoto, at Nara, at T6ky5, and at Nikko. 
The chief shrines of Shinto are at Ise, and at Kitsuki in the province 
of Izumo. The " Three Places " (San-kei) considered by the Japanese the 
most beautiful in their country, are Matsushima in the North, Miyajima 
in the Inland Sea, and Ama-no-Hashidate on the Sea of Japan. Persons in 
search of health and comparative coolness during the summer months, to 
be obtained without much " roughing," are advised to try Miyanoshita, 
Nikko, or Ikao in the Tokyo district, Arima in the Kobe district, or (if they 

12 Introduction : — Purchases. Objects of Art. 

come from China, and wish to remain as near home as possible) Unzen in 
the Nagasaki district. All the above, except Kitsuki, may be safely 
recommended to ladies. Yezo is specially suited for persons residing in 
Japan proper, and desiring thorough change of air. At Hakodate they will 
get sea-bathing, and in the interior a little fishing and a peej^ at the Aino 
aborigines. But Japan is more esjiecially the happy hunting-gi-ound of 
the lover of the picturesque. AVith the symmetrical outlines of its volca- 
noes, with its fantastic rocks, its magnificent timber which somehow, even 
when growing natxirally, produces the impression of having been planted 
for artistic effect, with its tiny shrines and quaint hostehies constantly 
placed so as to command vistas that delight the eye, this beautiful land is 
a fitting abode for the most esthetic of modern peoples. Every variety of 
scenery, from the gracefully lovely to the ruggedly grand, is here to be 
found. Of the former character are the neighbourhood of Yokohama 
(Kamakura, Enosbima, Kanazawa), the whole Hakone district, Fuji and 
its surrounding belt of lakes, Nikko, Haruna, the Inland Sea, the Kiso 
valley, North-Eastern Kyushu, Matsushima in the north of the Main 
Island, and many more. Hugged and sublime in their character are the 
Hida-Etchii range, Koma-ga-take in Koshu, and the whole mass of 
mountains lying between the rivers Fujikawa and Tenryu-gawa. Bvit the 
travelling amidst these rough mountains is itself rough in the extreme. 
None but thoroughly healthy men, inured to hardship, should attempt it. 
The provincial towns have, for the most part, little individuality. 
As for what is called "seeing Japanese life,"' the best plan is to avoid 
the Foreign Settlements in the Open Ports. You will see theatres, 
•wrestling, dancing-girls, and the new Japan of European uniforms, 
political lectures, clubs, colleges, hospitals, and Methodist chapels, in 
the big cities. The old peasant life still continues almost unchanged in 
the districts not opened up by railways. 

14. — PcECHASEs ; Objects of Art. 

Travellers will find the greatest facilities for purchases of every de- 
scription in the large stores of Yokohama and Kobe. They will also find 
much to attract them in Kyoto, Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagasaki. The 
names of the best shops are given under each of these towns. Though 
now sometimes sold in large stores, Japanese objects of art are not 
produced in large workshops. In old days, when the best pieces were 
made, few masters employed as many as half a dozen workmen in 
addition to the members of their own family, and cliefs-d' a^iivre often 
originated in humble dwellings, where perhaps a single artisan laboured 
in the most primitive style assisted by one or two children. At the 
present day, foreign influence is causing the spread of Western business 
methods ; but extensive maniifactures and shop-windows finely decked 
out exist as yet only in two or three of the larger towns. Even there, 
the best things must often be sought in naiTow lanes. It was also 
formerly, ami is still to some extent, characteristic of the Japanese trades- 
man and artisan-artist to hesitate to bring out his best specimens at 
once. The rule is that several visits are necessary before he ^^■ill display 
his choicest articles, and that even then a long time must be spent in 
bargaining. Some establishments of the more modern sort have fixed 
prices. This remark also applies to the kwankoba, or bazaars. 

Japan is now almost denuded of old curios. Some have found their 
way into the museums of the country, while priceless collections have 

Shipment of Goods. Shooting. 13 

crossed the sea to Europe and America. But many of the productions 
of the present day are eminently beautiful, more especially the cloisonne, 
the metal-work, and the embroideries. It is not possible, within the limits 
of a travelling Handbook, to enter into a disquisition on Japanese art, — its 
origin, its characteristics, and the great names that adorn its history. A 
■whole library on this subject has couie info existence within the last twenty 
years, and the views of connoisseurs differ widely even on points of prime 
importance. We must content ourselves with mentioning the names 
of certain art-forms unknown in Europe, for most of which no ap- 
propriate English equivalents exist. The objects embodying these art- 
forms will constantly come under the traveller's notice, if he frequent the 
cuiio stores. Such are : — 

The inro, a small medicine-box in segments, generally made of 
lacquer. The segments are held together by means of a cord, to one 
extremity of which a netsuke is often attached. 

The kakemono, or hanging scroll, generally painted, sometimes em- 

The korO, or incense-burner, generally of bronze or porcelain. 

The makimono, or scroll, not meant to be hung up. It is used chiefly 
for manuscripts which .are often beautifully illustrated. 

The netsuke, originally a kind of button for the medicine box, pipe- 
case, or tobacco-pouch, carved out of wood or ivory. These little articles 
have since developed into gems of art. 

The okimono, a general name for various small ornaments having no 
definite use, but intended to be placed in an alcove or on a cabinet. 

We may also mention various gear appertaining to the Japanese 
Bword and often cunningly wrought in metals and alloys, of which latter 
the best known are — shibu-ichi and shakudo, both formed of a basis of 
copper with varying admixtures of silver and gold. Specially noteworthy 
among these articles are (he tsuha, or guard, and the inenuki, — small 
ornaments fixed one on each side of the hilt, and held in place by the silk 
cord which binds together the various parts of the handle. 

15. — Shipment of Goods. 

A reference to the local Directories (or IToncj Lists, as they are also 
called) will supply the names of those firms in Yokohama and Kobe which 
make a business of shipping travellers' purchases to Europe, America, and 
elsewhere. As a rule, too, the foreign firms which deal in curios will 
•undertake to forward anythirg to destination. Remember, when sending 
a box for shipment to a shipping firm, to nail it down but slightly, as it 
will be opened and examined at the Japanese Custom-House. The ship- 
pers should bo furnished with a detailed list of the contents and their 
value, and be requested to see to the box being secured in a more solid 
manner after examination. 

IG. — Shooting. 

The mountainous districts of Japan shelter deer and boar, though in 
ever decreasing numbers, while in Yezo many bears still remain. Ducks 
of various kinds, the gi'een pheasant, quail, woodcock, snipe, and hares, 
are to be found in the plains and on the lower ranges of hills bordering 
the tlat country, while on somewhat higher ground the copper pheasant 
has its abode in the thickest cover. Hybrids between the green jjheasant 

J:4 Tnt}*oduction : — Fifthing. 

and an imported Ciiinese species are also sometimes met with. Japan, 
"v^th its rich plains and hills giAing ample shelter to game, shoidd naturalr 
\j be a good sporting country ; bnt it does not seem to be such in fact. 
The law protecting birds and animals during the breeding season has 
never been rigorously enforced. Moreover, the districts around Yokohamaj 
Kobe, and Hakodate, have for years been too much shot over, while in 
other places much of the best sporting gi-ound is privately x^reserved, and 
hence inaccessible, the total result being that this country is not one to 
be recommended to the sportsman. 

In most parts of Japan the shooting season begins on the 15th 
October, and ends on the 14th March ; but in some prefec'rures it lasts 
from the 1st October to the 30th April. Licenses may be obtained froni 
the local authorities, on making a written application in due form in the 
Snpanese language. The maximum fee charged is 10 yen. 

17. — Fishing. 

V. ^ Locality. Fly-fishing may be said to be confined to that poilion of 
the East Coast of Japan, north of Tokyo, where the water is sufficiently 
colrl for salmon and trout. In Yezo, the river Yurap on the East Coast, 
and the Shiribetsu on the West Coast are recommended. Both are in 
season about June. In former years good troTit-fishing was obtainable 
near Sapporo in the river Toyohira ; but owing to the refuse from the 
flax-mills being allowed to discharge into the stream, only few fish now 
run past it. Most of the other rivers of Y'^ezo and of the northern 
provinces of the Main Island contain trout. The lakes of Yezo also 
abound in ao-mnsv and ami-masu, the former a pink, the latter a white- 
fleshed fish. These take the fly greedily, and are caught up to 2 lbs. in 
weight. Near Fukuoka, in the province of Rikuoku, is a good stretch of 
water, which would probably be best worked by staying at Ichinohe. 
Further south, near Furusawa and close to the railway, is a fishing river 
called the Nagagawa, and in the north-west of the Main Island the rivers 
Iwaki and Noshiro are beUeved to be worth a visit. Trout <are also found 
in Lakes Biwa and Chuzenji. Fly-fishers may hope for sport dming May, 
June, July, and the early part of August. 

Fi,sli. There are two classes of sporting fish, — the shake, or salmon 
as known in Europe, and the masu {Salmo japonicus). The shake is a 
fuU-sized sahuon, and ascends the rivers in great quantities during 
autumn and early winter. All the northern rivers hold these fish, which 
in Yezo are so plentifvd that they fall an easy prey to crows and bears. 
Many must weigh as much as 3U lbs. when caught ; but they afford no 
sport to the angler, since, like salmon in other Pacific waters, they neither 
rise to a fly nor run to a spinning bait. At New Y'ear, the shops in Tokyo 
are full of smoked shake that have been sent down from the north. Of 
the masu there are several varieties ; but all are of the salmon-trout 
description, and all are sporting fish. The true masu runs up the rivers 
from May to August, the time depending on the temperature of the water. 
These fish are in the best condition at a temperature of from 55° to 65°. 
They are not taken below 50°. An 8 lb. fish is a large one, the usual size 
being 5 or G lbs. The ai and yamame, which are widely distributed over 
t!he rivers of Japan, are smaller vai-ieties of trout affording excellent eating.' 
In some districts they are caught with worms, in others with the fly. 

Tackle. Ordinally salmon taclde may be used, with flies of medium 

Miscellaneous Hints. 1^ 

salmon size and plenty of bright colour, especially orange and yellow. 
The fly is but rarely taken on the surface, and should therefore be well 
drowned. A rod of about 16 ft. is the most convenient, as the fish are 
strong and the pools often large. Wading trousers are useful. Spinning 
"with a spoon-bait or a phantom minnow is often successful. In Ijake 
Chtizenji, the fish are caught dining the summer months by trolling from 
a boat with 60 or 70 yards of line heavily leaded. The bait used is a Idnd 
of Colorado spoon, and can be obtained fi'om Nakamura, at Kyobashi 
Ginza Itchome in Tokyo, where also Japanese lines can be had to supple- 
ment the angler's gear for this land of fishing. 

Accomw,odaiion. Except in Yezo, fair accommodation can be had 
almost everywhere. In Yezo one must be prepared for rough quarters, 
and many districts there are quite uninhabited, so that a tent should form 
part of the sportsman's outfit if he is to be free in his movements. 


18. — Miscellaneous Hints. • -.: 

Take plenty of flea-powder or camphor ; but those who do not mind 
the odour of oil-paper (abura-kami), will find sheets of it stretched over 
the qTiilts by far the best protection against fleas. Also, if going off tb6 
beaten tracks, take soap, candles, and some disinfectant to counter- 
act the unpleasant odours that often disturb the comfort of guests in 
Japanese inns. 

Take towels, a pair of sheets, and a pillow, or at least a piUow-case 
to lay on the extemporised pillow which the tea-house people will arrange. 
Instead of loose sheets, some prefer to sew two sheets together to form a 
bag which is tied round the sleeper's neck. 

If your servant seems honest and intelligent, entrust him with money 
for cun-ent expenses. This will save a world of petty bother and vexation 
as to change, bargaining, and such matters. 

If you have much money with you, entrust it to the host of each 
respectable hotel you stop at, and get his receipt for it. 

Start early, and do not insist on travelling after dark. You will thus 
most easily obtain good cooUes or horses for the day's journey. By 
arriving at your destination before sunset, you ^ill be likely to find th6 
bath as yet unused, and will thus avoid the trouble and delay entailed 
by the necessity of getting other water heated. You will also have a 
better choice of rooms. 

When planning your day's journey, allow an hour for each ri to be 
done on foot, which should be sufficient to cover stoppages and un- 
avoidable delays. Ten ri ('i4J miles) is considered by the Japanese a 
proper day's work. 

However inconvenient to yourself, never refuse the cooUes' request 
to be allowed to stop for food, as they can do no work on an empty 

The Japanese, whose grande passion is bathing, use water at higher 
temperatures — 110°-120° Fahrenheit — than physicians in Europe consider 
healthful. No one, however, will be inJTired by taking baths of between 
100° and 106° Fahrenheit, unless he have a weak heart or be liable to 
congestion. Owing to some unexplained peculiarity of the climate, hot 
baths are found by almost all Europeans in Japan to suit them better 
than cold. It is advisable to pour hot water over the head from time to 
time, and strong persons may advantageously end tip with a cold douche. 
Paradoxical as the assertion may sound, it is nevertheless true that the 

16 Introduction : — Misnellaneous Bints. 

hotter tte bath, the greater the impunity with which one may after- 
wards expose oneself to the cold siir. The reason why people at home 
have come to entertain the notion that hot baths give a chilly reaction, is 
that they do not take them hot enough, or do not immerse themselves up 
to the neck. The Jaimnese have the habit, to us disagreeable, of getting 
into the same bath one after another, or even at the same time ; but it is 
a breach of etiquette to discolour the water by the use of soap. They 
soap themselves outside. The first guest to ariive at an inn has the prior 
right to the bath. Formerly, prouiiscuous bathing of the sexes was 
common, and though now forbidden by the police regulations, is still 
practised at many of the provincial spas. 

Massage is much practised in Japan, and is a capital restorative from 
fatigue after hard exercise. The services of a blind shampooer (amma 
san) may be obtained at almost every inn. 

Xeoer- enter a Japanese house icith yonr boots on. The mats take the 
place of our chairs and sofas. What should we say to a man who trod 
on oin: chairs and sofas with his dirty boots ? 

It is next to impossible to get windows opened at night in Japanese 
inns. The reason is that it is considered unsafe to leave anything 
open on account of thieves, and there is a poUce regulation to enforce 

In the event of trouble arising with regard to accommodation, the 
procuring of coolies, etc., always apply to the police, who are almost in- 
variably polite and serviceable. These ofiicials must not be insulted by 
the offer of a tip. The same remark applies to railway guards and public 
servants generally. 

Make your plans as simple as possible. The conditions of travel in 
this country do not lend themselves to intricate arrangements. 

One standard time is now kept throughout Japan, — that of E. Long. 
135°, which passes through Akashi near K5be. TLis time is U hours 
ahead of Greenwich, and 14 hours ahead of American " Eastern Time." 

Take visiting cards with you. Japanese with whom you become 
acquainted wiU often desire to exchange cards. 

Above all, be constantly polite and conciliatory in your demeanour 
towards the people. Whereas the lower classes at home are apt to resent 
suave mannei-s, and to imagine that he who addresses them politely 
wishes to deceive them or get something out of them, every Japanese, 
however humble, expects courtesy, being himself courteous. His courtesy, 
however, differs from that of the West in not being specially directed 
towards ladies. 

Many travellers irritate the Japanese by talking and acting as 
if they thought Japan and her customs a sort of peejnshow set up 
for foreigners to gape at. Others run counter to native custom, and 
nevertheless expect to get things at native prices. They cannot 
nnderstand why a biU for several dollars should be presented to them 
for ten minutes' dancing, which perhaps after all has not, amused 
them. The reason for the high charge is quite simple. Japanese 
do not send for dancing-girls without ordering a dinner at the same 
time. The dancing is an incident of the dinner, and it is in this dinner, 
that the tea-house proprietor finds his profit. He does not care to have 
his premises inva^led at unusual hours by people who take nothing for the 
good of the house ; neither can the dancers get ready on the spur of the 
moment. Too many foreigners, we fear, give not only trouble and offence, 
but just cause for indignation by their disregard of propriety, esiieciaUy in 
their behaviour towards Japanese women, whose engaging mcanners and 

Language. 17 

naive ways they misinterpret. The subject is too delicate to be treated 
here. We may, however, be permitted to remark in passing that the 
waitresses at any respectable Japanese inn deserve the same respectful 
treatment as is accorded to girls in a similar position at home. 

Never show any impatience. You wUl only get stared at or laughed 
at behind your back, and matters will not move any the quicker in t_i3 
land where an hour more or less is of no account. The word tadahna, 
which the dictionaries, in their simplicity, render by " immediately," may 
mean any time between now and Christmas. Storuiing will not mend 
matters, when you find (to take one example out of a hundi-ed) that your 
jinrikisha coolies wish to stop for a meal just after you have started and 
have been calculating that yovi will arrive at such and such a place at 
such and such an hour. Or to take another instance. You are at a 
large town, whose port Ues only 3 or 4 miles distant. I'ou ask at your 
inn for information about steamers, and are told (in perfect good faith) 
that they leave daily. On arrival at the port, you find they leave but 
once in three days, and yours left yesterday. WhaJ; does a Japanese do 
under such circumstances? He says " shilcata fja nai" ("it can't be 
helped"), and there is an end of the matter. Imitate his example, if 
you wish to save yourself and others much waste of temper and energy. 
It is best to resign yourself at the beginning, once for all. While waiting 
patiently, you have an opportunity of studying Japanese life. Neither be 
moved to anger because you are asked personal questions by casual 
acquaintances. To ask such questions is the Far-Eastern way of showing 
kindly interest. 

19. — Language. 

The Japanese language, though extremely difficult to learn correctly, 
is easy to acquire a smattering of ; and even a smattering will add im- 
mensely to the pleasure of a tour in the country, by bringing the traveller 
into personal relations with the people, and by delivering him from the 
wearisome tutelage of guides and interpreters. 

Eemember, in pronouncing Japanese, that the consonants are to be 
sounded approximately as in English, the vowels as in Spanish or Italian, 
that is to say : — 

a as in father, i as in pin, 

e as in pet, o as in pony, 

u as in full. 

There is scarcely any tonic accent ; in other words, all the syllables 
are pronounced equally or nearly so. But particular care must be taken 
to distinguish long o and u from short o ami u. The short vowels are 
pronounced in a very light, staccato manner. Thus tori nasai means 
"Please take this;" but tori nasai means "Please come (or go, lit. 
pass) in." Short i and u sometimes become almost inaudible, and are 
then marked t and u in the following vocabulary, thus arimasu, " there 
is ; " wakarimashita, " I understand." In diphthongs, each vowel retains 
its original force. Thus : — 


Introductio n : — Lainiuo ge. 

ai as in the English word "tsky.'* 
au as in the English word " cow." 
ei as in the English word " hay." 

G is hard as in "give," never soft as in "gin;" but in Tokyo and 
Eastern Japan it sounds like yig when in the middle of a word, exactly as 
in the English words " singer," " springy " {not " sing-ger," " spring-gy "). 
S is always sharp as in " mouse." W is often omitted after k or g, as 
kasJii, " cake," for kwashi. Be very careful to pronounce double con- 
sonants really double, as in the English words " sho/-iower," mea^wiess," 
" coc/ccrow." Thus kite with one i means " coming ;' ' but kitte ■with two 
i's means " a ticket ; " ama is " a nun," amma " a shampooer." 

As in all other languages of the Tartar or Mongolian type, so in 
Japanese the adjective precedes its noun, and the genitive precedes the 
nominative. Prepositions follow their noun, and are therefore really 
"postpositions." Explanatory or dependent clauses precede the prin- 
cipal clause, and the chief verb comes at the end of the sentence. There 
is no distinction between singular and plural, or between the different 
persons of the verb, and there are no genders. Consequently, such 
phrases as Eimashlta ka ? may equally well mean " Has he come ! " 
"Has she come?" or "Have they come?" — for pronouns are very little 
used, the sense they would convey being generally left to be gathered 
from the context. Questions are asked by suffixing the particle ka, as 
in the instance just cited. There are no negative adverbs or pronouns, 
like our English "not," "never," "nothing," etc.; but the tenses of 
Japanese verbs have negative forms. Though the coniugations are too 
complicated to be given here in detail, the following specimens of the 
most useful tenses, positive and negative, may be of practical latility. 
The beginner will probably find the Honorific forms the easier to re- 
member ; they are in constant use. 

Paeadigm of Japanese Verbs. 

Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 


Probable Fut. 
Neg. Present. 
Neg. Past. 
Improb. Fut. 


: ] Plain. 
i j Honorific. 
! j Plain. 
I ] Honorific, 
i j Plain. 
I ( Honorific. 
: j Plain. 
i 1 Honorific. 
j Plain. 
, j Honorific. 
\ J Plain. 
[ ( Honorific. 





Arb or aru daro 







Arbnasen deshita 

Nakaro or Arumai 


] There is or 
(" will be. 

r There was. 

I There probably will 
f be. 

/ There being, there 
f having been. 
i There is not or 
\ will not be. 

There was not. 

I There probably will 
\ not be. 



Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 


Probable Put. 
Neg. Pi-esent. 
Neg. Past. 

Improb. Put. 

Desid. Adj. 
Neg. ditto. 

\ Plain. 
/ Honorific. 
^ Plain. 
/ Honorific. 
^ Plain. 
1 Honorific. 
1 Honorific. 
( Plain. 
1 Honorific. 
\ Plain. 
I Honorific. 
( Plain. 
1 Honorific. 

IKU J I go or 

Ikimasu \ wUl go. 

Itta \ T ,' 

Ikimashita ^iwent. 

Iko or iku dard [ I shall probably 

Ikimasho ) go. 

Itte Going, having 

Ikimashtte \ gone. 

Ikanai )I do not or 

Iklmasen \ shall not go. 

Ikanakatta \ t ^•-^ i. 

Iklmasen desHUa j I did not go. 

Ikumai ) I shall probably not 
Ikimasumai \ go. 
Ikitai I want to go. 
Ikitaku nai I don't want to go. 

Pi-esent & Cer- 
tain Futm-e. 


Probable Put. 

Neg. Present. 
Neg. Past. 

Improb. Put. 

Desid. Adj. 
Neg. ditto. 

\ Plain. 

/ Honorific. 

\ Honorific. 

/ Honorific. 
\ Plain. 
( Honorific. 

] Honorific. 
( Honorific. 



EUEU )I come or 

Kimasu \ will come. 

Eita \ T 

Kimashita V ''^'^^■ 

Kayo or kuru darfi } I shaU jri-obubly 

Ki.masho \ come. 

Kite ) Coming, having 

Kimashtte \ come. 

Konai { I do not or 

Kimasen > shall not come. 

Konakatta ) t T^ j. 

Kimasen deshita \ ^ '^^'^ ^°* ««'^^*^- 

Kimai ) I shall probably not 

Kimasumai J come. 

Kitai I want to come. 

Kitaku nai I don't want to come. 

Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 


Probable Fut. 
Neg. R'esent. 
Neg. Past. 

Improb. Fut. 

Desid. Adj. 
Neg. ditto. 

\ Plain. 

1 Honorific. 

\ Plain. 

1 Honorific. 

1 Honorific. 
\ Plain. 


K Plain. 
/ Honorific. 
( Plain. 
1 Honorific. 

SURU jidoor 
Shimasu s shall do. 
Shita )-. ,., 
Shimashtta \ ' ^ ' 
Shiyo or sur dard ) I shall probably 
Shimasho \ do. 
Shite } Doing, having 
Shirnashite \ done. 
Shinai )I do not or 
Shimasen j shall not do. 
Shinakatta ij -,■■, „ . , 
Shimasen deshm ^Ichdnotdo. 

Shlmai ) I shall probably not 
Shimasiimai ) do. 
Shitai I want to do. 
ShJtaku nai I don't want to do. 


Inlroduction : — Lanquage. 

Present & Cer- 
tain Fiitnre. 


Probable Fiit. 
Neg. Present. 
Neg. Past. 

Improb. Flit. 

Desicl. Adj. 
Neg. ditto. 

^ Plain. 
( Honorific. 
[ Plain. 
^ Honorific. 
\ Plain. 
( Honorific. 
^ Plain. 
( Honorific. 
\ Plain. 
( Honorific. 
\ Plain. 
( Honorific. 
\ Honorific. 





Tabeyd or taberu daro 







Tabemasen deshiia 




Tabetaku nai 

I eat or 
shall eat. 

I ate. 

)1 shall probably 

) eat. 

t Eating, having 

) eaten. 

(I do not or 

\ shall not eat. 

I did not eat. 

1 1 shall probably not 
I eat. 

I want to eat. 

I don't want to eat. 

Adjectives are conjugated somewhat after the model of aru, " to be," 
as yoroslm or yoi, "it is good;" yokatta, "it was, or would have been 
good ; " yokaro, " it wiU probably be good ; " yoku 7ia), " it is not good ; " 
yokitte, " being good ;" yoku nakute, " not being good." Similarly warui, 
" is bad ; " warukatta, " was bad ; " iakai, " is dear ; " takaku nai, " not 
dear ; " muzukashii, " is difiicult ;" muzukasMkute, " being difficult," etc. 

The Japanese, like other nations of the Far-East, are much addicted 
to the use of polite forms of speech. AVhen two equivalents for the same 
English phrase are given in our List of Useful Sentences, that marked 
"less polite" should be used only to coolies and others of the lowest 
class. It ^^ill be noticed in numerous examples that our English impera- 
tives are almost always softened down to a polite periphrasis ■uith the 
"word kudasai, "please give," "condescend to...." Sometimes the final 
kudasai is omitted for brevity's sake, as To ico shimete kudasai (lit. 
" Door shutting condescend "), or more familiarly To ico shimete, " Shut 
the door." The Negative Imj)erative is mostly rendered as follows : — 
So shtcha (for shite wa) ikenai, " Don't do that," lit. " As for so doing, 
it is no go ;" OtoslCidvi ikenai, " Don't drop it." 

The following Vocabulary and the Sentences that follow will be 
found useful. The interlinear literal translations serve to show which 
word corresponds to which, — a thing otherwise hopelessly perplexing to 
the beginner, on account of the wide gulf that separates Japanese from 
English idiom. Those ambitious of learning more of the language can 
proAide themselves -with Chamberlain's Handbook of Colloquial Japanese. 
Satow and Ishibashi's English-Japanese Pocket Dictionary is excellent. 
Hepburn's Pocket Dictionary is to be recommended for Japanese- 

address (written) iokoro-gaki 

aerated water teppo-mizu 

bad wand 

bag (hand-) kaban 

baggage nimotsu 


bath (hot) 
„ (cold) 

toko-ya, kand- 

furo, yu 












futon, yogi 

dinner (late) 

yfishoku, yu-han 


nema, nebeya 








gyii-nUm, ushi 













duck (tame) 




„ (wild) 


bill (account) 








bill of fare 


., (boiled) 




„ (half-boiled) 



fiiranken, ketio 




aoi, sora-iro 





express train 




fair (festival) 




fan (that shuts) 

ogi, sensu 



„ (not shutting) uchiwa 

., (big) 



toi, empd 





„ (hot-water) yu-tampn 













„ (conflagration) kwaji 














' kara-kam 

" (European) 





niku-sashi, hoko 













cards (playing) 




„ (visiting) 








change (money) 













niwatori, tori 


omoi, omotai 




















yadoya, hoteru 


kdhi, kahe 


ie, jinka 


samid, isumela i 





ink (Indian) 








„ -keeper 

aruji, teishi 












Sihon, 2fippon 






Introduction : — Language. 










wnshi, nurimono 




mizu-umi, kosid 

„ (sweet) 











choch in 









„ train 






light (not heavy) 




light (lamp, etc.) 






rice (boiled) 

meshi, gozen 











„ (new) 



tsukegi, matchi 

„ (old) 





heya, zashiki 









melon (musk-) 




melon (water-) 





(ushi no) chichi 



milk (tinned) 

hurikki no chichi 




kane, kinsu 







„ -net 



hige no yu 




































soppu, tsuyu 


gwaito, uwagi 


shoyu, shitaji 







stamj) (postage-) 

yubin-giite, inshi 




station, teishaba 

„ post 

ko-zutsumi yuhin 



pass (mountain) 















machi, tori 





pen (Japanese) 



ynshoku, yfi-han 




cha, cha 



„ (Chinese) 











sumomo, ume 









telegraph office 









( Bud- 


ai, yamame 



tub (not regul 


temple (Shinto) 

jinja, miya 







„ (return) 



kasa, komori 






pro vi- 









waiter ! 




waitress ! 

ne-san ! 










yu, yu 

„ (first) 





„ (last) 



benjo, chozuba 

„ (exp 





„ (through) 











sore, are 


watakushi no 




anaia, omae 

Y'^^ou (plur.) 



anata no, omae no 


ano hito-iachi 


ano Into, ano otoko 




ano hito, ano oiuui 


sore, are 

His, her 

ano Mto no 

1 — 


or ichi 




2 - 

futatsu „ yii 




3 H 


„ snn 




4 m 


„ shi 




5 51 


„ go 




6 -^ 


„ roku 




7 -fc 

nanatsu „ shichi 



8 A 


„ hachi 




9 % 

koko'notsu „ ku 




10 -f- 


„ j'U 




11 -h-^ 





12 -p- 





13 i-H 





14 i-H 





15 i-E 








1 o'clock ichi-ji 









3 ", 





4 „ 





5 „ 


half-ijast 5 o'cloc 


go-ji ha 


1 yen 



1st class 


2 „ 


2nd „ 


10 sen 


3rd „ 


20 „ 


30 „ 



Introduction : — Language. 

A jiniikisha witli one man is called ir.hi-nim-hiki ; ■with two men, 
ni-nim-biki. A carriage with one horee is it-to-biki ; with two horses, ni-to- 

Many of onr words have no Japanese equivalents, because the things 
for which they stand are not commonly known in Japan. Such are, for 
instance, jam, lamb, pudding. The following are examples of Japanese 
words for which there are no exact English equivalents : 

ato-oshi, a second jinriMsha coolie who pushes from behind. 

bento, livach carried with one. 

bento-bako, a box to hold such lunch. 

beito, a running groom. 

dotera, a land of wadded dressing-gown. 

kago, a kind of basket or litter in which travellers are carried. 

kai-kiri, engaging the whole (of a vehicle or boat). 

kya-han, a kind of gaiters. 

yanagi-gori, a useful sort of trunk made of wicker-work. 

yukata, a thin dressing-gown worn before and after the bath. 

Useful Sentences. 


How do you do ? 

Eonnichi ica ! 
To-day as for 

Crood morning. 

Honourably early 

It is fine weather to-day. 

Konnichi wa, yoi ienki 
To-day ae for, good weather 



It is hot to-day. gozalmasi/. 
Honourably hot augustly-ls 

It is cold to-day. 

samu gozaimasu. 

(The above weather 

remarks almost amount to greetings.) 

Good evening. 

Komban wa ! 
This evening ae for 

Good night. 

yasumi nasai. 
Honourably "resting deign 



Thank you. 


Pray don't mention it. 

Do itashimashVe ! 
How ;having done 

That is so ( = English " yes 

"). Sayo de gozaimasu. 
So by is 

,, (less polite.) 

So desit, or So da. 
So is so is 

Is that so ? 

So desu ka ? 



That is not so. 

Isn't that so ? 

Is that all right ? (polite) 

„ (less polite). 
That is aU right. 
Is it this ? 

It is this. 
It isn't this. 

Do yon understand ? 

I understand. 

I don't understand. 

Please come here. 

Come in 

Please sit down. 

Please come again. 

Please excuse me. 

Allow me to congratulate you. 

That is plenty. 
No, thank you. 

What shall we do ? 
What is it ? 
What is this ? 
Please show me. 
Please let me know. 
Just let me look. 
Please go and ask. 
You had better go find ask. 
Just go and see. 
that all right ? 

So ja nai. 
So by isn't 

So ja nai ka ? 

Yoroshiu gozaimasu ka ? 
lioocl is ? 

Yoroshii ka ? 

Yoroshiu gozaimasu ; or Yoroshii. 

Kore desii ka ? 
This is V 

Eore desu. 

Kore ja nai. 
This by isn't 

WakarimashJta ka '' 
Have understood ? 

Wakarimashita . 


Oide nasai. 

Honourable-exit deign 

hairi nasai. 

Honourably entering deign 

Dozo o kake iiasai. 

Please honourably to-place deign 

Mata irasshai. 
Again come (honorific verb) 

Gomen nasai. 

August-excuse deign 

medeto gozaimasii. 

Honourably congratulatory is 

3Id takusan. 
Already plenty 

Do shimasho ? 
How shall do 

Nan desii ka ? 
What is ? 

Kore wa, nan desu ka ? 
This as for, what is ? 

Misete kudasai. 
Showing condescend 

Shirashlte kudasai. 
Informing condescend 

Clio'do haiken. 
Just respectful-glance 

Kiite kudasai. 

Kiite kuru ga ii. 
Asking to-come (nom.) good 

Chotto mite kite kudasai. 
Just looking coming condescend 

Sore de yoroshii ka? 
That by, ' good ? 


Introduction : — Lang uage. 

Don't do tliat. 

That won't tlo. 

"Why do you do such things ? 

Please take care. j 

Please pay attention. f 

"Where is it ? 

"Who is it ? 
When is it ? 
"Where is it from ? 
What o'clock is it ? 

Is this all ? 

I don't know. 

He says he doesn't know. 

Wait a little. 

Go quickly. 

That is no good, or That won't do. 

"Which is yours ? 

This is mine. 

"Who is that ? 

"WTiat is his name ? 

That is enough. 

Oh, what a bother ! 

Don't make such a row ! 

Don't bother so ! 

"What a hoiTid smell ! 

Please leave off. ) 

Don't do that. j 

It can't be helped. 

So shtcha ikenai. 
So as for doing, is no go 

Sore ja ikemasen. 
That i)y, is no go 

Naze sonna koto sum ka ? 
■Why such things do ? 

Ki wo tsukete kudasai. 
Spirit (accas.) fixing condescend 

Doko desu ka ? 
Where is ? 

Dare desu ka ? 

Itsu desu ka? 

Doko kara desu ka ? 

Xan-doki desu ka ? 
What-hour is ? 

Kore dake desu ka? 
This only is ? 

Shiriinasen {shiranai less polite). 

Shirimasen to iimasu. 
Knows-not that says 

Sukoshi mate. 
Little wait 

Hnyaku ! h a yaku ! 
Quickly quickly 

Sore wa, dame desu. 
That as for. useless is 

DocJd ga anata ow desu ka? 
Which (nom.) you of is ? 

Kore ga watakushi no desu. 
This (nom.) me of is 

Ano htto tea, dare desu ka? 
That person as for, who is ? 

Ano htto no na wa, nan 
That person of name as for, what 

to iimasu ka ? 
that say ? 

J/o yoroshii. 
.\lready good 

Komatta mon'' da ne ! 
Troubled thing is, isn't-it 

Yakamashii ! 

Urusai ! urvsai 1 
Troublesome troublesome 

Kusai I kusni ! 
Smelly smelly 

yoslii nasai. 

Honourably abstaining deign 

SliVcata ga nai. 

Doing manner (nom.) isn't 



As qmckly as possible. 

As early as possible. 

Is anything the matter ? 

WMcli is tbe best ? 

How much for one ? 

How miach per n (2^ miles) ? 

How much per head ? 

I don't want that. 

This is the one I want. 

It doesn't matter. 
I don't care. 

What a pity ! 

I have none at all. 

Has nobody come ? 

Can you ? 

I can. 

I can't. 

Can you go ? 

I can (go). 

I cannot (go). 

What is the reason ? 

You mustn't touch it. 

Give me one more (another). 

Please go first {apres vous). 

I should hke to borrow it for 

Don't break it. 

You mustn't break it. 

Aarutake Isolde. 

As . . as possible hurrying 

Nanitake hayaku. 

As . . as possible quickly 

Do ka sldmashita ka ? 
Somehow has done ? 

Dochi ga yoroshii ? 
Which (nom.) good 

Ilitotsu ikura ? 
One how much 

Ichi-ri ikura ? 
One ri how much 

Hitori-mae ikura ? 

One person front, how much 

Are wa, irimasen. 
That as fur, enters not 

Kono ho ffa irimasu. 
This side (nbm.) enters 

I Kamaimasen. 
\ Matters not 

Oshii koto desii ne ! 
Regrettable fact is, isn't-it 

Sukoshi mo nai. 
Little even isn't 

Dare mo konai ka? 
Anybody comes not ? 

Dekimasu ka ? 
Forthcomes (it) ? 


Forthcomes not 

Ikaremasu ka ? 



Do iu wake desii? 
What say reason is 

Ijitcha ikenai. 

As-f or- touching is-no-go 

Mo hitotsu kudasai. 
More one condescend 

Dozo saki ye. 
Please honourable front to 

a Chotto haishaku. 
Slightly borrowing 
I KoicasMcJvi ikenai. 
) As-for-breaking is-no-go 


Introduction : — Language. 

It is your fault. 

It is not my faiilt. 

I am very glad to see yon. 

Please give it to me. 

I am going out at about nine 

What is the matter ? 

Look for it everywhere. 

How long will it take ? 

How much will it cost ? 

I want a piece of string. 

I have not yet decided. 

I only want one. 

And then 

It can't be found. 

{^all him back. 

Which are yours ? 

Whose are these ? 

He said he'd come to-monow. 

Will you guarantee it ? 

Anata ga loarui. 
You (nom.) bad. 

WatakuJihi ga warui n'ja ncd. 
I (nom.) bad of isn't 

Yoku ide nasaimasMta. 
Well honourable exit have-deigned 


Ku-ji goro ni de-Jcakemasu. 
Nine-hours about at go-out 

Do shimashita ka ? 
How has-done ? 

Yoku yoku sagashtte. 
Well well seeking 

{^Toki ica) dono kurai kakarimasu? 
Time as-for, what about costs 

(Kane tea) dono kitrai kakarimasu ? 
Money as-for, what about costs 

Ito ICO kudasai. 
string (accus.) condescend 

Mada klmemasen. 
Yet decide not 

Hitotsu de yoroshii. 
One by is good 

Sore kara 

That from 

See fix cannot 

Yohi-modoslnte kudasai. 
Calling back condescend 

Bochira ga anata no desu? 
Which (nom.) you of is? 

Dare no desu ka? 
Who of is ? 

MyonicM kuru to iimashita. 
To-morrow come that said 

Vke-aimasu ka? 
Guarantee ? 



Which is the best inn ? 

Have you any rooms? 
Have you any beer ? 

what house 

Yado wa, 

Hotel as for, 

yoroshii ka ? 
good ? 

ZasMki wa, arimasu ka ? 
Room as for, is ? 

Blirtt, wa, arimasu ka? 




Tliis room Mall do. 

Can you give us European food ? 

I suppose you liaven't bedsteads, 
haye you ? 

I don't want a bedstead. 

Ai'e there any mosquitoes bere ? 

Kono zashiki de yoro.<ihu. 
This room by, good. 

Yo-shoku ga dekimasii ka . 
Sea-food (nom.) forthcomea ? 


It is dreadfully hot. 
Please open the paper slides. 
Please sbut the window. 
Bring some hot water. 

Bring some cold water. 
Where is the W. C. ? 
Please show me the way. 
Please bring a candle. 

Is the bath ready ? 

It is not ready yet. 

Isn't it ready yet? 
When will it be ready ? 

As soon as it is ready. 

Please let me know when it is 

All right, Sir. 

Please buy me five 10 sen post- 

Bedstead as for, 

Nedai wa. 
Bedstead as for. 

probably is not, 

enters not 


Kono hen iva, ka 

This neighbourhood as for, mosquito 

ga imasu ka ? 
(nom.) dwells ? 

Aisukute, shi-yo ga nai. 
Hot being, way of doing (nom.) isn't 

<S7iq;'i wo akete kudasai. 
Paper slide (accus.) opening condescend 

Madn too shimete kudasai. 
Window (accus.) shutting condescend 

yu ico matte 

Honourable hot water (accus. ) bearing 


Mizu motte koi. 
Cold, water bearing come 

Benjo wa, dochira desu ? 
W. C. as for, where is V 

Chotto annai .flute kudasai. 
Just guide doing condescend 

Bosoku ivo motte kite 
Candle (accus.) carrying coming 


Furo ga dekima.'ihita ka .* 
Bath (nom.) has forthcome '.' 

Mada dekimasen. 
Still forthcomes not 

Mada dekimasen ka ? 

Itsu dekimasii ka ? 
When forthcomes ? 

Deki shidai. 

Forthcomes according 

Dekimashitara, s]iiras]ute 

When shall have forthcome, informing 


Kashikomarimash'ita. (Said only to 
Have been reverential superiors). 

Jis-sen no yicbin-gitte go-mai 
Ten sen of postage-stamp five pieces 

katte kite kudasai. 
buying coming condescend 


Introduction : — Language. 

And then please take these things 

Have the things come from the 
wash ? 

I am thirsty. 

Give me a glass of water. 
Please give me some more. 
I am hungry. 

I want something to eat. 
Please get it ready quickly. 

Anything will do. 

And then please lay down the 

Please let me have more quUts. 

There is a hole in the mosquito- 

I want to get shaved. Is there a 
barber here? 

There is. 

Then send for him. 

I feel unwell. 

Is there a doctor here? 

Sore kara, 
That from, 









has become empty 

kore wo 
this (accus.) 



have forthcome 


has dried 






JVajji ka 

want to eat 

shitaku wo Jiayalcu 

Honourable preparations (accus.) quickly 


]\'an de mo yoroshii. 
What by even good 

Sore kara, toko shiite Icudasai. 
That from, bed spreading condescend 

Futon wo 

Quilt (accus.) 








Hige wo 
Beard (accus.) 






ga arimasu. 
(nom.) is 

want to receive 

tokoya ga 
barber (nom.) 

Gozaimasu (more polite than Ari- 

Sonnara yonde, koi. 
If so, calling come 

Kagen ga warui. 
Feelings (nom.) bad 
Koko ni isJia ga orimasu 
Here in doctor (nom.) dwells 




Please call my "boy." 

Please hui-ry him tip. 
Please lend a hand here. 
Please post these (letters). 

Please light the Ughts. 

I start at 7 o'clock to-morrow 

As I am starting early to-morrow, 
please wake me early. 

I want to be called at half past 5. 

I am going by the first train in the 

At what o'clock does the first train 
start ? 

Please engage two coolies. 

Please bring the biU. 

Please to accept this small sum as 

Many thanks for the trouble you 
have taken. 

Is the luggage ready? 

Is nothing forgotten? 

hoy wo yonde 
boy (accus.) calling 




putting forth 

Watakusld no 
I of 


Saisoku shite 
Urgency doing 

Te im kaslute 
Hand (accus.) lending 

Kono yfihin 

This post 


Akari wo tsukete kudasai. 
Light (accus.) fixing condescend 

Myo-asa shichl-ji 

To-morrow morning seven-houi-s 

shuttatsu .shimasu. 

departure do 

To-morrow morning 

kara, hayaku 

because, early 



Oo-ji-han ni 

Five-hours-half at, 









IcM-han-gisha de 
One-number-train by 



wa nanji desu 7 
as for, what-hour is. 

two people 



Doka kanjo-gaki wo 
Please bill-writing (accus.) 

kite kudasai). 
coming condescend 

Kore wa siikoshi 
This as for, little 
o chadai 

honourable tea-price 


Greatly honourable 

have become 

Nimotsu no 

Luggage _ of 

yoroshii ka ? 

good ? 

Wasure-mono ica 
Forgotten things as for. 



desu qa, — 
is although, — 


seica ni 
helj) to 



as for. 




Introduction : — Language. 

Please order the jinrikishas. 

We ■will start as soon as everything 
is ready. 

It is time to start. 

We ninst not be late. 

It is so nasty I can't eat it. 

Kumma no 
Jinrikisha of 

slCite kndasai. 

doing condescend 

Shltaku shidai, 
Preparation according 




will go forth 



ni narimashita. 
to has become. 

tiaru to ikenai. 
become if, is no go 

There are none anywhere. j 

It is not to be found anywhere. ( 

It is so hot I can't get into it. 

It is not hot enough. 

I want a jinrikisha. 

I am not going to bny anything. 

TNTiere hare you been ? 

(in scolding a servant for absence) 

What is this called in Japanese ? 

It is very inconvenient. 

According to circumstances. 

If it suits your convenience. 

I think that would be the most 


Doko ni 
Where in 








is no go 

ga irimasu. 
JinrLkisha (nom.) is-necessary 

Nani-mo k.aimasen. 
Anything buy-not 

Omae loa, doko ye itte ita ? 
You as-for, where to going have-been 

Xihon-go de, kore wa 
Japan-language in, this as-for, 
iimasii ? 

Yohodo fuisugo desix. 
Plenty inconvenient is 

Tsugo shirlai. 

Convenience according 

Go tsugo ga 

August convenience (nom.) 

Jw wa, tsugo ga 
side as-for, convenience (nom.) 

nan to 
what that 




That is a different thing. 
It is a mistake. 


Please dry this. 

Please clean the room. 

WiU you change this five yen note ? 

Please sew this. 
I will go and see it. 

hoshile kudasai. 
drying condescend 


(It) differs 

Kore wo 
This (accus.) 

Soji shite 
Cleansing doing 

Kono go-yen 
This iive-1/ew 

kuremasu ka? 
give ? 

Kore v:o nnite 

This (accus.) sewing condescend 

Mite kimasho. 
Looking will-come 






Please cool the beer. 
That is not enough. 

We will engage the whole (coach, 
boat, etc.). 

I will go if it is fine. 

Bvlru wo hiyasMte kudasai. 
Beer (accus.) cooling condescend 

Sore de tarimasen. 
That by suffices-not 





I will take my bath first and my Furo v)a saki 
food afterwards. 





shokuji wa ato 
food as-for after 

I want to get my hair cnt. 

Don't cut it too short. 

It is very uncomfortable. 

"What are you looking for ? 

It is only a little way. 

It is dreadfully draught}''. 

The fire has gone out ; j^lease bring 
some more charcoal. 

Please put out the light. 

You must not piit out the light. 
Did any one call while I was out ? 
Put them sei)arately. 


ni shimasho. 
to will-do 

Kami wo Imsande moraiiai. 
Hair (accus.) cutting want to get 

Amari mijikaku kitcha ikenai. 
Too short aa-for-cutting is-no-go 

Yohodo fujiyn desu. 







iru ? 

uncomfortable is 

WO sagashtte 
(accus.) seeking 

soko desu. 
there is 

ga haitte, komaru. 
(nom.) entering am troubled 





o kure. 

honourably give 





Akari wo keshite o 

Light (accus.) extinguishing honourably 


Akari wo kesJiicha ikemasen. 
Light (accua.) extinguishing is no go 

Busu ni, dare ka kimasen ka ? 
Absence in somebody comes not ? 

Betsu-hetsu ni shite kudasai. 
Separate separate in doing condescend 



I think I'll go out shopping. 
How much is it ? 
That is too dear. 

Kai-mono ni de-kakemashd. 
Purchases to will probably go out 

Ikura desii ? 
How much is 

Sore wa takai. 
That as for, dear 


Introduclion : — Language. 

You mtLst go do"vm a little in price. 
Haven't you any a little cheaper ? 

How nix;ch does it all come to ? 

Have you change for a yen ? 

Please send them to the hotel. 
Haven't you got something new ? 

This is the better of the twa 
This is the one I want. 

"VMiat is this used for ? 

WTiat is this made of ? 

I don't like it. 

Is there a cate-shop here ? 

How much for one ? 

I'll take aU these ; please -wTap them 

up in paper. 
'Wrap them up separately. 

Aie they all the same price ? 

Sukoshi make nasai. 

Little honourably cheapening deign 

Mo chitto yasui no ga 
still slightly cheap ones (nom.) 

7iai ka ? 

aren't ? 

Mina de, ikiira ni 
All by how much to 



Ichi-yen no 

One-yen of 

arimasu ka? 
is ? 

Yado ye 
Hotel to 

Nani ka 




Kono ho ga ii. 
This side (nom.) good 


as for 

toiokde kudasai. 
forwarding condescend 

atarnshii mono arbnasen. 
new thing isn't 


Kore wa. 
This as for 

Koj'e ICO, nani 
This as for what 
imasu ka ? 
is ? 




de dekite 
by forthcoming 




Koko ni kwashi-ya arimasu ka ? 
Here in cake-shop is ? 

Uitotsu ikura ? 
One how-much 

Kore dake kaimasu kara, kami 

This amount buy because, paper 

ni tsutsunde 


in wrapping 


Betsu hetsu 

ni tsutsunde 

Separate separate 

in wrapping 



Mina do-ne 

desit, ka ? 

All same-price 

is ? 



Which is the way to Kiga ? 

Kiga ye iku michi 

Kiga to goes road 

dochira de gozaimasu ? 
which by is 

as for. 



Please tell me the ^vay. 

Go straiglit on. 

Where is the telegraph office ? 

^\T].ere is the ticket-office ? 

(Give me) one 1st class ticket to 

Michi ICO oshiele kiidasai. 
Road (accus.) teaching condescend 

Massugu oide nasal 

Straight honourable exit dei"n 

Denshin-Jcyoku tea, dochira 

Telegraph office as for, where 

desu ka ? 
is ? 

Kippu wo uru iokoro ua 
Ticket (accus.) sell place as for 

doko desii ka? 
where is ? 

Nikko made, 
Nikkd till. 

itto ichi- 

first class one- 

(Please book) this luggage for 


Kore dake no 
This only of 

Nikko made. 
Nikko till 

How many hours does it take to Xagoya made. 

get to Nagoya ? Nagoya till, 

kakarimasu ? 
lasts ? 

I mean to spend the night at Xagoya 'Je, 

nimotsu wo, 
luggage (accus.) 


Nagoya. Nagoya 

s'la-a tsumori 
do intention 

one-nisht'fi lodging 


"When does the train for Xikko 

start ? 

^\^lere do we change trains .■' 

I will rest a little. 

What is tlie name of that mopu- 
taiu ? 

What is this place called ? 

Is this a Buddhist or a Shinto Kore 
temple ? This 

yiklcd-yul. l 
Nikko going 



as for. 

aun-doki ni dtmasn ka ? 
what hour at issues V 

Doko de nori-kaema su ka? 
Where at ride-change ? 

Sukosh i 

will i)robably i 



Ano yama 
That mountain 

as for. 




ka ? 




V'l.l , 
as for, 








ka ? 

I'sa, tera 

as for, Buddh. temple 


ka .■' yashiro desii ka ? 
? .Shinto temple is V 


Introdiioiion : — Language. 

How far is it from liere to the next 
town ? 

I will lie down a bit, as I feel 

Will you come with me ? 
Let us go together. 
Let us rest a little. 
I want to see the dancing. 
I don't want to see it. 
Is it much further ? 
When will you come ? 
'\\Tien will he come ? 
I have left it behind. 

What is there to see here ? 

Do you think we shall be in time ? 

Are you ready ? 

There is plenty of time. 

There isn't enough time. 

I am busy now ; come later. 

"What is the fare ? 

Give them 10 sen each as a tip. 

It is too wet. 


kara, sakl no 



from, front of 



ri-su wa 



mile-number as for. 



desu ? 




ni i/oimashiia 



in bave-got-tipsy 






Issho ni o ide 

Together honourable exit 

Issho ni ikimnsho ja nai ka ? 
Together will-go isn't it ? 

Chiito yasumimashd ja nai ka? 




isn't it ? 


Odori wo mitai. 
Panco faccus.) want-to-see 


Mada takusan arimasu ka '! 
Still much is ? 

lisu ide ni narimasu ka ? 

When honourable exit to become ? 

Itsu ka ? 
When comes ? 

Oite kimashita or 
LeavinR have-come 

Wasttreie kimashita. 
Forgetting have-come 

Koko de miru mono wa. 

Here at see things as for, 

7ian desu ka ? 

what are ? 







d aimasho 
shall meet 

yoroshii ka 
'all right ? 







Chinsen wa. 
Fare as for, 




ten sen 

ikura ? 
how much 

ni sakate wo 
to, tip (accus.) 
yatte kuda.iai. 
giving condescend 

Kono ame de shiyo ga ncii. 
This rain by way-to-do (nom.) isn't 

Language. The Shinto Religion. 


Isn't there a short cut ? 

I would rather walk. 
Is it far ? 

I have a headache. 

I have a toothache. 

Where can we stop for lunch ? 

I shall go whether it rains or not. 

Chika-michi urimasen lea? 
Near road isn't ? 


Empo de.tu ka? 
Far ia ? 

Zutsu shimasu. 
Headache does 

Ifa fja itai. 
Tooth (nom.) painful 

Hiru wa, doko de tahemashu ka? 
Noon as for, where at shall eat ? 

Futte mo ieite mo iklmasu. 
Raining even, shining even, I «o 

Put me down (said to a jiniild-man). Orose. 

Let down 
I should Hke to enquii-e. Chotto idmgaimasu. 

Little (I) enquire 

Which is the best inn at Minobu? Minohu wa, yado wa, dochira 

Blinobu as for inu as for where 

ga yoroshiu ijozaimasii? 
(nom.) good is? 

Isn't there any inn in this village? Kono mura loa, yadoya wa 

This village as for inu as for 

oTimasen ka ? 
isn't ? 

20. —The Shint5 Religion ; Ryobu and Pure Shinto. 

_ The Japanese have two rehgions, Shinto and Buddhism,— the former 
indigenous the latter imported from India via China and Korea • but 
^i«!^nf J"^ supposed that the nation is therefore divided into two 
dist net sections each professing to observe one of these exclusively 
nur. bPv'n? ""'^'qi -^ ^-"/"^ "',' thoroughly interfused in practice, that the 
number of pure Shmtoists and pure Buddhists must be extremely smaU 
Bud.l°htl exception IS aftorded by the province of Satsuma, from which the 
Luddhist priesthood has been excluded ever since some of their number 
betrayed the local chieftain into the hands of Hideyoshi. Every Japa- 
?hKtn'T> '' ^f ^^ IS placed by his parents under the protection li some 
Shinto deity, whose foster-child he becomes, while the funeral rites are 
«>ndiicted, with few exceptions, according' to the ceremonial of tS 
Buddhist sect to which his family belongs^ It is only in recent years 
J-eJ^prni ^"^f '^^g *° the .tncient ritual of the Shintoists has been 
leaved, after almost total disuse during some twelve centuries This 
i'wtriT-''?°"'v°"'' «?^f^itio^ of things is to be explained by the fact 
.bat the Shinto religion demands little more of its adherents than a %-isit 

Wpir ?^ ''^^ ^^^ o^cfio^ of the annual festival, and does not 
piotess to teach any theory ol the destiny of man, or of moral duty thus 
eavmg the greater part of the held fi-ee to the imests of Buddha,' with 
their apparatus ot theological dogma aided by splendid rites Tmd 
STr'" '^t^"^'^^^^^^; Multitudinous as are its own deities, Buddhism 
.ound no difhculty in receiving those of the indigenous behef into its 
pantheon, this toleration having been pre'dously displayed ^ith regard 

38 Iiitrududion : — The SJiinio Religion. 

to Hindu deities and other mythological beings. In most cases it was 
.pretended that the native Shinto gods {Kami) were merely avatars of 
some Budilhist deity (Ilotoke) ; and thns it was possible for those who 
became converts to the foreign doctrine to coutiniTe to believe in and oHer 
np jH'ayers to their ancient gods as before. 

Shinto is a compound of natm-e-worship and ancestor-A\-orship. It 
has gods and goddesses of the Avind, the ocean, tire, food, and pesti- 
lence, of mountains and rivers, of certain special mountains, certain 
rivers, certain trees, certain temples, — eight hundred m>Tiads of deities in 
all. Chief among these is Ama-terasu, the radiant (loddess of the Sun, 
born from the left eye of Izanagi, the Creator of Japan, while fi'om his 
right eye was produced the C^od of the Moon, and from his nose the 
Aiolent (jod Susa-no-o, who subjected his sister to various indignities and 
Mas chastised accordingly. The Sun-(ioddess was the ancestress of the 
line of heaven-descended !lIikatlos, who have reigned in unbroken siicces- 
sion from the beginning of the world, and are themselves gods ujion 
earth. Hence the Sun-Goddess is honoured above all the rest, her shrine 
at Ise being the Mecca of Japan. Other shrines hold other gods, the 
deified ghosts of princes and heroes of eld, some coiumanding a wide 
popularity, others known only to narrow local fame, most of thorn tended 
by hereditary families of priests believed to be lineal descendants either of 
the god himself or of his chief servant. From time to time new names 
are added to the j^antheon. The present reign has witnessed several 
instances of such apotheosis. 

Shintd has scarcely any regular services in which the people take 
part, and its priests (kanmishi) arc not distinguishable by their appearance 
fi-om ordinary laymen. Only when engaged in presenting the morning 
and evening offerings do they wear a peculiar dress, which consists of 
a long loose gown with wide sleeves, fastened at the waist with a 
girdle, and sometimes a black caji bound round the head with a broad 
white fillet. The priests are not bound by any vows of celibacy, and 
retiun the option of adopting another career. At some temples young 
girls fill the office of priestesses ; but their duties do not extend beyond 
the performance of the pantomimic dances known as kagura, and assis- 
tance in the presentation of the daily offerings. They likewise are tinder 
no vows, and many as a matter of course. The services consist in the pre- 
sentation of small trays of i-ice, fish, fruits, vegetables, rice-beer, and the 
flesh of birds and aninuds, and in the recital of certain formal addresses 
(norito), partly laudatory and partly in the nature of petitions. The style 
of composition employed is that of a very remote period, and ^roiUd not 
be comprehended by the common people, even it the Latter were in the 
habit of taking any jmrt in the ritual. With moral teaching, Shinto does 
not profess to concern itself. '" Follow your natural imjiulses, and obey 
the ilikado's decrees : " — such is the siim of its theory of human duty. 
Preaching forms no x^art of its institutions, nor are the rewards and 
pimishments of a future life used as incentives to right conduct. The 
continued existence of the dead is believed in ; but whether it is a condi- 
tion of joy or jjain, is nowhere revealed. 

Shinto is a Chinese word meaning " the Way of the Gods," and was 
first adopted after the introduction of Buddhism to distinguish the native 
beliefs and practices from those of the Indian religion. Shinto has several 
sects, — the Honkyoku, the Kurozumi Kyo, etc ; biit these divisions do not 
obtrude themselves on public notice. Practically the cidt may be regaided 
as one .and homogeneous. 

The architecture of Shintd teiuples is extremely simple, and the mate- 

TIw Hhinto EeUgion. 39 

rial used is plain ■white wood \ntli a tliatcb of chain;Kcyparis bark. Tlie 
annexed plan of the Great Temi^le of Izimio {Izumo no 0-yo.shiro). 
taken froiii a native drawing sold to pilgrims, and printed on Jaixanese 
paper, will serve to exemplify this style of architecture. Few Shinto 
temples, however, are quite so elaborate as this, the second holiest in the 
Empire. We find then : — 

1. The Main Shrine {lionsUa or lionden), which is divided into two 
chambers. The rear chamber contains the emblem of the god (mi-tama- 
shiro), — a mirror, a sword, a curious stone, or some other object, — and is 
always kept closed, while in the ante-chamber stands a wand from which 
depend strips of white paper ujohei) intended to rejiresent the cloth 
offerings of ancient times. The muTor v/hich is seen in front of not a 
few temples was borrowed from the Shingon sect of Buddhists, and has 
nothing to do with the Shinto Sun-Goddess, as is often supposed. 

2. An Oratory (haiden) in front of the main l^uilding, with which it 
is sometimes, but not in the case of the Izumo temi^le, connected by 

3. A Corridor or Gallery {ai-no-7na). A gong often hangs over the 
entrance of the Oratory, for the worshipper to attract the attention of the 
god, and beneath stands a large Vjox to receive contributions. 

4. A Cistern (nii-tarashi), at which to wash the hands before prayer. 

5. A low Wall, or rather Fence {tama-gaki, lit. jewel hedge), enclosing 
the chief temple buildings. 

B. A second Enclosing Fence, often made of boards and therefore 
termed ita-gaki. 

7. A peculiar Gateway (torii) at the entrance to the grounds. Some- 
times there are several of these gateways. Their origin and signification 
are alike iinloiown. The presence of the torii is the easiest sign whereby 
to chstinguish a Shinto from a Buddhist temple. 

8. A Temple Office (shamusho), where the business of the temple is 
transacted, and where some of the priests often reside. 

9. Secondary Shrines [sessha or jnassha) scattered about the grounds, 
and dedicated, not to the deity worshijiped at the main shrine, but to 
other members of the crowded pantheon. 

10. A Library (bunko). This item is generally absent. 

11. A Treasure-house (hozd). 

12. One or more Places for Offerings (shinsenjo). 

13. A Gallery (kicaird). 

1-4. A Dancing-stage (bugaku-dni). A more usual form of this is the 
kagura-do, or stage for the performance of the kagura dance. 

15. A Stable in which is kept the Sacred Horse (jiinme). nsnally an 

16. An Assembly Hall. This is generally missing. 

17. Gates. 

Frequently there is some object of minor sanctity, such as a holy well 
or stone, a tree of odd shape or unusual size, the image of the bull on 
which the god Tenjin rode, etc. 

The curiously jn-ojecting ends of the rafters on the roof of the lionsha 
are termed cidgi. The cigar-shaped logs are termed katsuogi. Both these 
ornaments are derived fi-om the architecture of the primitive Japanese 
hut, the katsuogi having anciently served to keep in place the two trunks 
forming the ridge of the roof. The temple gi'ounds are usiially suiTounded 
by a gi'ove of trees, the most common among which is the cryptomeria, a 
useful timber tree. These plantations were originally intended to supply 
materials for the repair or re-erection of the buildings ; but in many cases 

40 Introduction : — T/ie Shinto Religion. 

their great antiquity causes a sacred character to be attributed to the 
oldest trees, which are surrounded by a fillet of straw rope, as if to show 
that they are tenanted by a divine spirit. 

The two figures with bows and arrows, seated in niches right and left 
of the gate to keep guard over the approach to the temple, are called 
Zuijin, or " Attendants," more popularly Yn-daijin, or " Ministers with 
Arrows." The stone figures of dogs, — or lions, as some suppose them to 
be, — which are often found in temple grounds, are called Ama-inn and 
Koma-imi, lit. "the Heavenly Dog" and " the Korean Dog." They are 
credited with the power of driving off demons. 

Very often a large straw-rope, peculiarly twisted [slibvc-naica) is to be 
seen before the entrance to a Shinto shrine, and sometimes in other 
places. This, too, is credited with power to avert evil, more especially 
small-pox, cholera, and other infectious diseases. 

For the go-hei, or paper emblems, see Glossary at the end of this 

The distinction between what are termed respectively Eyobu and Pure 
Shintd arose from the fact that the doctrines of metempsychosis and 
universal perfectibility taught by Buddhism naturally made it tolerant of 
other creeds, and willing to afford hospitality to their gods in its own 
pantheon. Hence the early Buddhist teachers of the Japanese nation 
were led to regard the aboriginal Shinto gods and goddesses as incarnations 
or avatars— the Japanese term is f/oji^en, signifying literally "temporary 
manifestations" — of some of the many myriads of Buddhas. Thus was 
formed a mixed system, known as liyobu Shinto or i::-hin-Bulsu Konkd, which 
lasted throughout the Middle Ages. For a thousand y^ears the service of 
most of the Shinto temples, except Ise and Izumo, was performed by 
Buddhist priesls, and the temple architecture was deeply affected by Biid- 
dhist (that is, Indian) principles, — witness the elaborate carvings, the form 
of the two-storied samwon, or outer gate, and even the pagoda itself , which, 
though essentially Buddhistic, was found in the most popular Shinto 
shrines. In several cases, for instance Kompira and Hachiman, the so- 
called Shinto deities worshipped were probably unknown in pre-Buddhist 
ages, and owed their origin to priestly ingenuity. This cmious state of 
things began to totter more than a century ago, under the attacks of a 
school of enthusiastically patriotic literati who re%'ived the ancient 
traditions of "pure Shinto." When the revolution of 18G8 occurred, and 
restored the Mikado's authority, these old traditions, amongst which the 
divine right of the sovereign was one of the most important, became 
paramount. It was for a time hoped that Buddliism might be suppressed, 
and Shinto estabUshed as the sole national religion ; but the extreme party 
was in the end not allowed to have its way. The reform was limited to 
the complete separation of the two religions, and the Buddhist priests were 
expelled from the Shinto temples, which they had so long " contaminated" 
by their sway. All buildings, such as pagodas, belfi'ies, and richly 
decorated shrines, that did not properly belong to the Shinto establishment 
were removed, many precious structures being thus destroyed by " purify- 
ing " zeal. In consequence of all this, the modern visitor to Japan loses 
much that deUghted the eyes of those who came a quarter of a century 
ago. To quote but a single example, the temple of Hachiman at 
Kamakura has been despoiled of its chief beauty. On the other hand, he 
has better opportunities for familiarising himself with the style of " pure 
Shinto," which, if severely simple, is at least uniqtie in the world, one of 
the few things Japanese not borrowed from China. 

Japanese Buddhism. 41 

2]. — Japanese Buddhism. 

Buddhism, in its Chinese form, first entered Japan via Korea in the 
6th century of the Christian era, the first Japanese pagoda having been 
erected about A. D. 584 by one Soga-no-Iname. The Constantine of Japa- 
nese Buddhism was Shotoku Taishi, prince regent under the Empress 
Suiko (A.D. 593-621), from whose time many of the most celebrated tem- 
ples date. Thenceforward, though Shinto was never entirely suppressed. 
Buddhism became for centuries the popular national religion, appealing 
as it did to the deepest instincts of the human heart, both by its doctrine 
and by its ritual, in a way which Shinto could never emulate. Buddhism 
was adopted by the very llikados, descendants of the Shintd Goddess of 
the Sun. During the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries, Korean and Chinese 
monks and nuns visited Japan for purposes of proselytism, much as 
Christian missionaries visit it to-day. From the 8th century onwards, it 
became more usual for the Japanese monks to visit China, in order to 
study the doctrines of the best-accredited teachers at the fountain-head. 
From these historical circumstances results the general adhesion of the 
Japanese Buddhists to the Chinese, Northern, or " Greater Vehicle " school 
of that religion (Sanskrit, Mahdydna ; Jap. Daijo), in whose teachings the 
simple morality of Southern Buddhism, as practised in Ceylon and Siam, 
is overlaid with many mystical and ceremonial observances. It must not 
be supposed, however, that all Japanese Buddhists agree among them- 
selves. Bviddliism was already over a thousand years old when introduced 
into this archipelago, and Chinese Buddhism, in particular, was spKt into 
numerous sects and sub-sects, whose quarrels took new root on Japanese 
soil. Some of the Chinese sects of that early day still survive ; such are 
the Tendai and the Sh'mgon. Others, notably the Nkhiren and Shin sects, 
are later Japanese developments. The following are the chief denomina- 
tions existing at the present day, classed in the order of their numerical 
importance : — 

, Rinzai (10 sub-sects). 

Zen, divided into-j Soto. 


Shin or Monio (10 sub-sects). 

Shingon (2 sub-sects). 

Jodo (2 sub-sects). 

JVichiren or Hokke (8 sub-sects). 

Tendai (3 sub-sects). 

The points in dispute between the sects are highly metaphysical and 
technical, — so much so that Sir Ernest Satow, speaking of the Shingon 
sect, asserts that its " whole doctrine is extremely difficult to comprehend, 
and more difficult to put into intelligible language." Of another sect he 
tells us that its " highest truths are considered to be incomprehensible, 
except to those who have attained to Buddhaship."* 

* The following may serve as a specimeu of the difficulties to be encountered in 
this study : — "The doctrine of the sect is compared to a piece of cloth, in which the 
teaching of Shaka is the warp, and the interpretation or private judgment of the 
individual, corrected by the opinion of other mouks, is the woof. It is held that 
there is a kind of intuition or perception of truth, called Shin-gyO, suggested by the 
words of scripture, but transcending them in certainty. This is said to be in 
harmony with the thought of Shaka. The entirety of doctrine, however, results in 
one central truth, namely that Nirviina is the final result of existence, a state in 
which the thinking substunce, while remaining individual, is unaftected by anything 

42 Introduction : — Japanese Buddhism. 

Under these circumstances, the general reader %vill perhajis do best 
simply to fix in his mind the following few cardinal facts : — that 
Biiddhism arose in India, some say in tlie 7th, others in the 11th, centnry 
before Christ ; that its founder was the Buddha Shaka ilnni, a prince of 
the blood royal, who. disenchanted first of worldly pleasures and then of 
the austeiities which he practised for long years in the Himalayan 
wilderness under the guidance of the most self-denj'ing anchorites of 
his time, at length felt dawn on his mind the truth that all happiness 
and salvation come fi-om within. — come from the recognition of the 
impermanence of all phenomena, fi'om the extinction of desire which 
is at the root of life, life itself being at the root of all sorrow and 
imperfection. Asceticism still reigned supreme ; but it M-as asceticism 
rather of the mind than of outward observances, and its ultimate object 
was absorption into Nirvana, which some interpret to mean annihilation, 
while others describe it as a state in which the thinMug substance, after 
numerous transmigi'ations and progi-essive sanctification, attains to 
})erfect beatitude in serene tranquillity. Neither in China nor in Japan 
has practical Buddhism been able to maintain itself at these philosophic 
heights ; but by the aid of hohen, or pious devices, the priesthood has 
played into the hands of poiiular superstition. Here as elsewhere there 
have been evolved charms, amulets, pilgiimages, and gorgeous temple 
services, in which people woi-ship not only the Buddha who was himself 
an agnostic, but his disciples and even such abstractions as Amida, 
which are mistaken for actual divine personages. 

Annexed is the plan of the temple of Hommonji at Ikegami near 
Tokyo, which may be regardetl as fairly typical of Japanese Buddhist 
architecture. The roofing of these temples is generally of tiles, forming 
a contrast to the primitive thatch of Shinto places of worship. The chief 
features are as follows : 

1. The Samvion, or two-storied Gate, at the entrance to the temple 

2. The Ema-do, or Ex-voto Hall, also called Qaku-dn. 

3. The Shoro, or Belfry. 

4. The Hondo, or Main Temple. 

5. The Soshi-do, or Founders Hall, dedicated to Nichiren, the 
founder of the sect to which this temple belongs. 

6. The TaJto-to, or Pagoda-shaped Reliquary, containing portions of 
Nichiren's body, hence also called Eotsu-do-, or Hall of the Bones. 

7. The liinzo, or Revolving Library, liolding a complete copy of the 
Buddhist canon. 

external, and is consequently devoid of feeling, thought, or passion. To this the 
name of Mu-i (Asa/dskj-ita) is given, s^ignifying absolute, unconditioned existence. 
When this is spoken of as annihilation, it is the annihilation of conditions, not of the 
substance, that is meant. Pushed to it.s logical result, this would appear to the 
ignorant (i.e. the unregenerate) to amount to the same thing as non-existence : but 
here we are encountered by one of those mysteries which lie at the foundation of all 
religious belief, and which must be accepted without questioning, if there is to be 
any spiritual religion at all. A follower of Herbert Spencer would probably object 
that this is an ' illegitimate symbolical conception.' 

"Ignorant and obtuse minds are to be taught by hohen, that is, by the presenta- 
tion of truth under a form suited to their capacity. For superior intellects Shaka, 
quitting the symbolic teaching appropriate to the vernacular understanding, revealed 
the truth in itself. Whoever can apprehend the Ten Abstract Truths in their proper 
order may, after four successive births, attain to perfect Buddhaship, while the in- 
ferior intelligence can only arrive at that condition after 100 Kalpas, or periods of 
time transcending calculation." — (S.\tow.) 

AO.I)": =IO ajSM3T T2i 


-f <^sm.^l^--r-f 


••■ {^^ 


Jo pa 1 1 e^i' B uddh is n i . 


8. The Hojo, also called Slioin or Zashiki, the Priests' Apartruents. 

9. The Kyaku-den, or Reception Eooms. 

10. The IIozo, or Treasure-house. 

11. The Dai-dokoro, or Kitchen. 

12. The Chozu-bachi, or Cistern for washing the hands before worship. 

13. The Drum-tower (Kord). 

14. The Pagoda {Go-ju no to). 

15. Stone Lanterns (Ishi-ddro), presented as offerings. 

All temples do not possess a Founder's Hall, and very few possess a 
Taho-to or a Rinzn. In the temples of the Monto or Hongwanji sect, 
which almost always comprise two principal edifices, the larger of the two 
unites in itself the functions of Main Temple and Foiinder's Hall, while 
the lesser, with which it is connected Ijy a c-overed gallery, is sometimes 
specially dedicated to Amidu, the deity chiefly worshipped l)y this sect, 
and is sometimes i^sed for preaching sermons in, whence the name of 
Jiki-dd, or Eefectory, alluding to the idea that sermons are food for the 
soul. A set of Buddhist buildings, with pagoda, belfry, etc., aU complete, 
is often called a Shichi-do Garan. The termination ji, which occiu's in so 
many tenqJe names, means " Buddhist temple " in Chinese ; the current 
Japanese word is iera. Most Biiddhist temples have alternative names 
ending in san and in. 

Many temples have what is called an Oku-no-in. — a Holy of Holies, 
so to sa3% which is generally situated behind the main shrine, and 
often a long way up the mountain at whose foot 
buildings cluster. Most Oku-no-in are less highly 
the temples to which they belong ; some indeed 
^_^^^ Where Shinto influence has prevailed, 

termed Oku-shu. Sometimes there is an inter- 
niechate shrine called Chil-in or Chu-slm. 

The ceremony of throwing open to the 
gaze of worshippers the shrine which holds 
the image of the patron saint is called 
Kai-cho, and is usually accomjjanied by a 
short service. Pictures of the god, together 
with holy inscriptions (o fuda) and charms 
[mamori), are sold at man}^ temples. The 
specimens hei'e ligTu-ed are from the gi-eat 
shrine of Fudo at Narita. Sometimes cheap 
miniature reprints of Buddhist sutras are 
offered for sale, bimdles of straws or sticks 
used as counters by those j)prforming what 
is termed the Uyaku-do, that is the pious 
act c>f walking Tip and clown the temple cotirt 
a hundred times, etc., etc. The little wisps 
of paper often to be seen on the grating of 
minor shrines are tied there by devotees in 
token of a vow or a wish, mostly connected 
mth the tender passion. The flocks of doves 
seen fluttering about many temple coiirts are 
not objects of worship. They simply take 
up their home where piety secures them from 
^ifpi molestation. > 

^1ly\r^ An object frequently seen in Buddhist temple grounds 

is the soioba or toba, a coiimx^tion of the Sanskrit stiipa 

the other temple 
ornamented than 

are mere sheds, 
the Oku-no-iu is 


Introduciion : — Gods and Goddei^ses. 

(" tope "), which "was originally a memorial erected over the remains of 
an Mdian saint. In Japan it assumes two forms, one being a thin 
stick, notched and often inscribed with Sanskrit characters, the other a 
stone monument in common use as a ga-aye-stone, where the com- 
ponent elements of the structure are more clearly indicated. They are 
the ball, crescent, pyramid, sphere, and cube, symbohsing respectively 
Ether, Air, Fire, Water, and Earth. One glance at a soioba is said to 

ensure the forgiveness of all sins. 

The way up to temples or sacred 
moivntains is frequently marked by 
oblong stones, like mile-stones, at the 
interval of a cho, inscribed as fol- 
lows : — Ef]" (or — T"); OI16 cho ; ZlHI, 
two cho, etc. 

Stones with inscriptions, for 
which wooden boards are often sub- 
stituted, also serve to commemorate 
gifts of money to the temple, or of 
trees to ornament the grounds. Irre- 
gularly shaped slabs of stone are 
mTich prized by the Japanese, who 
use them as monumental tablets. 

All the famous holy places have 
subsidiary or representative temples 
(utsusld or de-hari) in vaiioTis parts 
of the empire, for the convenience of 
those worshippers who cannot make 
the actual pilga-image. The shrine 
of the Narita Fudo at Asakusa in 
T5kyo is a familiar example. 

One, alas ! of the characteristic 
features of the Buddhist temples of 
to-day is the decay into which most 
of them have fallen, not because of 
any general conversion to Christianity, but owing to the disendowment 
of the priesthood and the materiaUstic tendencies of the age. The wooden 
architecture of Japan, so attractive when fresh, at once becomes dowdy 
and ramshackle under neglect,— not venerable like the stone ruins of 

22. — List of Gods and Goddesses. 


(in its iico shapes) 

The following are the most popular deities, Buddhist and Shinto. 
They are placed together in one Ust, because throughout Japanese history 
there has been more or less confusion between the two religions : — 

AizEN My6-6, a deity represented with a fierce expression, a flaming 
halo, three eyes, and six arms. Nevertheless he is popularly regarded as 
the God of Love. Anderson describes him as " a transformation of 
Atchala the Insatiable." 

Ama-terasxj, lit. "the Heaven-Shiner," that is, the Sun-Goddess. 
Born from the left eye of the Creator Izanagi, when the latter was 
performing his ablutions on returning from a visit to his dead wife Iza- 
nami in Hades, the Sun-Goddess was herseK the ancestress of the 
Imperial Family of Japan. I'he most striking episode in her legend is 

Gods and Goddesses. 


'I he origin 
kaijxtra is 
the native 
which the 

that in which she is insulted by her 

brother Susa-no-o, and retires in high 

dudgeon to a cavern, thus phmging the 

whole world in darkness. All the other 

gods and goddesses assemble at the cavern's 

mouth, with music and dancing. At length 

curiosity lures her to the door, and she 

is finally enticed out by the sight of her 

own fair image in a mirror, which one 

of the gods pushes towards her. 

of the sacred dances called 

traced to this incident by 

literati. Other names Tinder 

Sun-Goddess is known are Sh'vmmei, Ten 

iShoko Da'ijln, and IJinjingic. 

Amida (Sanskrit, AmUabh'i), a powerful 

deity dwelling in a lovely paradise to the 

west. Originally Amida was an abstrac- 
tion, — the ideal of boundless light. His 

image may generally be recognised by the 

hands lying on the lap, with the thumbs 

placed end to end. Very often, too, the 

halo (golcd) forms a background, not only to 

the head but to the entire body, and is then 

termed funa-goko, from its resemblance in 

shape to a boat. The spot on the forehead 

is emblematical of wisdom. The great im- 
age {Daibuisu) at Kamakura represents this deity. 

seishi are often 

lowers of Amida. — 'Ihe name Amula is 
^ sometimes shortened to Mida. 

""'-—rOv Anan (Sansla-it, AwiwJa), one of 

v^J Buddha's cousins and earliest converts. 

He is often called Tamon (^^fl), lit. 
"hearing much," on accoiint of his 
extensive loiowledge and wonderful 
memory, — a name which is also applied 
to Bishamon. 

Atago, a god worshipped as the 
protector of towns against fire. He 
is an avatar of the Creatress Izanami 
and of her last-born child Ho-musubi 
(also called Kagu-tsuchi), the Shinto 
god of fire, whose entry into the world 
caused her death. 

Bknten, or Benzaiten, one of the 
Seven Deities of Luck. She is often 
represented riding on a serpent or 
dragon, whence perhaps the sacred 
character attributed in many localities 
to snakes. Benten's shrines are most- 
ly situated on islands. 

BiNzuEU, originally one of the 
" Sixteen Kakan," was expelled from 

Kwannon and Dai- 
represented as fol- 


Inlrodudion : — God.s and Goddessif 

tbeir number iov having violnteil his vow of chastity by reniarking \\\wn 
the beauty of a female, whence the usual situation of his image outside the 
sanctum. It is also said that Budilha conferred on him the power to cure 
all human ills. For this reason, believers rub the image of Binzurii on 
that part which may be causing them pain in their own bodies, and 
then rub themselves in the hope of obtaining relief ; and thus it comes 
about that such images we often found with the limbs partly M'orn away. 
and the features nearly obliterated. Binzuru is a highly popular object 
of worship A\'ith the lower classes, and his image is often to he seen 
adorned by his devotees with a red or jellow cotton hood, a bib and 

BisHAMox (Sanskrit, Vdisvirnmia), explivined in Eitel's Hand-hook of 
Chinese Buddhism as the God of Wealth, has been adopted by the Japanese 
as one of their Seven Gods of Luck, with the special characteristic of 
impersonating war. Hence he is represented as clad in armour and 
bearing a spear, as well sis a toy jiagoda. 
BoNTEX, Brahma. 

BosATsu (Sanskrit, Bodhisaitva), the general title of a large class of 
Buddhist saints, who ha^e only to pass through one more human existence 
before attaining to Buddhahood. The " Twenty-Five Bosatsu " (NL-jfi-go 
Bosatsu), specially worshipped and frequently represented in art, are sup- 
poseil to be sent bj"^ Buddha himself as giiarthan spirits to watch over 
earnest behevers. The list includes Kwannon, Daiseishi, Fugen, Kokuzo, 
and a number of less well-known di^inities. 
BuTsu, see Ilotoke. 

Daikoku, the God of Wealth, may be Icnown by his rice-bales. Popular 
Japanese art, which exhibits little awe of things divine, represents these 
bales being nibbled at by a rat. 

Daixichi Nyobai (Sanskrit, VCiirutchana TatliCujatu) is one of the 
persons of the Triratna, or Buddhist Trinity, the personification of wisdom 

and of absolute purit}^ He is 
popiilarly confounded with Fudo, 
the images of the two lieing diffi- 
cult to fUstinguish. 

Daiseishi or Seishi, a Bosatsu 
belonging to the retinue of 

Daishi, a title which i.^ 
jipplied to many Buddhist abbots 
and saints. It means either "Great 
Teacher." or "Perfected Saint" 
(vSanskiit Malidsatlva), according 
to the Chinese characters used to 
write it. 

Daeuma (Sanskrit, Dharma),, 
a deified Indian Buddhist patriarch 
of the 6th century, who sat for 
nine years in profound abstrac- 
tion till his legs rotted away and 
fell off. 
DAEUMA. D6.SOJIN, the God of Roads. 

Ebisu, one of the Gods of 
liuck, is the patron of honest lalwur. He bears in his hand a fishing-rod 
and a /ai-fish. 

Go(h and Goddesses. 


Emma-0 (Sanskiit, Ydmn-rdja), the regent of the Buddhist hells. 
He may be known by his cap resembling a jiidge's beret, and by the huge 



mace in his right hand. Before him often sit two myrmidons, one of 
whom holds a pen to Avrite dov.-n the sins of hnuian beings, while the 
other reads ont the list of their offences from a scroll. 

Fu-Daishi, a deified Chinese priest of the 6th century, is represented 
in art seated between his tv/o sons Fuken and Fnjo, who clap their hands 
and, and hence are popularly Icnown as Warn-^)Oioke, or the Laugh- 
ing Br.ddhas. Fn-Daishi is the reputed inventor of the Fanzo, or Eevolving 
Library, which is attached to some Buddhist temples. It is a recei^tacle 
large enough to hold a complete collection of the Buddhist scriptixres, but 
turning so easily on a pivot as to be readily made to revolve by one 
vigorous push. A native authority says : " Owing to the voiuminousness 
of the sutras, — 6,771 volumes, — it is impossible for any single individual to 
read them through, l^ut a degree of merit equal to that accruing to him 
^^■ho should have perused the entire canon, may be obtained by those who 
will cause this Library to revolve three times on its axis ; and moreover 
long life, prosperity, and the ;',voidance of all misfortunes shall be their 


Introduction : — Gods and Goddesses. 


EuDO (SaBskrit, Achala). Mucli 
obscurity hangs over tbe origin and 
attributes of this popular divinity. 
According to Monier Williams, 
A eh tin, y^hicl^ means "immovable" 
{Fadd 7f.<t^}j translates this meaning 
exactly), is a name of tlie Brahminic- 
al god Siva and of the tirst of the 
nine deitied persons called " white 
Balas" among the Jainas. Satow 
says: — " Fudo (Akshnra) is identilied 
with Dainichi (Vaiio.tana), the God 
of Wisdom, which quality is sym- 
bolised by the flames which surround 
him : it is a common error to suppose 
that he is the God of Fire. Accorthng 
to the popular view, the sharp sword 
which he grasps in the right hand 
is to frighten evil-doers, while in his 
left hand he holds a rope to bind 
them with." — Fudo is generally re- 
presented in art attended by his two 
chief followers, Seitaka Doji and 
Kongara Doji. 

FuGKN (Sanskrit, Samantahhadra) 
is the special divine patron of those 
who practise the Ilokke-znrimiai, a 
species of ecstatic meditation. His 
image is generally seated on the 
right hand of Shaka. 

FuKUKOKTJJu, one of the Gods of 
Luck, is distinguished by a preter- 
naturally long head, and typifies 
longevity and wisdom. 

Go-CHI Nyobai, the Five Bud- 
dhas of Contemplation or of Wisdom, 
viz., Yakushi, 'I'aho, Dainichi, Ashu- 
ku, and Shaka. But some authori- 
ties make a different enumeration. 

GoNGEN. This is not the name 
of any special divinity, but a general 
term used in Eyobii Shinto (see p. 
4U) to denote siich Shinto gods as 
are considered to be " temporary 
manifestations," that is, avatars or 
incarnations of Buddhas. It is, 
however, applied with special fre- 
quency to leyasu, the deified founder 
of the Tokugawa dynasty of Shoguns, 
who is the Gongen Sama, that is, 
Lord Gongen pa7- excellence. 

Gwakko Bosatsu, a Buddhist 
lunar deity. 

Hachiman, the Chinese_ name 
under which the Emi)eror Ojin is 

Gods and Goddesses. 


worsliipped as the God of War, the Japanese equivalent being Yawata 
The reason for this particular form of apotheosis is not apparent, as no 
warlike exploits are recounted of the monarch in question. Perhaps it 
may be owing to the tradition that his mother, the Empress Jingo 
earned him tor three years in her womb whilst maldng her celebrated 
raid upon Korea. Another explanation, suggested by Sir Ernest Satow, 
IS that his high position m the pantheon resulted from the fact of his 
having been the patron of the powerful and warlike Minamoto clan 

HoTEi^ one of the Seven Gods of Luck, typilies contentment and good- 
nature. He IS represented m art with an enormous naked abdomen 

_ HoTOKE, the general name of all Buddhas, that is, gods or perfected 
saints of popular Buddhism. The dead are also often spoken of as 

Ida Ten (Sanskrit, Veda luija), a 

protector of Buddhism, generally 
represented as a strong and 
handsome youth. 

Inabi, the Goddess of Eice, 
also called Uga-no-Mitama. The 
image of the fox, which is always 
found in temples dedicated to 
Inaii, seems to have been first 
placed there as a tribute to the 
fear which that wily beast in- 
spires ; but in popular super- 
stition, Inari is the fox-deity. 
There is some confusion with 
regard to the sex of Inari, who 
is occasionally represented as a 
bearded man. 

IzANAGi and IzANAMi, the Crea- 
tor and Creatress of Japan. The 
curious though indelicate legend 
of their courtship, the striking legend 
of the descent of Izanagi into Hades 
to visit Izanami after the latter's 
death and burial, and the account of 
Izanagi's lustrations, will be found in 
pp. _ 18-43 of the translation of the 
Kojiki, forming the Supplement to 
Vol. X. of the Transactions of the 
Asiatic Society of Japan. 

Jizo (Sanskrit, Kshitigarhha), the 
compassionate Buddhist helper of 
those who are in trouble. He is the 
patron of travellers, of pregnant wo- 
men, and of cliildren. His image is 
often heaped with pebbles, which serve 
in the other world to relieve the labours 
of the young who have been robbed of 
their clothes by the hag named Sho- 
zuka no Baba, and then set by her 
to perform the entUess task of piling up 
stones on the bank of Sai-no-Kawara, 

50 Introduction: — Gods and Goddesses. 

the BitdcUiist Styx. Jizo ii? represented as a shaven priest with a bene- 
volent countenance, holding in one hand a jewel, in the other a 
staff with metal rings {.ihakujo). His stone image is found more 
frequently than that of any other object of worshiiJ throughout the 
empu'e. It need scarcely be said that the resemblance in sound 
between the names Jizd and Jesus is quite fortuitous. 

JuKOJiN, one of the Gods of Lxick, often represented as accomi^anied 
by a stag and a crane. 

Kami, a general name for all Shinto gods and goddesses. 
Kaseo (Sanskrit, KCisyapa), one of Buddha's foremost (hsciples. He 
is said to have swallowed the sun and moon, in conse<iuence whereof his 
body became radiant like gold. 

KisHi BojiN, the Indian goddess ITariil or Aritl, was originally a 
woman, who, having sworn to devour all the children at Kajagriha, the 
metropolis of Buddhism, was born again as a demon and gave birth to five 
hundred children, one of Avhom she was bound to devour every day. She 
was converted by Buddha, and entered a nunnery. The Japanese wor- 
ship her as the protecti'ess of children. She is represented as a beauti- 
ful \\oman, caiTying a child, and holding a pomegi-anate in one hand. 
The lanterns and other ornaments of the temples dedicated to her are 
marked with the crest of the pomegranate. This emblem illustrates the 
curious turns sometimes tidcen by popular legend. 'The red h\ie of the 
pomegranate might suggest to natural fancy red blood and hence human 
llesh. But we are told that Buddha cured the woman of cannibalism 
by a diet of pomegranates, because that fruit resembles human flesh in 
taste. Tlie offerings brought to her shrine by bereaved mothers are such 
as may well touch any heart,— the dresses, dolls, and other mementos of 
their lost darlings. 

KoKUzo BosATSC (Sanskrit, Alaisha Bodhisattcn), an infinitely wise 
female saint, who dwells in s^jace. 

KoMPiEA (Sanslait, Kumblnra). Much obscurity shrouds the origin 
and nattire of thif highly popular divinity. According to some he is a 
demon, the crocodile or alligator of the Ganges. Others aver that Shaka 
]Muni (Buddha) himself became " the boy Kompira," in order to over- 
come the heretics and enemies of religion who jjressed iipon him one day 
as he was preaching in " the Garden of Delight,"- the said " boy 
Kompira " having a body 1,000 ft. long, provided with 1,000 heads and 
1,0C0 arms. The mediaeval Shintoists identified Kompira with Susa-no-o, 
brother of the Japanese Sun-Goddess. More recently it has been de- 
clared, on the part of the Shintd authorities whose cause the Government 
espouses in all such disjiutes, that the Inchau Kompira is none other 
than Kotohira, a hitherto obscure Japanese deity 
whose name has a convenient similarity in sound. 
Consequently the great Buddhist shrine of Komjiira 
in the island of Shikoku, and all the other shrines 
erected to Kompira throughout the country, have 
been claimed and taken over as Shinto property. 
Komx)ii'a is a special object of devotion to seamen 
and travellers. 

KosHiN, a deification of that day of the month 

which corresponds to the 57th term of the Chinese 

sexagesimal circle, and is called in Japanese Ka-no-e 

Sura. This being the day of the Monkey, it is 

(koshin) represented by three monkeys {sam-hiki-zaru) called 

Gods and Goddesses. 


52 I)if rod action : — Crods and Goddesses. 

respectively, l>y a pla^' upon words, mi-zaru, kika-zaru, and iwa-zarxi, 
that is, " the blind monkey," " the deaf monkey," and " the dumb 
monkey." Stone slabs with these three monkeys in rehef are among the 
most iTSual objects of devotion met with on the roadside in the rural 
districts of Japan, the idea being that this curious triad will neither see, 
hear, nor speak any evil. 

Ktjni-toko-tachi, lit. " The Earthly Eternally Standing One." 
This deity, with Izanagi, Izanami, and four others, helps to form what are 
termed " the Seven Divine Generations " ( Tenjin Shk-hi-dai). 

KwAMNON, or more fully Kwanze-oa Dai .Bosafsu^Sanskrit, Avalokltes- 
rara), the Goddess of Mercy, who contemplates the world and listens to 
the prayers of the unhappy. According to another but less favomite 
opinion, Kwannon belongs to the male sex. Kwannon is rejaresented 
luider various forms — many-headed, headed like a horse, thousand-handed. 
With reference to the images of this deity, it should be stated that the 
so-called Thousand-Handed Kwannon has in reahty but forty hands 
which hold out a number of Buddhist emblems, such as the lotus-tlower, 
the wheel of the law, the sun and moon, a skiill. a pagoda, and an axe, — 
this last serving to typify severance from all woi'ldly cares. A pair of 
hands folded on the image's lap holds the bowl of the mendicant jiriest. 
The Horse-Headed Kwannon has three faces and four pairs of arms, a 
horse's head being carved above the forehead of the central face. One 
of the foui' pairs of arms is clasped before the breast in the attitude 
called Eenge no In, emblematical of the lotus-flower. Another pair holds 
the axe and wheel. Yet another pair grasps two forms of the tokko 
(Sanskrit, vcijra), an ornament originally designed to represent a dia- 
mond club, and now used by priests and exorcists as a religious sceptre 
symbolising the irresistible xjower of prayei', meditation, and incantation. 
Of the fourth pair of hands, the left holds a cord wherewith to bind the 
wicked, W'hile the right is stretched out open to indicate almsgiving or 
succour to the weak and. erring. A title often apphed to Kwannon is 
JSyo-i-rin, properly the name of a gem which is supposed to enable its 
possessor to gratify all his desu'es, and which may be approximately 
rendered by the adjective " omnijootent." 

The two figures often represented on either side of Kwannon are 
Fudd and Aizen Myo-6. The " Twenty-eight Followers " of Kwannon 
{Ni-ju-hachi Bushu), — favomite subjects of the Japanese sculptor and 
painter, — are personifications of the twenty-eight constellations known to 
Far-Eastern astronomy. The various forms represented in the accom- 
panying illustration are : 

1. Sho-Kioannon (Kvrannon the Wise). 

2. Ji'i-ichi-men Kivannon (Eleven-Faced). 

3. Sen-ju Kwannon (Thousand-Handed). 

4. Ba-to Kwannon (Horse-Headed), 
o. Nyo-i-rin Kwannon (Omnipotent). 

Makishi-ten (Sanskrit, Marlchi) is the iiersonification of light in the 
Brahminical theology, and also a name of Krishna. In Chinese and Japa- 
nese Buddhism, Maidshi-ten is considered to be the Queen of Heaven, 
and is believed by some to have her residence in a star forming part of 
the constellation of the Great Bear. She is represented with eight arms, 
two of which hold \\^ emblems of the sun and moon. 

Maya Bunin, the mother of Buddha. 

MrROKtr (Sansla-it, Mditreya), Buddha's successor, — ^the Buddhist 
Messiah, whose advent is expected to take place 5,000 years after 
Buddha's entry into Nirvana. 

Goch and Goddesses. 


MoNJu (Sanskrit, Manjusrl), the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom. 
His image is usually seated on the left hand of Shaka. 

NiKKo BosATSu, a Buddhist solar deity. 

Ni-o, lit " The Two Deva Kings," Indra and Brahma, who keep 
guard at the outer gate of temples to scare away demons. One 

bears in his hand the ioklco. The figures of the Ni-6 arc of gigantic 
size and terrific appearance, and are often bespattered with little pellets 
of paper aimed at them by devotees, who think thus to seciire the 
accomphshment of some desire on which they have set their hearts. 

Nyokai (Sanslait, Tathdgata), an honorific title applied to all 
Buddhas. It is compounded of Chinese nyo (;^n), "like," and ?-ai (3^), 
" to come," the idea being that a Buddha is one whose coming and going- 
are in accordance with the action of his predecessors. 

Onamuji or Okuni-nushi, the aboriginal deity of Izumo, who re- 
signed his throne in favour of the Mikado's ancestors when they came 
down from heaven to Japan. Tie is also worshipped under the titles of 
Sanno and Hie. 

Oni, a general name for demons, ogTes, or devils, — not " the Devil " 
in the singular, as Japanese theology knows nothing of any supreme 
Prince of Darlcness. 

Rakan (Sanslait, ArhCtn, or Arliai), properly the perfected Arya or 
'■ holy man," but used to designate not only the perfected saint, but 
all Buddha's immediate disciples, more especially his " Five Hundred 
Disciples" {Go-hyaku Bakan), and his "Sixteen Disciples" {Ju-roku 
Bakan). Few art-motives are more popular with Japanese painters and 
sculptors. The holy men are repi'esented in vari<nas attitudes, many 
emaciated and scantily clad. 


Introduction: — Gods and Goddesses. 

RoKu-EU-TEN, a collective name for the Buddhist gods Bonten, 
Taishaku, and the Shi-Tenno. 

Sakuta-hiko, a Shinto deity who led the van when the divine 
ancestors of the Mikado descended to take possession of Japan. 

Sengen, the Goddess of Mount Fuji. She is also called Asama or 
Ko-no-IIana-Saku-ya-Hime, that is, " the Princess who makes the Flowers 
of the Trees to Blossom." 

Shaka Muni, the Japanese pronunciation of S'dkya 3Iuni, the name 
of the founder of Buddhism, who was also called Gautama and is gene- 
rally spoken of by Europeans as " Buddha," though it would be more 
correct to say "the Buddha." In his youth he was called Shitta Taishi 
(Sanskrit, 8iddhartha). His birth is usually placed by the Chinese and 
Japanese in the year 1027 B.C., but the date accepted by European 
scholars is 653 B.C. The most accessible account of Buddha's life and 
doctrine is that given by Professor Ehys Davids, in his Uttle work entitled 
Buddhism, i^ublished by the Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge. The entombment of Buddha, with aU creation standing weeping 
around, is a favourite motive of Japanese art. Such pictures are called 
JSlehan-zo, that is, " Kepresentations of the Entry into Nirvana." The birth 
of Buddha (tanjo-Shaka) is also often represented, the great teacher then 
appearing as a naked infant with his right hand pointing up and his left 
hand down, to indicate the power which he exercises over heaven and 
earth. Our illustration gives the most usual form of his image. Though 
not unlike that of Amida, it differs from the latter by the position of the 
hand and the shape of the halo. The chief festivals of Shaka are on the 
8th April (his birthday), and the 15th February (the anniversary of his death). 



Gods and Goddesses. 



56 Introduction: — Gods and Goddesses. 

Shaeihotsu (Sanskrit, S'driputtra), the wisest of Buddha's ten chief 

Shichi Fukujin, the Seven Gods of Luck, namely 1, Ebisu ; 2, Dai- 
koku ; 3, Benten ; 4, Fukxu-okuju ; 5, Bishamon ; 6, Jurojin ; 7, Hotel. 

Shi-Tenno, tiie Four Heavenly Kings, who guard the world against 
the attacks of demons, each defenchng one quarter of the horizon. Theii 
names are Jikokii, East (Sanskrit, Dhrilarashtra) ; Komoku, South 
(Virupdksha) : Zocho, West ( Firwd/iafca) ; and Tamon— also called Bisha- 
mon, — North ( Vdisravana or Kuvera). Their images differ from those of 
the Ni-o by ha-s-ing weapons in their hands, and generally trampling 
demons under foot. Moreover they are placed, not at the outer gate of 
temples, but at an inner one. 

Shoden. This deity, also called Kwangi-ten, is the Indian Ganesa, 
God of Wisdom and Obstacles. " Though he causes obstacles, he also re- 
moves them ; hence he is invoked at the commencement of undertakings. 
He is represented as a short, fat man, with a jDrotuberant belly, fre- 
quently riding on a rat or attended by one, and to denote his sagacity, 
has the head of an elephant, which, however, has only one tusk." (Sir 
Monier WUliams.) 

Shozuka. no Baba. See Jizo. 

SuiTENGU, a sea-god evolved by the popular consciousness from 
Varuna the Buddhist Neptune, the Shinto sea-gods of Sumiyoshi near 
Osaka, and the boy-emperor jVntoku, who found a watery grave at Dan-no- 
ura, in A.D. 1185 (com. p. 70). _ 

Stjktjna-Bikona, a microscopic god who aided Onamuji to establish 
his rule over the land of Izumo, before the descent to earth of the 
ancestors of the Mikados. 

SusA-NO-o, lit. "the Imi^etuous Male." The name of this deity is 
explained by the violent condiict which he exhibited towards his sister, 
the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu, whom he alarmed so terribly by his mad 
freaks that she retired into a cavern. Born from the nose of the Creator 
Izanagi, Susa-no-o is considered by some to be the God of the Sea, by 
others the God of the Moon. He was the ancestor of the gods or mon- 
archs of the province of Izumo, who finally renounced their claims to 
sovereignty over any part of Japan in favour of the descendants of the 
Sun-Goddess. Inada-Iiime, one of his many Mives, is often associated 
with him as an object of worshij). Siisa-no-o is also styled Gozu Tenno, 
" the Ox-headed Emj)eror," — a name apparently derived from that of a 
certain mountain in Korea where he is supposed to have been worshipped. 
The temples dedicated to Susa-no-o are called Gion or Yasaka. The 
former are Buddhist or Eyobu Shinto ; the latter are pure Shinto shrines. 

Taishaktj, the Brahminical god Indra. 

Tamon, see Anan. 

Ten, a title suffixed to the names of many Buddhist deities, and 
equivalent to the Sanskrit Deva. 

Tenjin is the name under which is apotheosised the great minister 
and scholar Sugawara-no-ilichizane, who, having fallen a victim to 
calumny in A.D. 901, was degi'aded to the post of Vice-President of the 
Dazaifu, or Governor-Generalship of the island of Kyushu, at that time a 
usual form of banishment for illustrious criminals. He died in exile in 
A.D. 903, his death being followed by many portents and disasters to his 
enemies. He is worshipped as the God of CaUigraphy, other names for 
him being Kan Shojo and Temmangu. He is represented in the robes of 
an ancient court noble, and the temples dedicated to him bear in several 
places his crest of a conventional plum-blossom, — five circles grouped 

Gods and Goddesses. Christian Mission Stations. 57 

Toiind a smaller one. A recrimbent image of a cow fi'e(iueiitly adorns the 
temple grounds, because Micliizane was wont to ride about on a cow in the 
land of his exUe. A plum-tree is also often planted near the temple, that 
having been his favourite tree. Indeed, tradition avers that the most 
beautifnl plum-tree in his garden at Kyoto flew after him through the air 
to Dazaifu, where it is still shown. 

Tennin (Sanskrit, Apsaras), Buddhist angels — always of the female 
sex. They are represented floating in the air, clothed in bright-coloured 
robes that often end in long feathers like the tails of the bird of paradise, 
and playing on musical instruments. 

TosndGfT, the name under which the great Shogun leyasu, also called 
Gongen Sama, is worshipped. It signifies " the 'J'emple (or Prince) 
Illuminating the East," in allusion to the fact that leyasu's glory centred 
in Eastern Japan. 

ToYO-UKE-BiME, also Called Uke-mochi-no-Kami, the Shinto Goddess 
of Food or of the Earth. The Nihongi, one of the two principal sources of 
Japanese mythology and early history, says that the Sun- Goddess sent 
the Moon-God down from heaven to visit Uke-mochi-no-Kami, who, 
turning her face successively towards the earth, the sea, and the 
mountains, produced from her mouth rice, fish, and game, which she 
served up to him at a banquet. The Moon-God took offence at her feeding 
him with unclean viands, and drawing his sword, cut off her head. On 
his reporting this act to the Sun- Goddess, the latter was very angry, and 
secluded herself from him for the space of a day and night. From the 
body of the murdered Earth sprang cattle and horses, millet, silkworms, 
rice, barley, and beans, which the Sun-Goddess decreed should thenceforth 
be the food of the human race. In the Kojlki version of the myth, it is 
Susa-no-o who slays the Goddess of Food, and there are other differences 
of detail. 

Yakushi Nyoeai (Sanslait. Bhaishajyaguru), lit. "the Heahng 
Buddha." His name is explained by reference to a prayer, in which he is 
called upon to heal in the next life the miserable condition of man's 
present existence. The images of this deity are scarcely to be distingui- 
shed from those of Shaka. 

23. — Christian Mission Stations. 

The Roman Catholic Mission in Japan dates from the time of Saint 
Francis Xavier, and though Christianity was sternly repressed during the 
17th and 18th centuries and down to 1873, the embers continued to 
smoulder, especially in the island of Kyiishu. The_ Catholic Church now 
has an Archbishop at Tokyd, and Bishops at Osaka, Nagasaki, and 
Hakodate, with a total following of nearly 54,000. 

The labours of the Protestant Missionaries commenced in 1859. and 
a network of mission stations now covers the greater portion of the 
Empire. T5kyo and the Open Ports are the head-qiiarters of most of the 
denominations, and are, for shortness' sake, not mentioned in the 
following list of mission stations, given for the benefit of travellers 
interested in Christian work. 

The Church of Christ in Japan (Nikon Kirisuto Kyoktcai), which is an 
amalgamation of American and Scotch Presbyterian Churches, has the 
largest number of members, over 10,000. Stations : — Aomori, Fuktii, 
Hiroshima, Kagoshima, Kanazawa, Kochi, Kyoto, Morioka, Nagano, 
Nagoya, Okazaki. Osaka, Otaru, Saga, Sapporo, Sendai, Susaki, 

58 ' Introduction: — Outline cf Japanese History. 

Takamatsu, Takatsuki, Tanabe, Tokushima, Tsu, Ueda, Wakayama, 

The Eumi-ai Churches, working in co-operation ■«itli the American 
Board's jMission, over 10,000 members. Stations : — Kyoto, ilaebashi, 
Matsuyama, Miyazaki, Niigata, Okayama, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, 

The Nippon Sei Kokioai, including the missions of the Church of 
England and of the Protestant Episcopal Church of America, 8,300. 
Stations : — Aomori, Fiikuoka, Fukuyama, Gifu, Hamada, Hirosaki, 
Hiroshima, Kagoshima, Kanazawa, Kokura, Knmamoto, Kushiro, Kyoto, 
Maebashi, Matsue, Matsumoto, Nagano, Nagoya, Xara, Nobeoka, Oita, 
Osaka, Otaru, Sapporo, Sendai, Tokushima, Tojohashi, Wakayama, 

Methodist Churches, 9,"200. Stations : — Fukuoka, Hakodate, Hirosaki, 
Hiroshima, Kagoshima, Kanazawa, K5fu, ilatsuyama, Nakatsu, Nagano, 
Nagoya, (3ita, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Shizuoka, Uwajima, Yamaguchi. 

Baptist Churches, neary 2,000. Stations : — Chofu, Fukuoka, Himeji, 
Kokura, ilito, Nemm-o, Osaka, Sendai. 

The above stations are those at which foreign missionaries reside. 
Native pastors carry on the work at other places. Numerous smaller 
denominations, chiefly American, are also represented, the total Pi-otes- 
tant population in 1899 aggregating nearly 42,u00. 

'rhe Orthodox Biissian Church has a ilourishing mission, whose head- 
quarters are at Tokyo, claiming a following of o\ev 25,000. 

24. — Outline of Japanese Histuky. 

Nothing is known concerning the origin of the Japanese people, or 
the period at which they reached their present habitat. The dawn of 
trustworthy history, in the 5th century after Christ, finds the ilikados 
— Emperors claiming descent from the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu — 
already governing all Japan except the North, which was still occupied 
by the Aino aborigines, and Chinese civilisation beginning to filter into 
what had apparently hitherto been a semi-barbarous land. The chief 
pioneers of this civilisation were Buddhist priests from Korea. From 
that time forward Japanese histoiy consists, broadly speaking, in the 
rise of successive great families and chiefs, who, while always pro- 
fessing a nominal respect for the divine authority of the ^Mikado, 
practically usurp his power and are the de facto rulers of the country. 
By the end of the 12th centm-y, the old absolutism had been converted 
into a feudalism, of which Yoritomo, the successful chieftain of the 
house of ilinamoto family, became the acknowledged head under the 
title of Shogun, which closely con:esi)onds in etymology and in signi- 
fication to the Latin Imperator. Thus was inaugurated the dual system of 
government which lasted down to the year 1868, — the llilcado supreme 
in name, but powerless and dwelling in a gilded captivity at the old 
capital Kyoto ; the Shogun with his great feudatories, his armed re- 
tainers, and his M-ell-fiUed exchequer, ruling the whole empire fi-om 
his new capital in Eastern Japan, — first Kamakura, then Yedo. Dming 
the latter period of the nominal supremacy of the Minamoto family of 
Shoguns, the real jiower was in the hands of their chief retainers, the 

Outline of Japanese Hidory. 59 

Hojo family, — tlie political arrangement thus becoming n triple one. 
The rule of the Hojo was rendered memorable by the repulse of the 
Mongol fleet sent by Kublai Khan to conquer Japan, since which time 
Japan has never been invaded by any foreign foe. The Ashikaga 
line of Shoguns grasped the power which had fallen from the Hdjo's 
hands, and distinguished themselves by their patronage of the arts. 
The second half of the 16th century was a period of anarchy, during 
which two great soldiers of fortune who were not Shoguns — Nobunaga 
and Hideyoshi — successively rose to supreme i)ower. Hideyoshi even 
went so far as to conquer Korea and to meditate the conquest of China, 
an enterprise which was, however, interrupted by his death in A. D. 1598. 
Tokugawa leyasu, Hideyoshi's greatest general, then succeeded in making 
Japan his own, and founded a dynasty of Shoguns who ruled the land in 
profound peace from 1603 to 1888. Among the means resorted to for 
securing this end, were the ejection of the Catholic missionaries and the 
closing of the country to foreign trade. Nagasaki was the only place in 
the empire at which any commiTnication with the outer world was per- 
mitted, no Eu.ropean nation but the Dutch was allowed to trade there, 
and even Dutch commerce was restricted within narrow limits. At last, 
in 1853, the government of the United States sent a fleet under the com- 
mand of Commodore Perry to insist on the abandonment of the Jax^anese 
policy of isolation. This act of interference from the outside gave the 
coup de grace to the Shogunate, which had previously been weakened by 
internal discontent. It fell, and in its fall dragged down the Avhole fabric 
of medi;eval Japanese civilisation. On the one hand, the filikado was 
restored to the absolute power which had belonged to his ancestors cen- 
turies before. On the other, Europeanism (if one may so jjhrase it) 
became supreme in every branch of thought and activity. The natural 
outcome of this has been the Europeanisation of the monarchy itself. 
Not only has the Court adoj)ted foreign manners and etiquette, — it has 
granted a Constitution modelled on that of Prussia ; and the Diet, as it is 
termed, meets yearly. The tendency of this bodj^ has always been 
towards radicalism. 

The following are the chief dates of Japanese history :— 


^ / Accession of the first Mikado, Jimmu Tenno 660 

ot: A.D. 

2 •§ J Prince Yamato-take conquers S.W. and E. Jaj^au . . 97-113 

i^'f2 I Conquest of Korea by the Empress Jingo 200 

'^ ( First Chinese books brought to Japan 285 

Buddhism introduced from Korea . 552 

Shotoku Taishi patronises Buddhism . . . . 593-621 

Grovernment remodelled on Chinese bureaucratic plan . . . . 600-800 

Chinese calendar introduced . . . . 602 

Fujiwara family predominant .. 670-1050 

The Court resides at ISfara . . . . • - 70^-784: 

First extant Japanese book published (A'oy/'fci) .. 712 

Printing introduced . . . . . . . . 770 

Kyoto made the capital 791 

Invention of the Hiragana syllabary . . . . 809 

Struggle between the houses of Taira and Minauiotu . . . . 1156-1185 

Yoritomo establishes the Shogunate at Kamakura .. .. 1192 

H6j5 family predominant 1205-1333 

Eepulse of the Mongols 1274-1281 

60 Introduction : — Outline of Japanese History. 

Two rival lines of ilikados, the Northern and Sonthern Courts 1332-1392 

Ashikaga dynasty of Shoguns 1338-1565 

The Portuguese discover japan . . 1542 

St. Francis Xavier anives in Japan . . . . . . 1549 

First persecution of the Christians . 1 587 

Yedo founded by leyasu 1590 

Hideyoshi invades Korea 1592-1598 

Battle of SeM-ga-hara . . 1600 

Tokngawa dynasty of Shoguns 1603-1868 

Japan closed and Christianity prohibited 1624 

The Dutch relegated to Deshima . . 1639 

Kaenipfer visits Japan . . . . . 1690-92 

Last eruption of Fuji • • 1708 

Arrival of Commodore Perry 1853 

Fii-st treaty signed with the United States ■ • 1854 

(rreat earthquake at Yedo 1855 

First treaties with European PoM^ers 1857-59 

Yokohama opened 1858 

First Japanese embassy sent abroad i860 

Bombardment of Shi monoseki .. 1864 

The Shogunate aboUshed and the Mikado restored . . . . 1868 

Civil war between ImperifiJists and partisans of the Shogun . . 1868-69 

The Mikado removes to Yedo (Tokyo) . . 1869 

Abohtion of feudal system .. .. 1871 

T5ky6-Yokohama railway opened . . . . . . • • • • . . 1872 

Adoption of Gregorian calendar 1873 

Expedition to Formosa . . . . 1874 

Wearing of swords interdicted 1876 

Satsuma rebeUion . . . .......... 1877 

New Codes published 1880-98 

Constitution promulgated 1889 

First Diet met 1890 

War with China .. .. .... 1894-5 

Formosa added to the empire 1895 

(lold standard iidopted . . . . . . 1897 

New treaties come into operation, whereby all foreigners are 

brought under Japanese law . . . . 1899 

25. Jap.\nese T.4.bles. 

The following tables, adiipted by permission from a little work 
compiled many years ago by Sir Ernest Satow for private circulation, 
will facilitate reference to Japanese historical dates, 

Table I. gives the Japanese Nengo or " year-names,"* arranged 
alphabetically, with the equivalent of each according to the Christian 
calendar, the first number being the year in which the " year-name " 
commenced, the second that in which it ended. Some few may appear 
to be repetitions of each other, for instance, Ei-rek'i and Yo-ryaku, both 
representing the period 1160-1. The reason of this is that the Chinese 
characters ^flf , with which this " year-name " is written, admit of being 

* See " Things Japanese," article Time. 

Chronological Tables. 


read in two ways, much as, among om-selves, some persons pronounce 
the word "lieutenant" lyootenant, oihemlef tenant. The remaining tables 
are self-explanatory, giving as they do, in alphabetical order, the names 
of the Mikados, Shoguns, and Regents, with the dates of their reigns. 
Note only that the alternative name of each Shogun is that conferred on 
Mm posthumously. For instance, the ruler known to history as leyasu, 
was, so to say, canonised under the title of Toshogu. 


The Japanese " Year-names." 
































































































































Introduction :■ — Chronoloqical Tablea. 




















1204 j 

1206 1 









1224 1 

^^ . 1084 


1225 i 












1321 i 










1688 ! 


1704 ! 










1184 ; 










1 Gen-toku 




















^^^ 1 1299 















i Haku-bd 











i Hei-ji 
























: Ho-ei 


1704 1 



1711 ! 








' H6-en 








\ Gen-kei 










i 1375 
















i Ho-ki 






Chronological Tables. 




























































































































































In trod u cf io n : — Chronological Tables. 



1844 1 







1848 1 

^^ 1012 







1017 1 











1350 1 
1352 ■ 
















1801 1 























1457 toku 








987 1 



























































y ^ 







ts-zt: I860 
^^ 1861 





















































Ghrovological 7'ables. 










































Ten-an ^^ 










Ten-cho ^-g; 






















Ten- en 


















































































































Inlroduction : — Chronological Tables. 





























List of ^Mikados. t 





Go-Komatsu * 















Go-Enyu * 






































































Go-K6gon * 







t All those not marked B. C. are subsequent to the Christian era. Female 
:Uikados are printed in italics. The sovereigns whose names are marked with an as- 
terisk belonged to the Northern Court (see p. 72), and are excluded by modern 
historians from the legitimate line of succession. 

Chronological Tables. 





Jingo Kogo 






Go-San jo 






























K6my5 * 








































































































Kogon * 








Introduction : — Chronological Tabhs. 

















7( AD 






581 B.C. 











































































Shukd * 





























Chronological Tables. 


List op Shoguns. 

Hidetadxi (Taitoku-In) 






n isaaHra 






leharu (Sbimmei-In) 





126 J 

lemitsu { Taiyu-In) 






lemochi (Shotoku-In) 






lenari {Bunkyo-In) 


Takaiiji (Toji-In) 




lenobu (DimsliS-In) 


Tsimayoslii (J6ken-In) 


17 IJ 


lesada (Onkyo-Li) 






lesMge (Junshin-In) 






letsugu (Yusho-In) 






letsuna (Gen-yu-In) 






leyasu (T6sh5-gu) 


YoshiaH (Eeiyo-In) 




leyoshi (Shintoku-In) 


Yoshiharu (Mansho-In) 

J 521 





Yoshihide (Daiclii-In) 






Yoshihisa (J6toku-In) 





Introduclion : — Gdebrated Pfn^onages. 

Yoshikatsu (Keiun-In) 


Y'^oshimxine (Yutokii-In) 

17 IB 

Yoshikazu (Chotokti-In) 


Yosbinoii (Fuko-In) 






Y'oshinori (Hokyo-Itt) 




Y'^oshimasu (Jislio-In) 


Yoshitane (Keirin-In) 




Yosliimitsu (Koknon-In) 


Yoshiteru (Kogen-In) 




Y'oshimochi (Shotei-In) 


Y'oshizumi (Hoju-In) 





List of the Regents {Shikken) of the Hojo Family. 




























26. — List of Celkbrated Personages. 

The following list of celebrated personages referred to in this book, 
and Kkely to be mentioned by guides when explaining objects of historical 
or artistic interest, may be found useful. 

Akahito (flourished circa A.D. 700), one of the earliest great poets of 
Japan. His full name was Yamabe-no-Akahito. 

Antoku Tenno, an ill-fated infant Mikado, who perished at sea in 
A.D. 1185, during the ciYil war waged between the great families of 
Taira and llinamoto. (See also end of Boute 43). 

AsAiNA Sabtjko (end of 12th century), one of Yoritomo's doughtiest 
retainers, was distinguished by almost incredible physical strength. He! 

Geleh'aled Personage^. 71 

is represented in art as liurling gi'eat rocks with the same ease that he 
flings stalwart rivals, and as swimming with a live shark under each arm. 

Bakin (17G7-1848), the greatest novelist of modern Japan. His most 
famous production is the " JIakkenden," or " Story of Eight Dogs." This 
amazingly voluminous work (it fiUs no less than one hundred and six 
volumes ! ) sets forth the adventures of eight heroes of semi-canine 
parentage, who represent the eight cardinal virtues. 

Benkei, or Musashi-b5 Benkf.i (12th century), was Yoshitaune's 
famous henchman. How many of Benkei's achievements are historical, it 
would be hard to say. According to the current version, he was eight feet 
in height, strong as a hundred men, and had even in early years performed 
so many deeds of violence as to have been nicknamed Oni-waka, " the Devil 
Youth." Having attempted to cut down Y'^oshitsune, then a mere stripling, 
on the Gojo Bridge in Kyoto, he found in him his master in the art of fen- 
cing, and was made to sue for quarter. So great was the veneration thus 
inspired in his breast that he thenceforth attached himself to Y'^oshitsune's 
fortunes and died battling in his cause. The fight between Y'oshitsune 
and Benkei is a favourite subject with the artists of Japan. Another is 
the subterfuge by which Benkei made way for his master and then* little 
band through one of the barriers where, at that time, all travellers were 
liable to be stopped. He pretended that he was a priest sent to collect 
subscriptions for the building of a new temple, and therefore privileged to 
travel free. The pictui'es represent him reading out his supposed 
ecclesiastical commission from a scroll to the barrier-keepers, who were 
too ignorant of letters to chscover the feint. This story is the subject of 
a popular drama called Kanjin-cho. 

Boson (1716-1783), a highly original and vigorous artist of the 
Chinese school. 

Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1724) was Japan's foremost play- 
wright. His dramas are still immensely popular. 

Cho Densu (second half of 14th century), the greatest and most 
original painter of the Buddhist school, is termed by Anderson the Fra 
Angehco of Japan. 

Date Masamune (1567-1G3G), Daimyo of Sendai, is chiefly remem- 
bered for the embassy which he despatched to the Pope and to the King 
of Spain in 1614 (Conf. Eoute 4, Section 6). Date was eminent as a 
warrior, a diplomatist, and a patron of learning and art. 

Dengyo Daishi (flourished about A.D. 800) was the first Buddhist 
abbot of Hiei-zan, near Kyoto. He made a long sojourn in China for the 
purpose of esoteric study, and brought back with him the doctrines of the 
Tendai sect. 

En no Shokaku was a famous Buddhist saint and miracle-worker of 
the 7th century, and the first human being to ascend Haku-san, Daisen, 
Tateyama, and others of Japan's highest mountains, it being part of his 
mission to bring all such remote and inaccessible jjlaces xmder the sway 
of Buddha. Having been slandered as a magician and condemned to 
death, he so fortified himself by the use of mystic signs and formula that 
the swords of the executioners sent to behead him snajjped in pieces ; but 
afterwards he flew away through the air, and was never again seen by 
mortal eyes. 

Enko Daishi (1133-1212) was bora of respectable parents in the 
province of Mimasalca. At the age of nine he was entered as a pupil at a 
seminary in his native province ; but his teacher, recognising his excep- 
tional powers, sent him up to the great monastery on Hiei-zan in 1147, 
'with a letter containing only these words : " I send you an image of the 

72 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

great sage Monju." On the letter being presented, the priest to whom it was 
addressed asketl where the image was, and was mnch astonished when the 
child alone appeared before him. But the young novice soon justified the 
implied estimate of his gTeat intellecttial powers, and made such rapid 
progress in his studies that at the end of the same year he was judged fit 
to be admitted to the priesthood. The prospect was held out to him of 
ultimately obtaining the headship of the Tendai sect ; but he preferred to 
devote himself to the study of theology, and finallj'^ developed a special 
doctrine of salvation, or the road to the " Pure Land," from which the 
new sect was named Jodo, this word having the same meaning as the 
Sanslait !^i(kh<tvali or "Pure Land," the heaven of Amida. In 1'207 he 
settled at Kyoto near the site of the present monastery of Chion-in, and 
there breathed his last at the age of seventy-nine. 

EsHiN (912-1017), a Buddhist abbot who is famous as a sculptor. 

Fokty-Sevkn Eonins. 'Iheir story, too long to be told here, will be 
found in Thhujn Jupancse. 

Go-Daigo Tknno (reigned 1319-133!)) was a Mikado celebrated for his 
misfortunes. At the beginning of his reign, the throne and the nation 
were alilvc trampled under foot by the H6j6 "Regents " at Kamaknra, and 
his endeavour to shake off tlieir domination only resulted, after much 
shedding of blood, in his being taken prisoner and banished to the Old 
Islands. When the lEjo fell in ISA'S under the sword of the loyalist warrior 
Nitta Yoshisada, the Emperor Go-Daigo was recalled from exile. But the 
times were not ripe for the abohtion of military rule, nor was Go-Daigo 
wise in his choice of counsellors after his restoration. Ashikaga Takauji, 
who had posed as the champion of Imperial rights, desired nothing so 
much as to become Shogun himself, and bribed the Mik ido's concubine 
Kado-ko to poison her lord's mind against those who had served him 
most faithfully, and even against his own son, Piince Moriyoshi, who was 
declared a rebel, cast into a dungeon at Kamakura, and there murdered. 
Go-Daigo repented of his folly and weakness when it was too late. 
Takauji left Kyoto, a.nd the army sent to smite him received such a 
crushing defeat that Go-Daigo was forced to seek safety in flight, 'there- 
upon Takauji set another Mikado on the throne. But as Go-Daigo con- 
tinued to be recognised by many as the rightful sovereign, the Mikadoate 
was f-pht into two rival branches, called the Southern (legitimate) and the 
Northern (usurping) Courts. After sixty years of strife and misery, the 
Northern Court triumphed in 13)2, the -representative of the Southern 
dynasty handing over to it the Imperial regalia. Go-Daigo perished at an 
early period of the struggle. His Court— if we may so call the mountain 
fastness where he mostly encamped — was at Yoshino, whose position to 
the south of Kyoto was the origin of the epithet " Southern " applied to 
it by native historians. 

Gyugi Bosatstj (G70-749), a Korean by birth, and a Euddliist abbot 
and saint, is the subject of many artistic fictions. He is credited not only 
with the invention of the potter's wheel, which was certainly used in 
Japan before his time, but with a number of important wood-carvings and 
other Vv'ovks of art. 'J he ware called after him, (Ti,dij)-y'<Jci, is earthen- 
ware, — dark, glossy, very solid, having wave-lines in the interior, and on 
the oiitnide a pattern resenibling the impression of matting. 

Hachiman Taiio, lit. the First-Born of the God of War, was a famous 
general of the end of the 1 1th century, whose real name was idnamoto-no- 
Y^oshiie, and whose vigorous personality created the pre-eminence of the 
Minamoto family. He it v/as who conquered Northern Japan (the part 
beyond Sendai), and brought those hitherto barbarous provinces into 

Cr.U'brdled Personages. 73 

permanent subjection to tlie Imperial sway. Artists often depict an 
episode in bis career wbicii showed his skill as a strategist, namely, his 
discovery of an aujbush among the rushes which he infen-ed from the 
disturbed flight of the wild-geese overhead. Like many oilier turbulent 
spirits of that time, he forsook the world and became a Buddhist monk 
at the approach of old age. 

HiDAiJi JiNGOEo (151)1-1631), Japan's greatest carver m wood, was a 
simple carpenter whose nickname of Ilklari arose fTom his being left- 
handed. Among the best-known of his works are the carved gateway of 
the Nishi Hongwanji temple in Kyoto, the vnnnia, or ventilating panels, 
of the principal apartments in the same temple, and three carvings -two 
of elephants after designs by Kano Tan-yu, and one of a sleeping cat— in 
the mortuary shrine of leyasu at Nikko. 'Ihe notice attracted by his 
labours was so gTeat that the architectural wood-carvers, whose artistic 
efforts had previously been limited to the execution of geometrical designs 
and conventional flowers, now came to be regarded as a body distinct 
from the carpenters to whom they had hitherto been affiliated. 

HiDEvosHi {15oG-15')8), commonly known as the TailvO Hideyoshi— 
the word Tatko being a title indicative of exalted rank— has sometimes 
been called the Napoleon of Japan. Of low birth and so ugly as to earn the 
nickname of " Monkey Face," Hideyoshi worked his way up by sheer will, 
hard fighting, and far-sighted ability, to the position of Nobunaga's most 
trusty lieutenant ; and when that rider died in 15S2, Hideyoshi, having 
slain his chief enemies and captured Kyoto, became practically monarch 
of Japan with the title of Segent [Kwampaka], which till then had never 
been accorded to any but the highest nobility. Hideyoshi earned out 
many wise measures of internal policy, suchjis financial reform, the 
improvement of the great cities of KyOto and Osaka, and the encourage- 
ment of maritime trade. He was also more merciful to his foes and rivals 
than his predecessor Nobunaga had been. His greatest failing was the 
vidgar ambition of the purvtim. His dream was to conquer China and 
become Emperor of the whole East. As a first step towards this, he sent 
iin army across the straits to Korea under command of the celebrated 
generals Kato Kiyomasa and Konishi Yukinaga- the latter a Christian, 
as were many of the soldiers of the expedition. Korea was ruined, and 
Japan nowise benefited. Hideyoshi's death resulted in the withdrawiil of 
the Japanese troops from the peninsula, and in the speedy overthrow of 
his own family power which he had hoped to render hereditary. 

HisuiGAWA MoKONOBU (flourished 1G8U-17U1) was the father of 
artistic xylogTaj)hy. 

HiTwMAKo (flourished circa A. D. 7C()) was one of Japan s earliest 
great poets, and the rival of Aliidiito. His full name was Kjddnomoto-no- 

HoKtisAi (17C)0-181!)) was the great leader of the popular or artisan 
school of illustration. 

Ikmiisu (IGri-KJol), the third Shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty, in- 
herited the adiuinistrative ability of his grandfather leyasu, and devoted 
his peaceful reign to perfecting the system of government established by 
that prince, including the elaborate system of espionage touching which 
early European v.'iiters on Japan haxveso much to say. To him is due the 
rule accorcdng to which all the Daimyos were obliged to reside during half 
the year in Yedo, and to leave their families there as hostages during the 
other half. It was also lemitsu who suppressed Christianity as dangerous 
to the state, and closed up the country ugainst all foreigners except the 
Dutch and Chinese, who were permitted to trade at Nagasaki under 

74 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

liiimiliating conditions. In fact, it was lemitsu who consolidated wnat we 
call '■ Old Japan." His tomb is at Nikko near that of leyasu. 

lEYAsrr (154:'2-lfiI6), one of the greatest generals and altogether the 
greatest riiler that Japan has ever produced, was a samurai of the pro- 
vince of Slikawa, and a scion of the noble family of IVIinamoto. His own 
surname was Tokugawa. Having served under both Nobunaga and the 
Taiko Hideyoshi, he profited by the latter's death in 15Jt8 to make war 
on his infant son Hideyori, seized the great castle of Osaka, burnt the 
Taiko's celebrated palace of Momoyama at Fushimi, and finally, in the 
year 161)0, defeated all his enemies at the battle of Seki-ga-hara, a small 
village in the province of Omi, now a station on the Tokaido Railway. 
Meanwhile he had, in 1590, moved his own head-quarters fi'om Shizuoka, 
where they had been for many years, to Yedo, then an unimportant fish- 
ing-village, which he chose on account of the strategic advantages of its 
position. In 1603 he obtained from the faineant Court of Kyoto the title 
of Shogun, which was borne b}^ his descendants during two and a half cen- 
turies of unbroken peace, till Commodore Pen-y's arrival in 1853 led to the 
revolution of 1868, and to the break-uj) of Japanese feudalism and duahsm. 
The statecraft which caused so long a reign of peace under one dynasty to 
take the place of the secular struggles between petty warring chieftains, 
consisted jmncipally in maintaining a balance of power whereby the rival- 
ries of the gi'eater Daimyos M-ere played off against each other, and in the 
annexation to the Shogun's own domain, or to those of his nearest relatives, 
of large strips of territory in all portions of the Empire. These served as 
coigns of vantage, whence, in those days of difliciilt communication, the 
actions of each Daimyo could more easily be controlled. leyasu held in 
his own gi-asp aU the military resources of the country, and forced aU the 
Daimyos to regard themselves as his feudatories. He Likewise had the 
Court of Kyoto strictly guarded, — nominally as a protection for the sacred 
JVIikado against rebel foes, but in reality to prevent His Majesty, who 
still retained the semblance of Imperial power, fi'om endeavouring to 
shake ofl: the fetters which made him a passive instrument in the Shogun's 
hands. leyasu fvirthermore built powerful strongholds, made new high- 
ways, established a system of posts, and promulgated laws, which — if we 
accept the theory of paternal government alike in politics and in the 
family — were very wise, and which were in any case far in advance of 
anything that Japan had previously known. When the government had 
been established on a firm footing in 1605, leyasu followed the usual 
Japanese custom of abdicating in favour of his son. He retired to Shizuokxi, 
and spent the evening of his life in encouraging the renaissance of Japa- 
nese literature which had just begun. To his munificence is o-wdng the 
editio princeps of many an important work. His jiolitical testament, 
known as the " Legacy of leyasu," embodied the rules of paternal govern- 
ment by which his successors were ever to be guided ; but (owing perhaps 
to the circumstance of its having long been kept from pubUc knowledge) 
its authenticity has been doubted. leyasu was first buried at Kuno-zan, 
not far from Shizuoka, in a beautiful shrine on a castle-Like eminence 
overlooking the sea. In the year 1617, his remains were removed to their 
present still grander resting-place at Nikkd. The dynasty of Shoguns 
founded by leyasu is called the Tokugawa dynasty, from the surname of 
the family. 

IsHiKAWA (lOEsioN (cud of 16th ccntury), the most notorious of 
Japanese robbers, is credited with having possessed the physical strength 
of thirty ordinary men. Being at last captured at the age of thirty-seven, 
he and his young son Ichird were condemned to be boiled to death in a 

Celebrated Fersonages. 75 

tiauldron of oil, which sentence was carried out in the dry bed of the 
Eamogawa at Kyoto. In accordance with custom, the criminal composed 
a death-song, which ran as follows : 

Ishikawa ya 

Hama no ma sago ica 
Tsukuru to mo, 

Yo ni nusuhito no 

Tane loa tsukimaji 

which may be rendered thus, " Though the stony-bedded rivers {ishi-kawa, 
a pun on his own name) and the sand on the sea-shore come to an end, 
the line of thieves shall never come to an end." 

IwASA Matahei (16th century) was the originator of the Ukiyo-e 
Ryu, or "popular school" of Japanese art, which, abandoning the pre- 
scribed subjects and conventional routine of the classical schools, under- 
took to paint life as it is. 

JiKAKTj Daishi (A.D. 794-864), a celebrated Buddhist abbot. Like 
many others of his time and profession, he visited China in search of 
rehgious and magical lore. 

JiMMU Tenno, that is, the Emperor Jimmu, is accounted by the 
Jax^anese annalists the first human sovereign of their country, which had 
till then been ruled over by the Shinto gods. Jimmu Tenno was himseK 
descended from the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu, and consequently semi- 
divine. The orthodox account of his career is that, starting from Kyushu 
in the extreme west of Japan, he rowed iip the Inland Sea witli a band 
of devoted waiTiors, subduing the aborigines as he went along, in virtue 
of the commission which he had received from Heaven. After much 
fighting in vi'hat are now the provinces of Bizen and Yamato, and many 
miraculous occurrences, he died at the age of one hundred and thirty- 
seven, and was buried at Kashiwabara in Yamato, where his capital had 
been established after the conquest. The date assigned for his accession 
is the 11th February, 660 B.C., the anniversary of which day has been 
made a pubhc holidaj-^ during the present reign, and ^w^.s chosen for the 
promulgation of the new Constitution in 1889, evidently Math the desire to 
strengthen the popular belief in the authenticity and continuity of Japa- 
nese history. Jimmu Tenno and his successors during many centuries 
have, however, been condemned as mj'ths by competent European in- 
vestigators, though it is allowed that the Jimmu legend may possibly be 
an echo of some actual invasion of Central Japan by western tribes of 
adventurers in very early days. 

Jingo K6g5, that is, the Euqjress Jingo, ruled over Japan, according 
to the native annalists, from A.D. 201 to 269, when she died at the age 
of one hundred ; but Mr. Aston, the leading authority on early Japanese 
history, while not denying the existence of this Japanese Semiramis, 
relegates most of her mighty deeds to the realm of fable. The chief legend 
connected with her is that of the conquest of Korea, to which country 
she crossed over Tsith a gallant lleet, aided by the fishes both gi-eat and 
small and by a miraculous wave, and whence she returned only after 
receiving the abject submission of the king. During the three years of 
her absence in Korea, she held in her womb her son Ojin, who is worship- 
ped as Hachiman, the (lod of War. Next she turned her attention east- 
wards, and going in her lieet up the Inland Sea, smote the rebels of 
Yamato, as Jimmu Tenno is said to have done before her. Indeed, it has 
been suspected that the two legends are but slightly varying versions of 
the same story. 

76 Introduction: — Gdchrated Personages. 

JocHO, the most oripninal of Japan's mediroval Kculptors, floniished 
during the reign of the Emperor Go-Ichijo (A.D. lOlT-K.So). He carved 
Buddhist subjects. 

JosETSxj (flourished about A.D. 14(0) was a priest and celebrated 
painter. Anderson calls him the Japanese Cimabue. 

Kagkkiyo (second half of 12th century) -was a famous warrior of the 
Taira fau.ily, to whom various picturesque legends attach. On one occa- 
sion he tlisgr.ised himself as a Buddhist priest, and took part in a grand 
temple ser%'ice as an opportunity for atfeuipting the life of Yoritomo. 
After the ruin of his party, he put out his own eyes in order not to see the 
triumph of the rival house of Minamoto. 

Kano, the family name of a celebrated school of painters, which 
originated in the 1 -th centmy and is not yet extinct. Its manner, which 
appejirs highly conventional to Europeans, is classical in the eyes of the 
Japanese. " The gi-eatest of these painters was Kano Motonobu (born 14^7). 
Other noteworthy members of the family were K. Sh5ei, K. Eitoku, and 
K. Sanraku (llith century \ K. Sansetsu, and especially K. Tan-yii. 
K. Naonobu, K. Yasunobu, K. Toun, and K. Tsunenobu were also dis- 
tinguished. All these names, from Sansetsu onwards, belong to the 17th 
century. The Japanese custom of adoption is the key to the apparent 
mystery of so many men similarly gifted arising in one family. 

Kato Kivomasa was one of Hideyoshi's generals in the invasion of 
Korea at the end of the lOth centiiry, and a tierce enemy of the Christians. 
He is one of the most popular Japanese heroes, and is worshipped — 
chiefly by the Nichiren sect of Buddhists — under the name of Seisho K6. 

Kesa Gozen (I •2th century) is the subject of a celebrated story. 
ThoTigh she was already wedded to another, her beauty inspired an 
amorous passion in the breast of a cousin only seventeen years of age, 
who did not hesitate to demand her of her mother. Alarmed for her 
mother's safety. Mesa Gozen feigned consent to his adulterous wishes, but 
on condition that he would first kill her husband. Then taking her 
husband's place in bed, she awaited the assassin. The cousin accordingly 
entered the room at midnight, and carried into effect liis murderous 
intent, but was so bonified on discovering who his victim was that he 
forsook the world and became a monk, and finally a saint under the name 
of Mongaku Shdnin. 

Ktyomoki (UlS — llSl) was head of the great house of Taira during its 
struggles with the rival house of Minamoto, and during the brief period of 
triumph which preceded its final overthrow at Dan-no-ura. li'rom the 
year 11 SH until his death, Kiyomori was Jill-powerful, engrossing all the 
highest offices of state for his own kinsmen, and governing the palace 
through his Idnswomen where boy JMikados succeeded each other like 
shadows on the throne. To suit his own convenience, he changed the 
capital for a time from Kyoto to Fukuwara near the site of modern l\6be, 
— an act of high-handed aiitocracy v/hich was bitterly relented by the 
courtier.-; and the nobility, who?e habits were interfered with and their 
resources tased by the double move. While irritating the upper classes 
by his nepotism and overbearing demeanour, he ground down the com- 
mon people by his exactions, and endeavoured utterly to exterminate the 
Minamoto family. The famous beauty Tokiwa Gozen, handmaiden to 
Yoshitomo, was forced to yield to his embraces in order to save the life of 
her infant, the future here Y'^oshitsune ; and every woman that pleased his 
fancy ]iad to minister to his lust. His eldest son Shigemori remonstrated 
with him in vain. But the storm did not break in his time. He died in his 
bed, leaving his whole house to perish four years later in a sea of blood. 

Cehhraled Personages. 


KoBO Daishi (774 — ^M), the most famons o£ all Japanese BnddliiRt 
saints, was noted eqnally as preacher, painter, scnlptor, calligraphist, and 
traveller. Had his life lasted six hundred years instead of sixty, he 
could hardly have graven all the images, scaled all the mountain peaks, 
confounded all the sceptics, wrought all the miracles, and performed all 
the other feats with which he is popularly credited. Byobtx-ga-ura, near 
the modern shrine of Kompira in Shilcoku, was his birth-place. His 
conception was miraculous, and he came into the world with his hands 
folded as if in prayer. He entered the priesthood in A.D. 7;j3. Various 
legends are told of the trials to which he was subjected by evil sj^irits 
during his novitiate. At Cape Muroto in Tosa dragons and other mon- 
sters appeared out of the sea, and disturbed him in his devotions. These 
he drove away by repeating mystic f ormul;B called Darani, and by spitting 
at them the rays of the evening star 
which had iiown from heaven into his 
mouth. At a temiDle built by him on 
this spot, he was constantly annoyed by 
hobgoblins who forced him to enter into 
conversation ; but he finally got rid of 
them by surrounding himself v/ith a con- 
secrated enclosure into wliich they were 
unable to enter against his will. Having 
been sent to China as a student in 8i 4, 
much as promising Japanese youths are 
sent to Europe or America to-day, he 
became the favourite disciple of the great 
abbot Hui-kwo (Jap. Kei-kwa), by whom 
he was charged to carry back to Japan 
the tenets of the Yogacharya, or, as it is 
called in Japan, Shingon sect, v/hich 
occupies itself gi'eatly Avith mjstic for- 
mul33, magic spells, and incantations. 
Kob5 Daishi returned home in S( (>, bring- , ,, .tc-ux 

mg with mm a large quantity or iJiiddliist 

books and devotional objects, and in 810 was installed as abbot of Toji 
in Kyoto. A few years later he founded the great monastery of Koya- 
san in Ivishii, where he spent the closing days of a life of incessant 
toil. It is asserted that he did not die, but merely retired into a vaulted 
tomb, where he still awaits the coming of Miroku, the Buddhist Messiah. 
Among the innumerable great deeds with which, this saint is ciedited, 
is the invention of the Hiragana syllabary. It should be noted tliat the 
name K6b5 Daishi (lit. the Great '1 eacher Spreading Abroad the Law) is 
a posthumous title conferred on him by the Emperor Daigo in the year 
9.ii. His name while alive v;as Kukai. 

KoBOR!, lord of Enshii (Ui77-1G!c), courtier to Eideyoshi and lej'jisu, 
was the highest authority of his age on the tea ceremonies [cJin-nn-i/v) and 
all the cognate esthetic pursuits which that term sums up to the Japanese 
mind, — curio-colleciing, for instance, and the laying out of landscape 
gardens. The still existing school of flower arrangement ( ri;ii) 
derived from him distinguishes itself from others by its greater elaborate- 
ness and arliaciality. 

KoJiMA Takanort, also called Bingo-no-Pabur5, was a high-born 
warriur or the 11th century, celebrated for his romantic loyalty to the 
Emperor Go-Daigo. When that ill-fated monarch was being carried off to 
exile by the minions of the usurping house of Hojo, the faithful young 

78 Introduction : — Celebrated Personagea. 

soldier endeavoured to rescue him on the road. Having failed not only 
in this, but even in gaining access for a moment to his master's person, 
Kojima hit on a method of communication characteristically esthetic and 
Japanese. Stealing at night into the garden of the inn where the Im- 
perial party had halted, he scraped part of the bark of a cherry-ti-ee bare, 
and on it ^^Tote the following Line of poetry 

Avhich, being interpreted, signifies 

" Heaven ! destroy not Kosen, 
For he is not without a Haruei ! " 

the allusion being to an ancient Chinese king, who, after twenty jeavs of 
warfare, was at length helped to victory by the prowess of a faithful 
vassal. AVhen day broke, the soldiers, seeing the writing, but being too 
ignorant to decipher it, showed it to their Imperial captive, who at once 
imderstood that it referred to himself and was meant to intimate that 
faithful friends were at hand. The choice of a cherry-tree was not the 
least significant j^art of the deed ; for that tree is in Jajjan the emblem 
of patriotism and loyalty. Later on, Kojima died fighting for his sover- 
eign, and artists still love to reproduce that scene of his life in which 
loyalty and delicacy were so well combined. 

KoMAcm (full name Ono-no-Komachi), the most famous of Japan's 
many poetesses, seems to have flourished in the second half of the 9th 
centm-5% and left a lasting impression on the national mind by her beauty, 
her talents, and the miserable old age which was the reward of her pride 
and frailty ; but nothing certain is known of her career. Every branch 
of art borrows motives from Komachi's life. " She is shown," says 
Anderson, " in her days of pride and luxury, drawing rain down upon 
the parched earth by the numbers of her magic verse, bringing to 
shame the rival who sought to fasten upon her the stigma of plagiaiism 
and falsehood ; courted by the noblest of the brilhant band that sur- 
rounded the throne, — and again, without a step of transition, old, en- 
feebled, clad in unclean rags, begging her way from door to door until 
she died, rotted, and became the food of dogs on the highway — a moral 
illustration of the Buddhistic text, ' AU is vanity,' that the artist never 
tires of repeating, and sometimes elaborates with sickening detail." 

K5bin (latter haK of 17th century) was a famous lacquer artist and 

KosE NO Kanaoka (second half of 9th century) was the first great 
Japanese jjainter. A number of quaint legends testify to the effect which 
his s kill produced on the minds of his contemporaries. 

KtTMAGAi Naozane, a warrior of the latter half of the l'2th centmy, took 
his surname from the town of Kumagai in the x^rovince of ilusashi, which 
he received as a fief from Yoritomo. The most stidldng incident in his life 
was his encounter ^^•ith Atsumori at the battle of Ichi-no-tani not far from 
K5be, in the year 11 8i. Atsumoii v,-as a delicate young nobleman of the 
Taira family, scarcely sixteen years of age, who, when the city of Fuku- 
wara had been taken by the ilinamoto, sought safety like the rest of his 
kindred in flight onboard a junk, but being pursued by Kumagai Nao- 
zane, had to tight for his life. He succumbed to the veteran, who, tear- 
ing off his helmet the better to sever his head, beheld the youthful face 
and was struck with pity and sympathy, his own son having fallen earlier 
in the day. He reflected, however, that to spare the boy's life might only 
cause him to fall into more ruthless hands. So partly out of compassion. 

Celebrated Personages. 79 

and partly for the sake of his own reputation, he resolved to carry out his 
first purpose. Atsumori submitted to his fate with heroic courage, while 
Naozane, overwhelmed with bitter remorse, vowed never more to bear 
arms, but to forsake the world and spend the remainder of his days in 
praying for the soul of the fair youth whose life he had so unwillingly 
talfen. He restored to Atsumori's father the head and the other spoils 
which he had gained, and after the conclusion of the war went to Kydto, 
and took monastic vows in the temple of Kurodani, where numerous rehcs 
of him are shown to this day. The story has been di'amatised under the 
title of Aisumori. 

Ktjstjnoei Masashige, also called Nanko (first half of l-4th century), 
is celebrated for his courage and for his unswerving loyalty to the throne. 
Had the Emperor Go-Daigo listened to his advice, the rising power of the 
house of Ashilcaga might have been crushed. As it was, Masashige was 
unequally pitted against a superior foe ; and when his army had been 
annihilated at the battle of Minato-gawa in 1336, he and a little band of 
personal followers committed harakiri rather than surrender. A scene 
which painters often delineate is Masashige, about to die, presenting to his 
son the ancestral roll in order to stimulate him to deeds worthy of the 
family renown. 

KvosAi (1831-1890), an artist noted for vigorous tlrawing and 
for caricature. 

Masakado (killed A. D. 940) was the most celebrated of Japanese 
rebels, and the only one who ever went so far as to arrogate to himself 
the title of Milcado. For details, see under Narita (Route 5), and the 
temple of Kanda Myojin in Tokyo. 

MicHizANE (see Tenjin). 

IVIiTO K5MON (1622-1700), second Prince of Mito, a near relative 
of the Tokugawa iShoguns, helped greatly though unconsciously to the 
final overthrow of their house, and of the whole feudal system a century 
and a half later, by means of his celebrated historical work, the Dai 
Mhon Shi, which first reminded thoughtful men that the Shoguns were 
usurpers, and the Mikados the only rightful rulers of Japan. He also 
patronised the new school of Shinto literati, whose studies led them, and 
finally the majority of the edvicated public, to endeavour to bring back 
the state of things supposed to have existed in pre-Buddhistic and pre- 
feudal days. Popiilar tradition ascribes to this prince many fanciful 
• undertakings, such as the endeavour to raise the great bell from the river 
at Konodai, and to find the bottom of the Jcaname-ishi at Kashima, which 
is supposed to be the pivot of the world. 

The succeeding princes of the house of Mito inherited the hterary 
and political views of their gi'eat ancestor. As late as 1840, the then 
prince, " tired of preaching Shint5 and of persuading the Shogun to hand 
over his authority to the Mikado, resolved to take up arms and to 
try the wager of battle. To provide the sinews of war, he seized the Bud- 
dhist monasteries, and melted down their enormous bronze bells, and 
cast them into cannon. By prompt measiu-es the Shogun suppressed his 
preparations for war, and imprisoned him for twelve years, releasing him 
only in the excitement consequent upon the arrival of Perry." * The 
son of this stout old imperialist became the last of the Shoguns, and 
accomplished what his ancestors had laboured for, by the voluntary 
siirrender of his rank and power to the Mikado. 

MoNGAKU Shonin (see Kosa Gozen). 

*Griffis's Mikado's Empire. 


Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

MoTOOEi NoRiNAGA (1730-18"1) was the prince of Japanese literati. A 
pupil of the scarcely less distinguished scholar Mabnchi, he continued 
Mabuchi's work of investigating Japanese antiquity, bringing back into 
literary use the piu-e ancient Japanese language, restoring the Shinto 
religion to the supremacy of which liuddhism had robbed it, — in a word, 
emphasising and gloiitying everything native as against that part of 
Japanese civilisation which was new and of extraneous origin. The resto- 
ration of the Mikado to the absolute authority which centuiies before had 
been usurped by the Shoguns, was naturally a prime object of the endea- 
vours of a man to whom antiquity and perfection were convertible terms, 
and in whose belief the Miliado was really and truly a descendant of the 
Goddess of the Sun. Motoori and his school thus became to some extent 
the authors of the revolution which, half a century later, overturned the 
Shogunate and brought the Mikado forth from seclusion to govern as 
well as reign. Motoori's works were very numerous, 'i he gi'eatest is his 
elaborate commentary on the Kojiki, called Knfikl Den, which is practical- 
ly an encyclop:vdia of ancient Japanese lore, written in a style as clear as 
it is elegant. The printing of the forty-four volumes of which it consists 
wa.s not concluded till 1S22, long after the author's death. 

MuRASAKi Shikibu (flouiished circa A.D. 1001 ') was a Court lady, 
and the most celebrated of Japanese romance-writers. Her chief work 

is the Genj'i Mono/iatari. 

, Nakihira {A.b. 825-880), the 

Don Juan of ancient Japan. 

NicHiRKN was born at Ko- 
minato in the province of Awa, at 
the mouth of Yedo Bay, in A.D. 
1222. At the age of twelve, he be- 
came an acolyte of the Shingon 
sect of Buddhists, and was admitted 
to the priesthood three years later. 
Shortly afterwards, he adopted the 
name by which he is laiown to his- 
tory. It signifies " Lotus of the 
Sun," and is derived from a dream 
which came to his mother of the 
sivn on a lotus-flower, in con- 
sequence of which she became preg- 
nant. He acquired a thorough know- 
ledge of the whole Buddhist canon 
by means of a miracle, and met in 
the coirrse of his studies with words 
which he converted into the formula 
Aamu My nil Eenge Kyo, "Oh, the 
Scripture of the Lotus of the Won- 
derful Law " — a formula which is 
still constantly used by his fol- 
lowers as an invocation, and which is 
to be seen carved on stones all over 
the country in the eccentric calli- 
graphy {liiije-d<nmoku) represented 
in the illustration. 

Having excited the wrath of the Eegent H6j6 J'okiyori by the unspar- 
ing manner in which he attacked other sects, he was banished to the 

'^xvfr rTj 



Celebrated Personages. 81 

peninsTiIa of Izu in r2i>1, but pardoned soon after. Ten years later, hia 
enemies persiiaded the Eegent Tokimune that Nichiren's doctrines tended 
to subvert the state. He was seized and thrown into a cave with his six 
chief disciples, and condemned to be beheaded the same night, but when 
brought to the place of execution, was saved by a miracle, the executioner's 
sword failing to act on the head of so holy a man ; and Toldumne, warned 
in a dream, spared his life. Nichiren was, however, banished to the island 
of f-ado in the north, but was permitted in 1'27'4 to return to Kamakura, 
then the military capital of Eastern Japan, tie next retired to live among 
the mountains of Minobu in a hut, which he quitted in order to take iip 
his abode with the lord of the manor, Nambu Eokuro, a devotee so zealous 
that he bestowed on the saint and his sect forever all the lands in his pos- 
session. As crou'ds of disciples flocked to Nichiren for instruction in the 
faith, he erected a small shrine which became the nucleiis of the now 
famoiis monastery of Minobu. In 1282, feeling that death was approach- 
ing, he removed from Minobu to Hcegami, near the modern city of T6ky5, 
and there died. His body was cremated on the spot and the bones were 
conveyed to Minobu, only a small portion being retained at Ikegami as a 
precious rehc. Bis zeal and his intolerance appear to have been inherited 
by his spiritual children, — the'^liu, or Uokke-shfi, as the sect 
derived from him is also called, having pushed the odium iheoloijUxim to a 
degree otherwise rare in Japan. The chief outward and visible — or rather 
audible — sign of theii temples is the drum, which the faithful beat for 
hours together to keep time to their chanting of the sacred formula Namu 
Myoho L'en'ie Eyo. Nichiren's crest is the orange-blossom (tndubanu). 

NiTTA YosHisADA, a warrior of the 1 Ith century, famed for his courage 
and for his devotion to the Mikado's cause against the usurping families 
of Hojo and Ashikaga. An incident in his life which artists love to depict, 
is that related at the end of the description of Kamakura in Koute 2. 

NoBUNAGA,* properly Ota NnburuKja (1531-1582), was a %yarrior who, 
in the general scramble for land and xaower which went on in the latter 
half of _the I6th century, gained possession of the provinces of Suruga, 
Mino, Omi, Mikawa, Ise, and Echizen. Having next taken Kyoto, he 
built the stronghold of Nij5, and sided with AshUcaga Yoshiaki, who by 
his influence was made Shognu in 155S. Six years later the two quaiTel- 
led. Nobunaga arrested and deposed Yoshiaki ; and the power of the 
Ashikaga family, which had lasted two hundred and thirty-eight years, 
came to an end. By the aid of his generals Hideyoshi and leyasu, he 
brought large portions of the empire under his sway, but never obtained 
the title of Shogun, which custom had limited to members of the 
Minamoto family, whereas Nobunaga was of 'J'aira descent. Though a 
gi'eat soldier, Nobunaga lacked the administrative ability to follow up 
and consolidate the advantages gained in war. Consequently, when he 
was assassinated by an offended subordinate named Akechi, his power 
died with him. Nobunaga was a bitter foe to Buddhism. Among 
his many acts of violence, was the destruction of jthe gi'eat monastery of 
Biei-zan near Kyoto and of the Hongwanji at Osaka, on both which 
occasions frightful scenes of massacre ensued. On the other hand, he 
encouraged the Christians ; but it is not to be supposed that a man of his 
stamp did so out of any appreciation of then- theological tenets. 

Ogubi Hangwan (15th century) and his faithful wife or mistress, 
Terute Hime, belong rather to romance than to sober history. Robbers 

*ThlB article is taken almost verbally from Griflia'a Mikado's Empire, Chap. 
XX tu. 

82 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

having plotted to drug liim with sake and ninrder him during the night, 
she— at that time one of the courtesans of the village, who had been 
invited to assist in the revels — informed him of the plot. Vaulting upon 
the back of a wUd horse found in a thicket close by, he escaped to 
Fujisawa on the Tokaido, where his tomb and Terute Hime's are still 
shown. On another occasion, his enemies decoyed him into a poisonous 
bath which produced leprosy ; but Terute Hime wheeled him in a barrow 
from Kamakiira all the way to the hot springs of Yunomine in Kishu, 
where a single week's bathing restored him to health and strength. 

Okyo (1733-1795), properly called Maruyama Okyo, was the founder 
of the Shijo school of painters, whose watchword was fidelity to nature, 
though, as Anderson points out, their practice was far less radical than 
their theory, and did not lead them actually to reject the conventions 
of their predecessors. Okyo was specially successful in his representation 
of birds and tishes. 

Ota Nobunaga (see Nobunaga). 

Eai San-yo (1780-1832) was an excellent poet in the Chinese style and 
a great traveller, but above all a historian. Ilis chief work, the Nihon 
Oicaishi, which treats in detail the period from the middle of the twelfth 
to the beginning of the eighteenth century, was published in 1827, and is 
still widely read. Its strongly pronounced imperialism has contributed 
more than anything else to mould the opinions of the governing class 
during the last fifty years. 

Saigo Takamoki (1827-1877), a samurai of Satsttma, whose youth coin- 
cided with the closing years of the Japanese ancien re(jime, conspicuously 
distinguished himself on the imperialist side. Before the triumph of the 
latter he was thrice exiled to Oshima in Luchu, as a political suspect ; 
but after the revolution of 1868, to the success of which he contributed 
so materially as to earn the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial 
forces, he became one of the most important personages in the state. 
His programme, however, was no radical one. Wlien his colleagues in 
the government showed that their aim was not, as had at first been 
asserted, a return to the Japan of early historic days, but the complete 
Europeanisation of the country and the abandoment of national usages and 
traditions, Saigo broke with them, and retired to the city of Kagoshima 
in Satsuma, where he founded a military school to whicla all the ardent 
youth of Satsuma and Osumi soon began to flock. The influence of this 
school precipitated the inevitable conflict between the old and the new 
order of ideas. It broke out in 1877, and is known to history as the 
Satsuma Eebellion. After a sti-uggle of several months, the imperialists 
triumphed, and Saig5 himself fell on the 24th September, as did the whole 
of the little band of five hundred that had remained faithful to him till 
the end. Saigo's reputation never sufEered in pubhc esteem ; and even 
the Imperial Court now respects his memory, the ban of degradation 
having been removed in 1890, and the dead Commander-in-Chief re- 
instated posthumously in all his honours. The visit of the Czarevitch 
(the present Czar) to Japan in 1891 helped to give credence to a wild 
notion according to which Saigo had, like YosMtsune centuries before, 
escaped to Siberia. 

Saigyo Hoshi (died A.D. 1198) was an eccentric monk and famous 
poet of noble birth. 

The San-ju-eok-ka-sen, or Thirty-six Poetical Geniiises, flourished 
during the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries. The gi-ouping of their names in 
a galaxy is attributed to a court noble of the 11th century, named Kinto 

Celebrated Fersonagns. 83 

Dainagou. Tlieir portraits, which were first jKiinted by Fujiv,ara-no- 
Nobiizane about A.D. 1200. freqnently iidorn the walls of Ryobu Shinto 
temples. A complete list of their names will be found in Anderson's 
interesting Catalogue of Japanese and Cliinese Paintings. 

Sei Shonagon (circa A.D. 1000), a Court la<ly celebrated in Japanese 
literature for her volume of miscellanies, entitled " Makura no Soshi." 

Sen-no-Eikyti (1521-1591) is revered as a legislator of taste, especially 
in such thoroughly Japanese arts as flower arrangement and the tea 
ceremonies.* He began his esthetic career at the age of seventeen, and 
became a great favourite with Ilideyoshi, accompanying that general in 
liis campaigns to preside at tea parties in tlie intervals of battle. As a 
connoisseiir in articles of vbiii,, he amassed a large fortune by dishonest 
means, jiassing off new things as old, spurious as genuine. Ilideyoshi at 
last gxew tired of him, and matters were brought to a climax when Sen- 
no-Kikyu refused to give up to this all-powerful jiatron his lovely 
daughter who was already betrothed to another. Orders were sent to him 
to commit harakiri, which he thd in his tea-room after maldng tea, 
arranging a bouquet, and composing a Buddhist stanza. 

Sesshu (1421-1507) was the gi'eatest Japfinese artist of the Chinese 
school of painting. Anderson says of him : 

"It is difficult for a European to estimate Sesshu at his true value... 
Notwithstanding the boast of the artist that the scenery of China was 
his only teacher, and the credit bestowed upon him by his admirers of 
having invented a new style, he has in no respect departed from the 
artiticial rules accepted by his fellow painters. He was, however, an 
original and powerful artist, and his renderings of Chinese scenery bear 
evidences of local study that we look for in vain in the works of his 
successors. The grand simplicity of his landscape compositions, their 
extraordinary breadth of design, the iUusive siiggestions of atmosphere 
and distance, and the all-pervading sense of poetry, demonstrate a genius 
that could rise above all defects of theory in the princii^Ies of his art." 

Shinran Shonin (1173-1262) was the founder of the powerful Ikko 
sect of Buddhists, also called Shinshu or Monto, whose splendid temples, 
known by the name of Hongivanjl or Monzeki, are among the finest 
specimens of Japanese architecture. Ilongwavji means " the Monastery of 
the Beal Vow," in allusion to the vow made by Amida that he would not 
accept Buddhahood unless salvation were made attainable by all who 
shoiild sincerely desire to be born into his kingdom, and signify that 
desire by invoking his name ten times. It is upon a passage in a 
Biuldhist scripture where this vow is recorded that the pecirliar doctrine 
of the sect is based, its central idea being that man is to be saved by 
faith in the merciful jDower of Amida, and not by works or by vain repeti- 
tion of prayers. For this reason, and also because its jiriests are permitted 
to many, this sect has sometimes been called the Protestantism of 
Japan. In the year 1602 political reasons caused a split in the sect, 
which since that time has been tlivided into a Western and an Eastern 
branch, — J!flshi Ilongucanji und Higashi Ilongwanji, — each branch owning a 
temple in every considerable city. Shinran Shonin was descended from 
the Imjierial family. The abbots of the sects therefore bear the title of 
Monzeki, or Imjierial Offspring, while the walls enclosing its temples are 
allowed the suji-kabe or suji-bei, — striped plaster ornamentation otherwise 
reserved for buildings inhabited by Imperial princes. During the present 
reign, Shinran Shonin has been honoured by the bestowal of the 

* See Things Japanese. 

84 Introduction: — Celebrated Personages. 

posthumous title of Eenshin Daishi, that is, " the Great Teacher who Sees 
the Truth." 

Shodo Shonin. See under Nikko, Koute 17. 

Shotoku Taishi (o72-'J21), the Constantine of Japanese Buddhism, 
was son of the Emperor Yomei and Regent under the Empress Suiko, 
but never himseK actually ascended the throne. He founded a large 
number of monasteries, framed a code of laws, and is said to have 
introduced the use of the calendar into Japan. He is also the reputed 
author of numerous paintings and sculptures, which Anderson, however, 
inclines to consider apocryphal. A favourite art-molive is the victory of 
Shotoku Taishi over Mononobe-no-Moriya, who championed the old 
native Shinto religion as against the Buddhist innovators. He even went 
so far, on the Emperor Yomei's death, as to set up a candidate for the 
Imperial crown, of whom Shotoku Taishi, and his minister Soga-no-Umako 
disapproved. An appeal to arms having been made, the Shintoists were 
beaten and Mononobe-no-Moriya was killed. 

Shubun (loth century), one of the greatest Japanese painters of the 
Chinese school. 

SoAMi (second half of the 15th century), a celebrated dilettante and 
favourite of the Shogun Yoshimasa. Many of the noted landscape gardens 
of Kyoto were designed by him. 

SoGA Ktodai, that is, the Soga Brethren Jur5 and Goro, have re- 
mained national heroes on account of the pious vendetta which they 
executed in the hunting-camp of the Shogun Y'^oritomo at the base of Fuji, 
in the year 1193, on Kudo Stiketsune, the murderer of their father. Juro 
perished in the attempt, while Goro was captured, brought before 
Yoritomo, and condemned to have his head hacked off with a blunt sword. 
Together with their nameshas been preserved that of Tora Gozen, a 
courtesan of the town of Oiso on the Tokaido, who was the younger 
brother's mistress, and who, no less faithful than fair, aided him in his 
revenge and became a nun after his death. 

SosEN (1717-1821), an artist of the Shijo school, famed for his paint- 
ings of monkeys. 

Takauji (1305-1356), founder of the Ashikaga dynasty of Shoguns 
(see Go-Daigo Teww, p. 72). 

Takeda Shingen (1521-1573) was one of the fiercest feudal chieftains 
of the lawless times that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa 
dynasty of Shoguns. The eldest son of his father, lord of Koshu, it was 
his fate to be unjustly passed over by that father in favour of his second 
brother ; and he was obliged to feign stupidity as a boy, in order to live 
in safety. "^Taen, however, both youths had reachei man's estate, 
Takeda Shingen's superiority in skill and coiurage gained all the warriors 
over to his side, and he succeeded his father without demur. His 
whole time was spent in waging war against the barons of the neighbour- 
ing provinces of Central and Eastern Japan, especially against Uesugi 
Kenshin, lord of Echigo. Their most famous battle was that of Kawa- 
naka-jima. In middle life he became converted to the doctrines of the 
Tendai sect of Buddhism, built a temple to the god Bishamon, did public 
penance, abjured the eating of fish and aU female companionship, and 
went so far as to have himself decorated with the title of archbishop, — for 
what ecclesiastical authorities were going to refuse anything to a zealot 
who disposed of so many soldiers ? He did not, however, renounce his 
grand passion, war, but kept on fighting tUl the end, his latter years being 
much disturbed by the consciousness of the gi'owing power of leyasu, and 
being divided between quarrels and reconciliations with that great captain. 

Celebrated Personages. 85 

When mortally wounded, he left orders with his successor to hold no 
funeral service in his honour, but to keep his death a profound secret 
for three years and then to sink his body privately in Lake Suwa, 
enclosed in a stone coffin, This was in order to prevent his numerous 
foes from taking heart at the news of his decease. His last will and 
testament was only partially obeyed ; for though his death was kept 
tecret as long as possible, the body was not sunk in the lake, but buried 
at the temple of Eirinji at Matsuzato, a few miles from Kofu. The place 
still exists, the temple garden being a tasteful specimen of rockery on a 
large scale. Brave but superstition, Takeda Shingen was also an adept 
at governing men. His people loved and respected him, as was shown 
by the fact that none ever rebelled against him, even in that turbulent 
age when every man's hand was against every man. 

Take-no-tjchi no Sukune, the Methuselah of Japan, is said to have 
lived two hundred and fifty-five years (according to others, three hundred 
and sixty years), and to have served six successive Mikado's. His birth 
is supposed to have taken place about 200 B. C. 

Tamuea-mako (died A. D. 811), the bravest and most successful 
generalissimo {Slid gun) of his time. He sudded the Ainos, who then 
inhabited the northern portion of the Main Island almost as far south 
as Sendai. 

Toba Sojo, an abbot of the 13th century, is remembered as the origi- 
nator of a quaint, coars style of picture called after him Toha-e. 

Toki Busshi (early in the lih. century), so called from the resem- 
blance of his face to that of a bird, was the first great Japanese sculptor. 
He was of Chinese descent, and carved Buddhist images. Some of his 
works still survive at the temple of Horyuji near Nara. 

ToBii KiYONOBu (flourished 1710-1730) was the founder of the 
theatrical school of popular illustration. Numeroiis successors carried 
on his school under the same surname of Torii. 

ToYOKUNi (1772-1828) was a great artist in colour-printing. Many 
of the broadsides bearing his name are, however, fi'om the brush of 
certain of his pupils. 

TsuBATUKi (884-94:0), Court noble M'ho was one of Japan's greatest 
classic poets. He was also her first prose writer, the works by which he 
is best known being the " Tosa Niki," a charmingly simple and life-like 
account of his voyage home to Kyoto by junk from Tosa, where he had 
been governor, and the extremely elegant Preface to the " Kokinshu," or 
" Odes Ancient and Modern," of which he was one of the editors. 

Uesugi Kenshin (1530-1578) was one of the most representative men 
of his turbulent and superstitious century. As cadet of an ancient and 
powerful family, he had been entered as an acolyte in a Buddhist 
temple, but emerged from retirement to seize the paternal inheritance 
from the feeble grasjD of an elder brother. To the family domain of 
Echigo, he added Etchu, Noto, and Sado, together with portions of 
several other provinces, rivalling not only Takeda Shingen, the famous 
lord of Koshu, but the great Nobunaga himself. He was as noted for 
high principle as for prowess in war, and, regarding himself as a priest 
to the end, never married and so left no successor. He is represented in 
art holding in his hand a bamboo stick with which he was wont to direct 
his men in the field, instead of with the war-fan the usual. 

Unkei, a famous mediaeval sculptor of Buddhist images. 

Ukashima Taeo, the Japanese Kip Van Winkle, is said by the 
national historians to have left Japan in A. D. 477, and to have returned 
in 825. His legend lakes a hundred forms. The following is not only 

86 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

the simplest, but the most ancient, being translated as literally as 
possible from a ballad contained in the Man-yo-shu, an anthology which, 
dates from A.D. 760. The poem itself is probably far older : — 


'Tis Spring, and the mist comes stealing 

O'er Suminoye's shore. 
And I stand by the sea-side musing 

On the days that are no more. 

I muse on the old-world story. 
As the boats glide to and fro. 

Of the fisher-boy Urashima, 

^\Tio a-fishing loved to go, — 

How he came not back to the Aillage 

Though sev'n suns ha<l risen and set. 

But rowed on past the bound of ocean. 
And the Sea-God's daughter met ; 

JIow the pledged their faith to each other, 
.And came to the Evergreen Land, 

And entered the Sea-God's palace 
So lo^ingly hand in hand. 

To dwell for aye in that country. 
The Ocean-maiden and he, — 

The country where youth and beauty 
Abide eternally. 

But the foolish boy said, 'To-morrow 
I'll come back with thee to dwell ; 

But I have a word to my father, 
A word to my mother to tell.' 

The maiden answered, ' A casket 

I give into thine hand : 
And if that thou hopest truly 

To come back to the Evergreen Land, 

' Then ojjen it not, I charge thee ; 

Open it not, I beseech ! ' — 
So the boy rowed home o'er the billows 

To Suminoye's beach. 

But where is his native hamlet ? 

Strange hamlets line the stand. 
^\Tiere is has mother's cottage " 

Strange cots rise on either hand. 

' What ! in three short years since I left it ' 

He cries in his wonder sore, 
' Has the home of my childhood vanished ? 

Is the bamboo fence no more ? 

Celebrated Personage.s. 87 

' Perchance if I open the casket 

"WTiich the maiden gave to me, 
My home and the dear old viUage 

WUl come back as they used to be.' 

And he lifts the hd, and there rises 

A fleecy, silvery cloud, 
That floats off to the Evergreen Country — 

And the fisher-boy cries aloud, 

He waves the sleeve of his tunic, 

He rolls over on the gi'ound, 
He dances with fury and horror. 

Running wildly round and round. 

But a sudden chill comes o'er him 

That bleaches his raven hair, 
And furrows wth hoary WTinkles 

The form erst so young and fair. 

His breath grows fainter and fainter, 

TiQ at last he sinks dead on the shore ; 

And I gaze on the spot where his cottage 
Once stood, but now stands no more. 

Yamato-take no Mtkoto, one of the eighty children of the Emperor 
Keiko, was a great hero of the prehistoric age. While yet a stripling, he 
Avas sent by his father to destroy the rebels of Western Japan. In order 
to accomplish this end, he borrowed the gown of liis aunt who was high- 
priestess of Ise, and, thus disguisjed, made the rebel chieftains fall in love 
with him while carousing in the cave where they dwelt. Then suddenly 
drawing a sword from his bosom, he smote them io death. He next 
subdued the province of Izumo, and finally conquered Eastern Japan, 
which was at that time a barbarous waste. After many adventures both 
warlike and amorous, he died on the homeward march to Yamato, where 
the Emperor his father held Court, and his tumulus is sho'.\n at Noboro 
in the province of Ise. 

YoEiTOMO (1147-11!)!)) was the founder of the Shogunate, — -the first 
Japanese ]Mayor of the Palace, if one may so phrase it. A scion of the 
great house of Minamoto, as shre^^'d and ambitious as he was unscrupulous 
and inhuman, he was left an orphan at an early age, and barely escaped 
death as a lad at the hands of Kiyomori, the then all-powerful minister, 
who belonged to the rival house of Taira. Kiyomoii's exactions having 
roused the indignation of the whole empire, Y'oritomo saw that the 
moment had come to essay the restoration of his own fortunes. All the 
malcontents eagerly flocked to his standard ; and first in Eastern Japan, 
then iit Kyoto, and lastly at the great sea-fight of Dan-no-ura near 
Shimonoseki at the S.W. end of the Inland Sea, Yoritomo defeated the 
Taira and utterly exterminated them, putting even women and chilthen 
to the sword. Yoritomo established his capital at Kamaknra, which soon 
gi'ew into a great city, thoroughly reorganised the iKlministration by the 
appointment of military governors chosen from among his own people, 
to act conjointly with the civil governors who received their nominations 
from the ilikado, by the levy of taxes for military purposes payable 
into his own treasiuy, and by other far-sighled innovations made in the 

88 Introduction : — Population of Chief Ciiies. 

interests of a military feudalism. At last in 1192, he obtained — in other 
words forced — from the Court of Ky5to the title of Sei-i Tai Shogun, that 
is " Barbarian-subduing Generalissimo," which soon came to denote the 
military or actual ruler of the country, as distinguished from its theoretical 
head, the heaven-descended IMikado. Yoritomo, whose life had been spent 
fighting, died peacefully in his bed. Among the many on whom lie 
trampled to satisfy the dictates of personal ambition, was his own brother 
YosMtsune, a far nobler character. Though Yoritomo's system of govern- 
ment remained in vigour for weU-nigh seven centuries, the sceptre dropped 
from his own family in the generation following his death, his sons Yoriie 
and Sanetomo being weaklings who both perished by assassination at an 
early age. 

Y'^osHiMAsA (1436-1490), eighth Shdgun of the Ashikaga dynasty, was a 
munificent patron of the ails. 

YosHiTSCNE (b. 1159), also called TJshi-waka, was younger half-brother 
to the first Shogun Yoritomo, being the son of Yoshitomo by a beautiful 
concubine named Tokiwa Gozen. By yielding to the wicked desires of the 
tyrant Eiyomori, Tokiwa obtained pardon for her son on condition that 
he shaved his head and became a monk. Accordingly he was placed in 
the Buddhist monastery of Kurama-yama near Kyoto. But theological 
exercises were so little to his taste that he ran away to Northern Japan 
in company wth a friendly merchant, and at once distinguished himseK 
by the valovir with which he repelled the assaults of the brigands, slaying 
several with his own hand, though then himself but sixteen years of 
age. When Yoritomo rose in arms against the Tana family, Yoshitsune 
natm-aUy joined him, and became his greatest general. Indeed, the real 
guerdon belonged rightfully to the younger rather than to the elder 
brother. Yoritomo, far from feeling any gratitude, began to burn with 
jealousy and to detest Yoshitsune as a possible rival. He even went so 
far as to compass his death. But Yoshitsune escaped again to Northern 
Japan, where, according to one account, he was discovered by spies, and 
killed after a desperate fight on the banks of the Koromo-gawa, his head 
being sent to Yoritomo at Kamakura, preserved in sake. Others say that 
he committed harakin when he saw that all was lost, having previously 
killed his own wife and children. A more fanciful account is that he 
escaped to Y'^ezo, and then re-appeared on the mainland of Asia as 
Genghis Khan. This fable probably originated in an accidental similarity 
between the Chinese characters used to vsrite the names of these two 
famous men ; but it is a remarkable fact that to this day Yoshitsune 
remains an object of worship among the Ainos of Yezo. To the Japanese 
his name is a synonym for single-minded bravery and devotion. The 
traveller will often hear mentioned in connection with the name of 
Yoshitsune those of Benkei, his faithful retainer, and Yasuhira, the 
traitor suborned by Yoritomo to slay him. 

27. — Population of the Chief Citie-s. 

Akashi ... 
AMta ... 
Aomori ... 
Atsuta ... 
Chiba ... 








Gifu ... 






Fukui M.OOd Himeji 35,000 

Outline Tou7'.s. 






Kiryu . . . 

Kobe ... 

Kocbi . . . 

Kofu ... 



Kure ... 



Kyoto ... 



Matsue . . . 



Mito ... 



Nafa ... 





Niigata . . . 





. ... 821,000 


. ... 57,000 


. ... 34,000 


. ... 33,000 

Sakai ... 

. ... 50,000 




. ... 37,000 


. . . 83,000 

Shimonoseld ... . 

. ... 43,000 


. ... 42,000 


. 25,000 


. ... 34,000 


. ... 31,000 


. ... 31,000 


... 22,000 


. ... 62,000 




. ... 60,000 


. ... 22,000 

Tsu ... . 

. ... 33,000 

Tsuru-ga-okii ... . 

. ... 20,000 


. . 24,000 

Utsunomiya ... . 

. ... 32,000 


. ... 29,000 


. ... 64,000 


. ... 28,000 


. ... 35,000 


. ... 25,000 


. ... 194,000 


. ... 25,000 

28. — Outline Toubs. 

1. — One Month's Tour from Yokohama: — 


Kamakiira and Enoshima 

Miyanoshita (visit Hakone) 

From Miyanoshita to Nagoya by Tokaido Eailway . . . 


From Nagoya to Kydto 


Lake Biwa and back to Kyoto 

From Kyoto to Nara and Kobe 

From Kobe to Yokohama by steamer (by rail | day less) 

From Y'^okohama to Nikk5 by rail 

Nikko and Chuzenji 

From Nikko to Ikao via Ashio and the Watarase-gawa 

Ikao (visit Haruna) 

From Ikao to Kusatsu 


From Kusatsu to Karuizawa 

Fi'om Karuizawa via Myogi-san to Tokyo 

3 days 

1 „ 

3 „ 
1 „ 


4 „ 
1 „ 

1 „ 

^ „ 

1 „ 

3 ., 

2 „ 

1 I 

1 „ 

1 n 

U ., 


Introiiictlon : — Oidlm", Tour. 

Spare day 


With tliis tour may be combined the ascent of Fuji from Yokohama 
(Eoute 9). Those who object to pui-ely Japanese accommodation should 
omit the joiu-ney fr'om Nikko to Il^ao ■sia Ashio. taldng train instead, and 
also the visit to Kusatsu. 

2. — One Month's Tour fiom Kohe : — 


Osaka, Nara, Kyoto, and Lake Biwa 

Train fi-om Kydto to Gifu ; along the Nakasendo to Asama-yama 

and Karuizawa 

From Karuizawa to Ikao 


From Ikao to Nikkd via the Watarase-gawa 

Nikk5 and Chuzenji 

By rail to Tolcyo 


Yokohama, Kamakura, and Miyanoshita 

By Tokaido Railway to Nagoya 

Bail to Kobe 

Spare day 


1 day 

4.'. ,. 

1^ „ 

1 ,. 

1 „ 


If coming up the Tokaido instead of the Nakasendo, the jom-ney may 
be broken either at Nagoya or else at Shizuoka, from which latter place 
by jim-ikisha via Kuno-zan to Okitsu, and on by rail to Kozu. 

3. — One Month's Tour from Xagasaki: — 

Nagasaki and Onsen (Unzen) 

Fi-om Nagasaki to Kobe by steamer* ... 

Nara. Kyoto, and Lake Biwa .. . 

From Kyoto to Nagoya by Tokaido Bailway 

Fi'om Nagoya to Miyanoshita 


From Miyanosliita to Kauiakina and Yokohau 



From Tokyd to Nikko and back 

Steamer from Y'okohama to Nagasald 

Spare days 

4 days^ 



4. — It frequently happens that travellers from America, en 7-oule to 
Europe \iA India, have only a fortnight to devote to Japan between the 
steamer that di-ops them at Yokohama and the next one that picks them 
up at Kobe. To such the following outhne is suggeste^l ; it entails no 
sleeping at native inns : — 

* Or else rail to Moji, steamer to terminus of Sanyo line, and rail to Kobe, stopping 
one night at Hiroshima after visiting Miyajima. 

OaH;nf^ Tovr.^. 91 

Yokohama (shopping, traveUing arrangements) 2 days 

Tokyo (sights and the theatre) 2 „ 

Tokyo to Nikko and back to Yokohama 'i „ 

By Tokaido Kailway to Miyanoshita, visiting Kamakrira and 

Enoshima en route 1 

IMiyanoshita 1 .. 

By rail to Kyoto 1 „ 

Kyoto, Nara, and Kobe 4 „ 

Total U 

All the above tours are i^racticable for ladies. Shorter tonrs can 
easily be arranged by omitting certain portions of them. 

5. Y'okohama to Mijanoshita, Hakone, and Atami. Three or foitr 
days. (Route (> and 7.) 

(\. From Yokohama to Gotemba, and round Fuji via the Lakes to 
Shoji. Thence to Y'oka-ichiba, and down the rapids of the Fujikawa 
(visiting Minobu) to Iwabuchi on the Tokaido Eailwa^'. Or from Shdji to 
Kofu, Kajika-zawa, and thence down the rapids. One week. (Eoutes 10 
and 27.) 

7. From Y'okohama to Niklco, the copper mines of Ashio, down the 
valley of the "\Vatarase-gawa to Omama, and back to Yokohama by rail. 
Five days. One day extra for Koshin-zan. (Eoutes 17 and 19.) 

8. From Yokohama to Nikko, Chuzenji, and Y'umoto ; thence over the 
Konsei-toge to Shibukawa for Ikao, and back to Yokohama by rail. One 
week. (Eoutes 17, 18, and 14.) 

•J. From Yokohama to Ikau, 1st day ; Xlcao to Kusatsu, 2nd day ; 
Kusatsu to Shibu, 3rd day ; Bhiliu to Toyono and Nagano, 4th day ; fi-om 
Nagano to Myogi-san via Karuisawa, 5th day ; rail fi-om ]\Iatsuida to 
Y'"okohama in 5 j hrs., Gth day. < )ne day extra for ascent of Asama-yama 
fiom KaruizaAva. (Eoutes 14, 12. and 13.) _ 

10. From Yokohama to Nagano by rail, back to Oya to rejoin the 
Nakasendo, thence along the Nakasendo to Gifu, and by rail to Kyoto. 
Eight or nine days. (Eoutes 26 and 24.) 

11. From Yokohama to Shimo-no-Suwa via Kofu and the Koshu 
Kaido, or by the Nakasendo as in No. 10 ; and down the rapids of the 
Tenryu-gawa to the Tokaido Eailwav. Five or six daj'S. (Eoutes 27, 24. 
and 30.) 

12. The shrines of Ise. Four days from Y'okohama, or three days 
from Kobe. (Eoutes 23 and 32.) 

13. From Kyoto through Yamato to Koya-san, and back by Walax- 
yama. Four days. (Eoutes 35-37.) 

14. From Kyoto via Lake ]5iwa to Ama-no-Hashitliite, and back \iei 
the silver mines of Dctino to tlic Sanyo Eailway at Himeji. One week. 
(Eoute 41.) 

15. Eough mountain tour through Hida and Etchii fTom Matsumoto 
to Hirayu and Takayama ; thence down the valley of the ITidagawa to 
Gifu on the Tokaido Eailway. Eight or ten days. (Eoute 31.) 

16. Tour of the Inland Sea and Shilcokn. Time uncertixin. (Eoutes 
43, 47-51.) 

17. Island of Shikoku : — landing at jVIitsu-ga-hama for Matsuyama 
and Dogo ; across country to Kochi ; across country to Hakuchi. whence 
either E. down rapids of Yoshino-gawa to Tokushima, or N. to shiines of 
Kompira ; Tadotsu, Talcamatsu, Kobe. Ten days. (Eoutes 47-4'.>, 51). 

92 Introduction: — Outline Tours. 

18. From NagasaH to the solfataras of Onsen (Unzen) and back. 
Three days. (Eoute 53.) 

19. From Nagasaki to Knmamoto and across Kyushu via Aso-san and 
Takeda to Beppu. Thence to Nakatsu and Moji, visiting the Yabakei 
Valley. Ten or twelve days. (Routes 54 and 58.) 

20. By steamer from Nagasaki to Kagoshima (or else Boute 63 re- 
versed). Back to Nagasaki \ia Kirishima-yama and the rapids of the 
Kumagawa. Eight or ten days. (Eoutes 61 and 62.) 

21. From Tokyo by rail to Sendai, by boat to Matsushima, and 
back. Three days. Two extra days to visit Bandai-san. (Routes 65, 70, 
and 66.) 

22. By steamer from Yokohama to Hakodate and Otaru ; rail to 
Sapporo and Muroran ; steamer to Hakodate and Aomori ; back to Yoko- 
hama by rail, visiting Matsushima, Bandai-san, and Nikko en route. A 
fortnight. (Routes 79, 81, 65, 70, 66, and 17.) 

23. Island of I'^ezo : — by steamer from llakodate to Muroran ; rail to 
Nobori-betsu for hot springs, and to Sapporo, visiting Yubari on the way. 
From Sapporo to Hakodate as in No. 22 (reversed), or by coast and inland 
roads via Suttsu, Setanai, and Esaslii. Nine or ten days. Three or four 
extra days to visit Piratori (Eoutes 79-81.) 


Ai (see ayu). 

Aird,ono, a secondary deity to 
whom, in addition to the prin- 
cipal object of worship, a Shinto 
temple is dedicated. 

Ama-inu and Koma-inu, one open- 
mouthed, ,s>'i®\ 

the other 

with mouth 

closed; but v ^^\ 

opinions \ ^^^. 

differ as to ^^ =^ 

which is Li==^ 

which (comp. p. 40). 
Asemi, a flowering shrub, — the 

Andromeda japonica. 
Ayu (often pronounced at), a spe- 
cies of trout, — the Salmo altwalis. 
JBampei, a screen opposite a temple 

Basha, a carriage. 
Bashi (for hashi in compounds), a 

Bosaisu, a Buddhist saint (see p. 

dance : 

an ancient pantomimic 
hugdku-dai, a stage for 

the performance of this dance. 
Bvyu, a species of sand-fly, whose 

sting is very painful. 
Cha, tea : cha-dai, tea-money (see 

p. 6) ; cha-no-yu, " tea ceremo- 
nies " (see " Things Japanese ") ; 

cha-ya, a tea-house (see p. 7). 
Cho, a measme of distance (see 

p. 5) ; a street. 
Bai, big, great. 
Baibutsu, a colossal image of a 

Baimon, the great outer gate of the 

grounds of a Buddhist temple. 
Baishi, a great Buddhist abbot or 

Barani, a mystic Buddhist formula 

or incantation. 
Bo, a hall, a temple. 
Bori (for tori in compounds), a 


Ema, an ex-voto picture : ema-do, 
a temple building hung with 
such pictures. 

Eta, a pariah. 

Fiisuma, sliding-screens covered 
with paper. 

Gawa (for kawa is compounds), a 
river, a stream. 

6eji7i, the outer chamber or nave of 
a Buddhist temple. 

Gin-zan, a silver mine. 

Go, an honori- 
fic prefix. 

Go, a measure 
of capacity 
(see p. 6), and 
o f distance 
(see Route 1>, 
Sect. 1.). 

Gohei, the em- 
blems in a 
Shintd tem- 
ple of the an- 
cient offer- 
ings of cloth; 
they are now 
usually strips 
of M' h i t e 
paper, very (gohei) 

rarely of metal. 

Go-honsha, a Shinto shrine on the 
summit of a mountain. 

Gorna, a Buddhist rite in 
which a fire of cedar- 
wood is burnt, and 
prayers are offered : 
goma-do, a shrine for 
the performance of this . y -^ 

Gongen, an avatar (see p. 

Gorei-ya, a mausoleum 
(of a Shogun). 

Gosho-guruma, a praying- 
wheel (see Rte. 4, under 
Asakusa Kwannon). 

Gtincho, the chief official 
of a rural district. 




Introduction :— Glossary. 

Gydcji-yalci, n kind of ancient 
earthenware (see p. 72). 

Haiden, an oratory (see p. 39). 

Hakkei, eight views (see Ete. 40, 
Sect. 1). 

Hakuhidsu-kiro)!, a museum. 

Hashi, a bridge. 

Ilatamoio, a vassal of the Shogun 
having a fief assessed at less than 
10,000 kokv. 

Hatoha, a landing-place. 

Heiden, a building in which (johd 
are set up. 

Higashi, east. 

Hinoki, a conifer, — the Chama'cy- 
parifi olAusa. 

JIojo, the apartments of the high- 
priest of a Buddhist temple. 

Hoke-kyo, the name of a Buddhist 
scripture (Sanslait, Saddharma 
Pu n < laril -a Suira ) . 

Jloko, a kind of mythological car 
drawn through the streets in 
religious processions. 

Ilomho, the chief building of a 
monastery, and residence of the 

Honden, see Ilonsha. 

Hondo, the imncipal building of 
a Buddhist monaster)'. 

Ilonrpcanji, a temple of the Bud- 
dhist Monto sect. 

Jlonsha. the main shrine of a Shin- 
to temple. 

Ildshu-no-iaiiia, a Budtlhist emblem 
of u n c e r t a i n 
perhaps best 
identifie<l with 
the iiyo-'i-riii 
mentioned o n 
p. 52. 

Horizon, the j^rin- 
cipal deity or 
image of a Bud- 
dhist temple. 

Hdzo. the trea- 
sure-house of a 

Ichd, the name of a tree whose 
leaves turn gold in autumn. — the 
^alisburia adiaratifolia, also call- 
ed Gincjko hilohn. 

Ihai, a funeral tablet. 

lia-fjaki, see p. 30. 


Iica-ijoya, a cave used for sleeping 
in ; hra-ya, a cavern. 

Ji (in temple names), see p. 43. 

Jigoku, lit. hell, hence a solfatara. 

Jikidn, see p. 43. 

Jinja, a Shinto temple. 

Knerv-mata (lit. frog's thighs), 
pieces of timber shaped like the 
section of an inverted cup, sup- 
porting a horizontal beam. 

Kago, a land of small palanquin 
(see p. 10). 

Kagura, a Shinto religious dance 
(comp. p. 45). 

Kaidd, a highway. 

Kakemono, a hanging scroll — gen- 
erally jDainted. 

Kami, above, upper. 

Kami, a Shinto god or goddess. 

Kara, China : Kara-7n<)n, a gate in 
the Chinese style ; Kara-shishi, 
stone lions used to adorn temjile 

Kaica, a river, a stream. 

Kairara, a stony river-bed. 

Keyaki, a ti'ee whose 
Aery hard wood is 
much prized, — the 
Zelkowa keaki. 

Kiku-no-mon, the 
Imiierial crest 
of the chrys- 
anthemum. (KIKU-NO-MON) 

Kiri-no-mon, the Imperial crest of 
the leaf and flower 
of the PaMllownia 

Kita, north. 

Ko, a child ; (in com- 
pounds) small. 

Koencld, a public 
garden. (kiki-no-mos) 

Koku, the standard measure of 
capacity (see p. (i). Incomes 
were formerly estimated in kokti 
of rice. 

Koma-inu (see uma-inii). 

Kv, an urban district : kvcJio, the 
chief official of a district. 

Kuda-ta/ma, a small hollow tube 

formerly used as .- — ^, 

an ornament (see { fo) 

Rte. 4, under Ueno '^ -^ 




Kuro-shio, (lit. black biine), tlie 
Japanese Gulf Stream. 

luiruma, a jinriMslia. 

Kioaisha, a company, a society. 

Kioan, an important building, — 
usexl chiefly in names of hotels, 
public halls, etc. 

Kwankoha, an imlristrial bazaar. 

Kyodo, a library of Buddhist sutras. 

Kyudo, an old road. 

Machi, a street, a town. 

^faga-tama, an an- ^ 

cient form of or- V V — --^ o\ 
nament (see Kte. \^ J 

4. under IJciio 

MaJdmono, a scroll (see p. 13). 

yiandara, a Buddhist picture- 
generally on a large scale and 
depiciting one half of the mytho- 
logical universe. 

Manji (Sanskrit, soasilkn), a mystic 
diagram, ex- p— ,(— 
p 1 a i n e d by r 
some as the { L 

symbol of luck, | 

by others as the i — ~^ 

symbol of Bud- | 

dhist esoterics. 

Count d'Alviella, in his " Mujra- 
ilon des Symboles," traces it back 
to the Greek (/ammadton in Troas 
anterior to the 13th century B.C., 
showing how it passed westward 
to Iceland, eastward to Thibet 
and Japan, producing the key- 
pattern and other well-lcnown 
tlecorative types. 

Masu, a salmon-trout (Salmojapo- 
nicus). See p. 14. 

Matsuri, a religious festival. 

Meibutsu, the specialty for which a 
place is noted. 

Mikoshi, a sacred palanquin. 

Mikoto, a title applied to Shinto 

Minami, south. [deities. 

Minato, a harbour. 

Mine, a mountain peak. 

3/ it s u-ao I, three 
leaves of the kamo- 
aoi or asarum, — 
the crest of the 
great Tokugawa 

Mit su-domw; a tigure like that here 

represented. Its 

origin and sym- 
bolic import are 

alike matters of 

debate. Besides 

the treble form 

here given, 

there also e3dst 

a double form (fniaisu-domoe) and 

a single one {tomoe). 
Miya, a Shinto temple, an Imperial 

prince or princess. 
Mokusei, the Olea fragrans, — a tree 

having small, deliciously scented 

flowers of a reddish yeUov/ colour. 
Mura, a village. 
Murodo, a hut for pilgrims on a 

mountain side. 
Myojin, a Shintd deity. 
Nada, a stretch of sea. 
Naijin, the inner part or chancel of 

a Buddhist temple. 
Naka, middle. 
JVamu Atimla Buisu, an invocation 

of the god Amida, used chiefly by 

the Monto sect. 
Nemhutsu, a prayer to Buddha. 
Nippon, Jai^an. 
JVishi, west. 

jVo, a species of lyric drama. 
Norirnono, a palanquin. 
Nu'ina, a marsh, a tarn. 
Nyorai, a Buddha (see p. 53). 
0, an honoritix jorefix. 
(in compounds), big. 
Oku, the innermost recess, behind : 

oku-no-in, see p. 43. 
Onsen, a hot sj^ring. 
Rtlkan, a class of Buddhist saints 

(see p. 53). 
Ramma, ventilating 

the ceiling of a 

beautifully carved. 
Ri, a Japanese 


Rimb d 


la w , 


panels near 
room — often 

ornament in 
temples dedi- 
cated to Fudo. 



Introduction : — Glossary. 

Rinzo, a revolving library (see p. 

Ryobu Shinto, see p. 40. 
Saka, an ascent, a hill. 
Sakaki, the Cleyera japonica, — the 

sacred tree of the Shintoists. 
Saki, a promontory. 
Sammon, a large two-storied gate 

leading to a Buddhist tem- 
San (in compounds), a mountain, 

sometimes a temple. 
Sarugaku, a classical semi-religious 

Sen, a Japanese cent, worth half of 

an American cent, one farthing. 
Shiehi-do-garan, a complete set of 

Buddhist temple buildings. 
Shima, an island. 
Shimo, lower. 
Shindo, a new road. 
Shinto, the aboriginal rehgion of 

the Japanese (see p. 37). 

mon — (ht. 


crest "), the 

name of a 


Sotetsu, the 

Oycas revo- 

luta, — a tree 


the sago- 
Sotoba, see pp. 43-4. 
Snji-bei, or Suji- 

kabe, a species of 

striped wall or- 


(see p. 83). 
Tai, a kind of sea- 

bream, — the 

Serranus mar- 

Take, a peak. 
Tamagaki (see p. 



quaint coarse 

Tengu, a long- 
nosed goblin, 
often repre- 
sented with 
wings, and 
supposed to 
inhabit the 

Tennin, a Bud- 
dhist angel. 

Tenno, an em- 

Toba-e, a land of 
picture (see p. 85). 

Toge, a pass over mountains. 

Tokko (Sanskrit vajra), a Buddhist 
symbol, for _, 
whose ex- ^S=:^~ 
see p. 52. It 
has three 
forms in Japan, of which the 
simplest resembles one spoke of 
the "wheel of the law" (see 
Eimbo). The other forms of it 
are the three-pronged, or sanko 
here figured, and the five-prong- 
ed, or goko. 

Tori, a street. 

Torii, a Shintd gateway (see p. 39). 

The left-hand illus- 
tration gives the 
Pure Shinto, that 
on the right hand the Ryobu 
Shinto form of this structure. 

Ta (in compoimds), a house. 

Yama, a mountain, a hill, also a 
sort of religious car borne in 
certain processions. 

Zan (for san in compounds), a 
mountain, a hill. 

Zashiki, a room, an apartment. 

A..---' -I- 


(Routes I — 22. 

Handbook for Travellers 


O U T E S . 



Yokoliaina, the place where 
most visitors lirst touch Japanese 
soil, is the largest of the Treaty 
Ports and practically the port of 
Tokyo. The landing-place (Hatoha) 
and the Custom-house {Zei-kwan) 
are within 5 min. drive of the 
hotels, and within 20 min. of the 
Railway Station. 

Hotels.— GxSiTid. Hotel, No. 20; 
Oriental Hotel, No. 11 ; Club Hotel, 
No. 5-B ; all on the Bund, facing 
the sea ; Wright's Hotel, No. 40 ; 
Hotel de Geneve, No. 26. The 
Maples Hotel, 85, Bluff. 

Restaurants. — (European food) 
Railway Station (upstairs) ; Nissei- 
ro, in Ota-machi ; {Japanese food) 
Sanomo, in Ota-machi San-chome. 

Japanese Inns. — Futui, in Ben- 
ten-dori ; Takano-ya, in Honcho- 

Banks. — Hongkong and Shang- 
hai Bank, No. 2 ; Chartered Bank 
of India, Australia, and China, No. 
58 ; National Bank of China, No. 
75. Also Agencies of the Chartered 

Mercantile Bank, and oi the Bank 
of China and Japan, No. 1. 

Consulates. — British, No. 172 ; 
American, No. 234 ; German, No. 
81 ; French, No. 84. 

Post and Telegraph Office. — This, 
together with the Telephone Ex- 
change, the Custom-house, and the 
Prefecture (Eencho), stands near the 
British and American Consulates, 
on the space between the Foreign 
Settlement and the Japanese town. 

Steam Communication. — Japan 
Mail Steamship Company {Nippoii 
Y'ilsen Kwaisha), close to the Rail- 
way Station ; Peninsular and Orien- 
tal, No. 15 ; Messageries Maritimes, 
No. 9 ; Norddeutscher Lloyd, No. 
29 ; Pacific Mail, Occidental and 
Oriental, and Toyo Kisen Kwai- 
sha, No. 4-A ; Canadian Pacific, No. 
14 ; Northern Pacific, Dodwell, 
Carlill and Co., No. 50-B. 

Landing and Shipping Agents. — 
A. Weston, 8 Customs Hatoba ; 
MacArthur & Co., No. 10. 

Churches. — Christ Church (An- 
glican), No. 235, Bluff; Union 
Church (Protestant), No. 167; 
Roman Catholic, No. SO. 

Clubs. — Yokohama United Club, 
No. 4-B ; Club Germunia, No. 235 ; 
Masonic Temple. 


Route 1. — Yokohama. 

Photographs of Japanese Scenery 
and Costumes. — Farsari, near Yato- 
bashi ; Tamamura, 2, Benten-dori ; 
Kimbei, in Honclio-dori. 

Books and Maps relating to 
Japan. — Kelly and Walsh, No. GO ; 
Maruya, in Benten-ddri. 

Foreign Stores for Japanese 
Works of Art. — Arthur & Bond's 
Fine Ai-t' Gallery, No. 38 ; Kuhn & 
Komor, No. 37 ; Kuhn, No. 57. 

Japanese Curio Dealers. — Numa- 
shima, in Kitanaka-dori Itchome, 
for car'\"ings and other fine works 
of art ; Samurai Shokr«'ai, in Hon- 
cho Itchome ; Musashi-ya, Bisansha, 
and Konoike, in Honcho-dori, for 
jewellery, ivories, silver-ware, etc. ; 
Hattori, in Benten-ddri Itchome, 
for Satsuma porcelain. !llatsuishi- 
ya, in Honcho-dori, porcelain in 
Eiu'opean shapes ; and numerous 
others, especially in Benten-dori. 
Porcelain factory outside the 
native town at Ota-mma, known as 
Maktizu Kozan (shown to visitors). 

Silk Stores. — Ewata, No. 35, Set- 
tlement ; Tanabe, Shobei, and 
Shieno, all in Honcho-dori ; also, 
for cheaper articles, Yamaguchi, in 
Otamachi ; Goto, in Benten-dori 

Embroideries, Silk and Cotton 
Crapes, Japanese Cottons, etc. — No- 
zawa-ya, 30, Benten-dori ; Tsuru- 
ya, in Ishikawa-machi. 

Cloisonne. — Goto, in Takashima- 
cho (visitors are shown over the 
factory) ; Kawano, in Honcho Ni- 

Japanese Stationery. — Tanikawa- 
ya, in ilinami Naka-doii Itchome. 

Toys, etc. — Nagai, in Honcho- 

Bamboo ami Bead Blinds, CuMtt- 
ets, etc. — Moiiyasu, in Benten-dori. 

Florists. — Boehmer & Co., 5 and 
28, Bluff ; Y''okohama Nm'sery Co., 
21-35, Nakamiua BlufE. 

Japanese Theatres, etc. — Minato- 
za, in Sumiyoshi-cho ; Hagoromo- 
za, in Hagoromo-cho. A sort of 
fair is held at night in Basha-michi- 
dori and Isezald-cho. 

Fublic (jardoi and Cricket 
Ground. — At th«; back of the Settle- 
ment, behind the Ameiican Con- 
stdate ; Blutf Gardens, No. 230. 

yeicspapers. — " Japan Daily Ail- 
vertiser," " Japan Gazette," " Jajjan 
Herald," " Japan Mail." daily ; 
'• Japan Times," daily (pubhshed 
in Tokyo) ; " Box of Cuiios," 
" Eastern World," weekly. 

History. — Yokohama owes its com- 
mercial importance to the foreigners who 
have settled there. It was an insignificant 
fishing village when Commodore Perry 
anchored off it in 1854, and gn\ e American 
names to several points in the neighbour- 
hood. When it was agreed to open a 
Treaty Port in this part of Japan, the 
choice naturally fell, not on Yokohama, 
but on the thriving town of Kanagawa, 
on the opposite side of the small bay, now 
pai-tially filled in. But the Japanese 
Government, finding Kanaga\\a incon- 
venient because of its situation on the 
Tokaido. at a time when collisions be- 
tween foreigners and the armed retainers 
of the Daimyos passing to and from the 
capital were to be apprehended, gave 
facilities for leasing ground at Yokohama 
instead. Thither accordingly the mer- 
chants, anxious to openui) trade, repaired 
in 1858. The consuls ijrotested agaiu.-t 
the change ; but the only lasting result of 
their protest is the retention of the name 
Kanagawa in certain official documents 
The superiority of the Yokohama an- 
chorage doubtless reconciled the foreign 
community to the inferior position of the 
place on a mud flat facing north. The 
greater ijortion of the Settlement, as it 
now exists, dates from after the fire of 
1866 : and the Bluff, on which of 
the well-to-do residents have their dwell- 
ings was first leased for building purposes 
in 1867. A large and raiudly growing 
native town has sprung up outside the 
Foreign Settlement. Waterworks opL-ned 
in 1887 supply Yokohama from the 
Sagami-gawa, 23 miles distant. New 
harbour-woiks were completed in 1896. — 
On the 31st December, 1899, the foreign 
population of Yokohama, exclusive of 
Chinese amounted to 2,039. of whom 922 
British and 429 American. 

It should be exi^iained that al- 
though the streets have names, 
these are comparatively little used, 
as the numbeiing of the whole 
Settlement is continuous, iiTespec- 
tive of street names. A similar 
remark applies to the Blufi:. 

Though Yokohama boasts but 
few sights properly so called, the 

Route 2. — Excursions from Yokohama. 


curio-liunter will here find him- 
self in his element ; and to one 
newly landed the native town, with 
its street-staUs and its theatrical 
and other shows, will afford an 
interesting spectacle. A visit 
should be paid to Noge-yama, close 
behind the Railway Station, for 
the sake of the general view of the 
town and harbour. Here stand 
some small, but popular and 
representative, shrines dedicated 
to the Shintd god of AkLha, to 
Doryo, a Buddhist saint, to Fudo, 
the great Buddhist god whose chief 
shrine is at Narita (see Eoute 5), 
and to the Sun-Goddess of Ise 
(see Eoute 37). This last, which 
crowns the hUl, is generally known 
as Daijingu. Festivals are held at 
Noge-yama on the 1st, 15th, and 
•28th of every month. The temjDle 
of Zotoku-iii, dedicated to Yalaishi 
Nyorai and situated in Moto-machi 
close to the Grand Hotel, celebrates 
its festivals on the 8th and 12th of 
the month. 

Yokohama possesses a Race- 
course and a Public Hall, where 
EngUsh theatrical and other enter- 
tainments are given. 

Race meetings, often attended 
by His Majesty the Mikado, are 
held in spring and autiimn. The 
race-course overlooks Mississijjpi 
Bay, which affords a charming 
objective point for a drive. Indeed, 
the whole neighbourhood abounds 
in fine landscapes. Fuji shows out 
well from the race-course, from 
the harbour, and from many other 



9. OYAMA. 10. OISO. 

1. — Kamakm'a is reached from 
Yokohama in 50 min. by the Tokai- 
do Railway, changing carriages at 
Ofuna Junction. This branch line 
continues on to Dzushi and Y'oko- 
suka, being altogether 21i miles in 

Kamakura, once the popidous 
capital of Eastern Japan, has now 
shrunk into a quiet sea-side village 
which is a favorite resort of the 
Y'^okohama residents. The Kaihin-in 
Hotel (foreign style), situated under 
a pine-gi'ove near that portion of 
the shore known as Yui-ga-hama, is 
I" hr. by jinrikisha from the station. 
The Japanese inn, Mitsuhashi, may 
also be recommended. Both jjro- 
vide hot and cold salt-water baths. 

Kamakura was the seat of goTernment 
in Eastern Japan from the end of the 
12th to the middle of the 15th century. 
Yoritomo, who established the Shogunate 
in 1192, chose this i^lace as his capital, 
and here was laid the foundation of the 
feudal system of government which 
prevailed up to the year 1868. The city 
of Kamakura, in the time of Yoritomo's 
immediate successors, extended all over 
the plain and into the recesses of the 
different ijahii, or dells, which branch off 
from it among the hilla. Its population 
is believed to have exceeded one million 
in the days of its glory. Kamakm-a was 
the scene of innumerable contests be- 
tween rival military factions, and of 
many bloody deeds. Here, on the sea- 
shore, were beheaded the Mongol ambas- 
sadors of Kublai Khan {Jap. Kop-pitsu- 
retsu), who had imperiously sent to 
demand the submission of Japan to his 
sway. The city was repeatedly sacked 
and laid in ashes, and seems never to 
have fully recovered from the disasters 
of the year 14.55. The neighbouring city 
of Odawara, which next rose into im- 
portance as the seat of the powerful H636 
family, attracted to itself large numbers 


Route 2. — Excursions from Yokohama. 

of the inhabitants of Kamakura, the ruin 
of which town was completetl by the 
founding of Yedo in A.D. I(j03. 

The chief sights of Kamakura 
are the Temple of Hachiman, the 
Daibutsu, or colossal bronze Bud- 
dha, and the great image of the 
goddess Kwannon. They all lie 
within a mile of the hotel. 

The Temple of Hachiman, the 
God of War, dating from the end 
of the l'2th century, stands in a 
commanding position on a hill 
called Tsuru-ga-oka, and is ap- 
proached by a stately aveni^e of 
pine-trees leading up the whole 
way from the sea-shore. Though 
both avenue and temple have 
sufEered from the ravages of time, 
enough still remains to remind one 
of the ancient glories of the place. 
Three stone torii lead up to the 
temple, which stands at the hesid 
of a broad flight of stone steps. 
Notice the magnificent icho tree, 
nearly 20 ft. in circumference, said 
to be over a thousand years old. 

In A.D. 1218, the young Shogun Sane- 
tomo, having received an additional title 
from the Mikado, was about to go in 
solemn procession to return thanks at the 
temple of Hachiman. He seems to have 
had some foreboding of evil ; for, before 
leaving the palace, he composed a stanza 
which may be thus rendered : 

What time its lord, hence issuing. 
All tenantless this dwelling leaves. 
Be thou still mindful of the spring. 
Dear plum-tree standing by the eaves! 

The same morning, while he was being 
dressed, ho pulled out a hair and gave it 
to his attendant, saying, "Keep this in 
memory of me." He had been advised 
to don armour under his robes, but failed 
to adopt the precaution. The ceremonial 
was protracted till a late hour. As Sane- 
tomo descended the steps iu the dark, a 
man sprang upon him from behind this 
tree, cut him down, and carried off his 
head. Though the assassin, who isroved 
to be the high-priest of the temple and 
Sanetomo's own nephew, was soon dis- 
covered and despatched, the head was 
never found. So the hair which Sane- 
tomo had given to his faithful retainer 
was buried iu its stead. 

Before ascending the flight of 
steps, the minor shrines to the r. 
deserve passing notice. The nearer 

one, painted red and called Waka- 
miya, is dedicatedto the Emperor 
Nintoku, son of Ojin, the God of 
War. The further one, renovated in 
1890, is called Shirahala Jinja and 
dedicated to Yoritomo. The style 
and structure are somewhat un- 
\asual, black and gold being the only 
coloTU's employed, and iron being 
the material of the four main 
pUlars. The interior holds a small 
wooden image of Yoritomo. 

A side path leads up hence to the 
main temple, which is enclosed in 
a square colonnade painted red. 
The temple, which was re-erected 
in 1828 after having been destroy- 
ed by fire seA'en years previously, 
is in the Ryobu Shinto style, with 
red pillars, beams, and rafters, and 
is decorated with small painted 
carvings chiefly of birds and 
animals. In the colonnade are 
several religious palanqiiins (mi- 
koshi) used on the occasion of the 
semi-annual festivals (15th April 
and 15th September), a wooden 
image of Sumiyoshi by Unkei, and 
a few relics of Yoritomo, one of 
them his skull ichen a youth ! Most 
of the relics once preserved in the 
temple have been removed to the 
residence of the Chief Priest 
(Uakozaki Oyatftu-kwan), and are 
only exhibited at festival time. 

Immediately behind the temple 
of Hachiman is a small hill called 
Shirahata-yama, whence Yoritomo 
is said to have often .admired the 

The Daibutsu, or Great Buddha, 
stands alone among Japanese 
works of art, 

" a stcitue solid-set. 
And moulded in colossal calm." 

No other gives such an impression 
of majesty, or so truly symbolises 
the central idea of Buddhism, — the 
spiritual peace which comes of 
perfected knowledge and the sub- 
jugation of all passion. But to be 
fiilly appreciated, the Daibutsu 
must be visited many times. 



There had been a temiile iu this place 
since the 8th century, but the image is of 
much later date. Its precise history is 
involved in obscurity. Tradition, how- 
ever, says that Yoritonio, when taking 
part in the dedication of the Daibutsu at 
Nara, conceived the desire of having a 
similar object of worship at his own capi- 
tal, but died before he could put the plan 
into execution. One of the ladies of his 
Court undertook to collect funds for the 
purpose, and in the year 1252 the Kama- 
Itura Daibutsu was cast by OnoGoroemon. 
History tells of two such image.i. The 
ti)-st, a wooden one, was designed by a 
priest, who collected money far and wide 
amongst all classes, and in 1238 the head 
of the image, 80 ft. in circumference, was 
in its place, while the leniple in which it 
stood was completed in 12'11 and dedicated 
in 1243. This image is said to have 
represented Amida, and to have been 
destroyed by a tyishoon. The second is 
spoken of as a gilt bronze image of Shaka, 
and the casting is believed to have been 
begun in 1252. The present one repre- 
sents Amida, and notwithstanding the 
difference of name, is probably the bronze 
imago referred to above as dating from 
1252. It was enclosed in a largo building 
50 yds. square, whose roof was supported 
on sixty-three massive wooden jjillars. 
Many of the rtone bases on which they 
rested are still in situ. The temple build- 
ings were twice destroyed by tidal waves, 
in 1369 and 1494, after which they were 
not rebuilt, and the image has ever since 
remained exposed to the elements. 

The Daibutsu is best seen from 
about lialf-waj^ up tbe approacli. 
Its dimensions are approximately 
as follows : — 

Height 49 7 

Circumference 97 2 

Length of face 8 5 

"Width from ear to ear 17 9 

Round white boss on fore- 
head 1 3 

Length of eye 3 11 

,, of eyebrow 4 2 

„ of ear (I G 

„ of nose 3 9 

Width of mouth 3 2 

Height of bump of wisdom. 9 

Diameterof bump of wisdom 2 4 
Curls (of which there are 

830): Height 9 

„ Diameter 1 

Length from knee to knee. 3.5 8 

Circumference of thumb ... 3 

The eyes are of pure gold, and 
the silver boss weighs 30 lbs. 
avoirdupois. The image is formed 
of sheets of bronze cast separately, 
brazed together, and finished off on 
the oxrtside with the chisel. The 
hollow interior of the image con- 
tains a small shrine, and a ladder 
leads up into the head. 

The Temple of Kwannon, known 
as Uase no Eicannon, stands not far 
from the Daibutsu on an eminence 
commanding a beautiftil view of the 
sea-shore towards MisaM, and over 
the plain of Kamakura. The great 
image of the (roddess of Mercy, for 
which this temple is celebrated, 
stands behind folding-doors which 
a small fee to the attendant priest 
will suffice to open ; but the figure 
can only be indistinctly seen by the 
dim light of a few candles. It is of 
brown lacquer gilded over, and its 
height is 30 ft. 5i in. The ad- 
mirable bronze seated figure of 
Dainichi Nyorai on the 1. was jire- 
sented bv the Shogun Ashikaga 
Yoshimasa (b. 143G, d. 1490). 

Close to this temple is a bold cliff 
called Inamura-ga-.mki. 

In 1333, when the city of Kamakura 
was attacketl by the partisans of the 
Emperor Go-Daigo, part of the force led 
by Nitta Voshisada advanced along the 
strand from the W. of this hill, but were 
unable to pass under the cliff owing to 
chevaux-de-frise being placed against it 
down to the water's edge, while their 
passage in boats was i^'evented by a long 
row of war-junks lying some 500 or 600 
yards off the shore. Yoshisada therefore 
climbed the cliff', and after praying to the 
Sea-God, tlung his sword into the water, 
whereupon the title miraculously re- 
treated, leaving a space a mile and a 
half wide at the foot of the cliff, along 
which he marched his army into Kama- 

Lovers t>f early sculpture and 
of Japanese historical and anti- 
quarian lore, will find scattered over 
Kamakura many minor temples and 
other objects to arrest their atten- 
tion. Amongst these, the follow- 
ing may be enumerated : — 

Ennujl, small and dilapidated, but 
containing the celebrated image of 


Route 2. — Excursions from . Yokohama. 

Emma-0, Eegent of Hell (see p. 
47), called Arai-no-Emma, and 
carved by Uiikei. 

Legend says that Unkei, having died, 
appeared in due course before this re- 
doubtable deity, who thus accosted him : 
"Thou hast carved many images of me, 
but never a true one. Now that thou hast 
seen my face, return to earth and show me 
as I am." So Unkei, coming to life again, 
carved this image, v.hich is, therefore, 
said to be Unkei I'omiji-gaeri no gain, that 
is, " the v.-ork of Unkei redivivus." 

The image is only shown on 
application to the custodian. Other 
large images line the walls, one of 
Shoziika-no-Baba (see p. 49), also by 
Unkei, being specially powerful. 

Kenchdji is situated in beautiful 
but now mostly deserted grounds, 
amidst magnificent trees, of which 
the rugged hyakusldn (Juniperus 
chinensis) is the most x:)rominent 
species, and a favourite material 
with the carvers of Buddhist 
images. The gate is a huge struc- 
ture. The main temple contains a 
large image of Jizo, and four hun- 
dred small gilt ones of the same 
divinity carved by Eshin. 

A very popular little shrine was 
erected in 1890 on Shojoken, the 
hill behind Kenchoji, and attracts 
such crowds of pilgrims that a 
special train is run on the 17th day 
of the month for their benefit. The 
shrine is dedicated to a goblin 
called Jlanzdbo, to whom enormous 
quantities of small paper flags are 
offered up. These line both sides 
of the pathway that leads up the 
hill for a distance of 5 cho. A tea- 
house near the shrine commands a 
splendid "view of Fuji and the sea. 
The OhxL-no-in at the very toji 
overlooks a maze of small hills and 
valleys in the direction of Yoko- 

The ancient Temple of Kokuonji 
contains images of the Ju-ni-ten, 
nearly life-size, and very large ones 
of Yakushi Nyorai, Nikko Bosatsu, 
and Gwakko Bosatsu, all attributed 
to the chisel of Unkei. 

The Tomb of Yoritomo is a modest 

little monument covered with 

The Kamakura-no- Miya was 
erected in 1869 in honour of a son 
of the Emperor Go-Daigo, called 
Oto-no-Miya, who, having failed in 
his attempt to overthrow the feudal 
government, was capttu-ed, confined 
in a cave, and finally assassinated 
in A.D. 1335. The temple, which is 
in j)ure Shinto style, stands direct- 
ly in front of the cave. 

Enkakuji possesses the largest 
bell in Kamakura. This bell, dat- 
ing from A.D. 1201, is 6 in. thick, 
4 ft. 7 in. in diameter, and about 
8 ft. high. 

Komyoji, Eishdji, and Jil-roku-ido, 
or the Sixteen Pools, in which, 
according to an apocryphal tradi- 
tion, K5b6 Daishi performed his 
ablutions, are also noted. 

2. — Enoshima. 

This most pictiiresque spot, 
though called an island, is more 
properly a peninsula ; for only at 
high tide is it surrounded by the 
sea. The prettiest way there leads 
by the road called Shichi-ri-ga- 
hama* skirting the beach from 
Kamakura, and through the 'vill. 
of Katase. The distance from 
Kamakirra is 4 miles. 

Half-way is the YuLl-ai-gawa, which, 
though an insignificant streamlet, is 
worthy of mention on account of the 
following incident : — 

When Nichiren was miraculously deliv- 
ered from the hands of the executioner 
at the neighbouring village of Koshigoe, 
a messenger was at once despatched to 
Kamakura to ask for further orders, 
while at the same moment a reprieve 
was sent from the palace of the Kegent 
Tokiyori. The two messengers happen- 
ed to meet at this stream, whence the 
name of Yuki-ai-gawa, which means "the 
Kiver of Meeting." A stone now marks 
the spot. 

JinriMshas can be taken as far as 

The hero Yoshitsune alighted at the 
small monastery of Mam'pvkuji in this 

* Literally, the "seven /(' shore," the 
ri in early times in Eastern Japan having 
consisted of only C dto instead of 30. 

Enoshima. Dzushi. 


village, when his brother Yoritomo, jeal- 
ous of his exiiloits and popularity, denied 
him entrance into the city of Kamaknra. 
The priests still show the draft of the 
letter sent by Yoshitsune, denying the 
intrigues imputed to him and protesting 
in vain his loyalty. The handwriting is 
said to be that of his faithful henchman, 

whence it is a short walk across the 
neck of sand joining Enoshima to 
the mainland. 

A more direct way of approach- 
ing Enoshima is from Fujisawa 
station, whence it is 1 rl. by jiniiki- 
sha, or jmrtly by boat down the 
river, which is joined 6 rho from 
the station. The road branches ofp 
r. to Enoshima close to the \'ill. 
of Katase, at the entrance of 
which stands the temple of Byu- 
koji, founded after Nichiren's 
death by his disciples, and built 
on the spot where his execution 
was to have taken place. It posses- 
ses a number of fine wood-carvings. 

Enoshima, being a popular holi- 
day resort, is full of excellent inns. 
The best are the Iwamoto-in and 
Ebisu-3'a in the vill., and the Kin- 
Idro higher up. There is fair sea- 
bathing. The shops of Enoshima 
are full of shells, corals, and marine 
curiosities generally, many of which 
are brought from other parts of the 
coast for sale. The beautiful glass 
rope sponge (Hyalonema sieboldi), 
called hosiujai by the Japanese, is 
said to be gathered from a reef deep 
below the surface of _the sea not far 
from the island of Oshima, whose 
smoking top is visible to the S. on 
a clear day. 

From the earliest ages the island 
was sacred to Benten, the Buddhist 
Goddess of Luck. 

Before the existence of Enoshima, so 
says the ancient legend, the site of the 
Ijresent cave was the abode of a dragon, 
which used to devour the children of the 
village of Koshigoe. In the 6th cen- 
tury, on the occasion of a violent earth- 
quake, the goddess Benten appeared 
in the clouds over the spot inhabited by 
that monster ; and the island of Enoshima 
suddenly rising from the waters, she 
descended to it, married the dragon, and 

put an end to his ravages. The natives 
believe that there exists a subterranean 
passage connecting the cave with Fuji. 

This cult has now been exchanged 
for that of three Shinto goddesses, 
to whom several of the temples 
have been re-dedicated. But the 
spot considered most sacred of all 
is the large Cave on the far side 
of the island. It is 124 yds. in 
depth, the height at the entrance 
being at least 30 ft., but diminish- 
ing gradually towards the interior. 
The rocks near the cave are 
frequented by divers, who for a 
few cents bring up shell-fish from 
the deep, which, however, they may 
be suspected of having previously 
concealed about their persons. 

Ten rho from Enoshima and 28 
cho from Fujisawa station, lies the 
sea-bathing resort of Kngenuma 
(Inn, Kosho-kwan). 

3. — DznsHi AND Hatama. 

Dzushi, on the railway, 2 J miles 
to the S. E. of Kamakura, is the 
station for Ilormchi, or Hayama, 
as it is now more commonly caUed, 
IJ m. distant, which has lately 
risen into favour as a sea-side 
resort, some of the wealthier re- 
sidents of Tokyo and Yokohama 
having buUt villas there. A good 
road connects Dzushi and Hayama, 
which latter place commands a 
lovely view, — Fuji, which seems to 
rise straight from the waters of 
Odawara Bay, forming the central 
feature of the scene. The Ililcage- 
no-Chnya inn at Horiuchi is apt to 
be noisy. Nearer the station, a- 
cross a bridge, may be found a 
quieter house, the Yosldn-tei, with 
better bathing. Half a mile beyond 
the Hikage-no-Chaya, stretches the 
pretty wooded promontory of 
Morula Myojin ; and the walk, for 
1^ m. further along the coast to 
a point called (Jhhja-saki, where 
there is a good inn and capital 
bathing, may be recommended. 
The Crown Prince has a Avinter 
residence close l)y. 


Route 2. — Excursions from Yokohama. 



_ Yokosuta is the terminus of the 
Ofuna branch line, and is reached 
from Y'okohama in 1^ hr. Steamers 
also ply between Tokyo, Yokohama, 
and Yokosuka. The little line of 
railway passes through characteris- 
tically Japanese scenery, — wooded 
hills rising up abruptly from val- 
leys laid out in rice-fields, \\'ith here 
and there a cottage or a tiny shrine 
halt-hidden in a rustic bower. The 
train darts in and out of short 
timnels under some of these hills, 
before reaching the sea-shore at 

Yokosuka {Inn, Mitomi-ya ; 
Forei'jn resit., Kaiyo-ken, near the 
wharf), which but a few years ago 
was a poor village, has rapidly 
risen into importance, on account 
of the Government Dockyard esta- 
blished there. Visitors are not 
admitted, excej)t on presentation 
of an introduction from the naval 
authorities. The town is prettily 
situated on a land-locked bay ; but 
the suiTOunding wooded heights 
are being cut away vertically to 
afford more fiat space for the rajiid- 
ly growing streets. Its chief 
interest for Englishmen lies in the 
fact that here lived and died Will 
Adams, the first Enghshman that 
ever landed on the shores of Japan. 

Will Adauis, a native of Gillin^ham in 
Kent, was chief pilot to a fleet of Dutch 
ships which reached the southern coast 
of Japan on th(! 19th April, A.D. IGOO. 
Brought as a prisoner into the presence 
of leyasu, Adams soon won the favour 
of that astute ruler, who employed him 
both as a shipbuilder and as a kind of 
diplomatic agent when other English and 
Dutch traders began to arrive. Adams' 
constantly reiterated desire to behold his 
native land again and the wife aud child- 
ren whom he had left behind, was to the 
last frustrated by adverse circumstances. 
He consoled himself by taking another 
wife, a Japanese, with whom he lived 
until his death in 1620 at Hemi, a suburb 
of Yokosuka, where the railway station 
now stands. 

His grave and that of his Japa- 
nese wife are situated on the top of 

a bill, J hr. walk from the railway 
station. The Japanese call the 
place Anjin-saka, from anjin which 
means " pilot," that having been 
the appellation by which Adams 
was commonly known. The tombs 
are of stone in the ordinary Japa- 
nese style. Will Adams' monument 
is without an inscription, while that 
of his wife bears the posthumous 
title which every Buddhist receives 
from the priests of the parish tem- 
ple. Not only is the situation of 
the graves most jjicturesque, but 
the eminence on which they stand 
affords a lovely "siew of land and 

Azuma-yama , a high wooded 
eminence ^ hr. fi-om Yokosuka by 
boat, has been cut through in order 
to afford a short water passage to 
the Torpedo Station of Naga-ura. 
Another vantage-point just outside 
the opposite or E. end of Y^oko- 
suka, is Kome-no-yama, a cliff on 
which stands a temple of the Nichi- 
ren sect, called Ryuhonji, posses- 
sing some good carvings. The level 
stretches at the foot of the cliffs 
have recently been reclaimed fi-om 
the sea. 

Tlie distance from I'okosuka to 
Uraga is 1 ri 32 cho (42 m.) 
along an excellent road. A little 
more than half-way lies the 
hamlet of Otsu, where there is an 
inn, good of its kind but apt to 
be noisy, with a fine beach for 

XJrag-a {Inn, Tokuda-ya, in 
Higashi-Uraga) is built on both 
sides of a very narrow fiord-like 
harbour ; and the two diNisions thus 
formed are called respectively 
Higashi- Uraga and Nishi- Uraga, 
i.e.. East and West Uraga. They 
are connected by a bridge and a 
ferry. Two large dry docks were 
opened here in 1899. 

In former times all junks entering the 
Bay of Yedo were stopped at Uraga for 
inspection, and it was here that Com- 
modore Perry anchored on the 8th July, 
1853, bearing with him the letter of Pre- 
sident Fillmore to the Shogun, the result 

Uraga. Sugifa. Kanazai'n, 


of which was to open Japan to foreign in- 
tercourse . 

Uraga px-oduces mizu-ame, ;i sweet 
and wholesome iDreparation from 
sake malt, somewhat resembling 
honey in taste. It is worth while 
devoting \ hr. to the climb up 
Atago-yama, a hill at the back of 
Nishi-Uraga, commanding a tine 
view of the town and harbour. 
The hills beyond the sea to the E. 
are the Boshii range. 

Uraga is in daily steam com- 
munication Avith Tokyo, the pas- 
sage occupying about 4 hours. The 
steamers touch at Kachiyama, 
Tateyama, and other ports on the 
Boshu side. 

It is a walk or jinrikisha ride 
of 4 n o cho (10 m.) to Misald, lirst 
along the sands, and then over a 
cultivated ujiland commanding a 
fine view of Fuji, the Hakone and 
Oyama ranges, and the opposite 
shores of Toky5 Bay. 

Misaki (Inn, Aoyagi). At Ko- 
ajiro, on a small bay, 1 ri to the 
N., stands the Marine Biological 
Laboratory {Misaki Rinkai Jikken- 
jo), connected with the Science 
College of the Imperial University 
of Tokyo. The marine fauna of 
this district being particularly rich 
in rare forms, di-edging has pro- 
duced results highly interesting to 
the zoologist. A lighthouse stands 
on the island of Jogashima, 1 m. 
from the mainland, with which it 
is connected by ferry. 

One may complete the tour of 
the tSagami Peninsula, at the ex- 
tremity of which Misaki is situated, 
by a walk of 7 ri (17 m.) along the 
coast to Dzushi. 


It is a pleasant walk or jinrikisha 
ride of about 2 ri from Yokohama 
to Sugita (Inns, Azuma-ya and 
others), famous for its plum- 
blossoms ; and i ri further on to 
Tomioka (Inns, Kimjja-ro, Kaihin- 
ro), a favourite resort of the Yoko- 
hama residents, on account of the 

good sea-bathing in Mississippi 
Bay. Tomioka may also be easily 
reached by boat from the Gutting at 
the back of the Settlement in about 
40 min., the distance from the 
Settlement to the point where the 
boat is taken being approximately 
1 ri. 

G. — Kanazawa. [Mine.] 

•Tinrikishas may be taken the 
whole way, two men being requir- 
ed. The total distance is 4 ri 30 
(■ho (H| m.), the road being flat for 
the first 6 m. as far as the hamlet 
of Seki, and after that, hilly. 

[At the hamlet of Tanakn, 1(\ 
cho beyond SeM, a road prac- 
ticable most of the way for 
jinrildshas, turns oif r. to a hiU 
called Mine, which commands 
a wonderfully extensive view. 
The finest prospect is towards 
the N., looking down on the 
multitude of furrowed ridges 
that stretch away to the moun- 
tains of Chichibu. To the W., 
the sea is visible near Hiratsuka 
and Oiso on the Tokaido ; 
beyond it is Fuji, with the 
(>5rama and Hakone ranges. 
The distance from Tanaka to 
Mine is 28 cho, nearly 2 m.] 
On reaching the crest of the 
ridge, the wondi'ous beauty which 
has led the foreign residents to be- 
stow on this neighbourhood the 
name of the Plains of Heaven, 
suddenly reveals itself. x\. scene of 
perfect loveliness may be enjoyed 
from a wayside tea-house called 
Kokendo, which nestles under a 
pine-tree known as the Fude-sute- 
matsu, because a Japanese artist of 
olden times here flung away his 
pencil in despair. At the spectator's 
feet is a wide, cultivated valley, 
bordered by pine-clad hills and 
opening out to the shores of an 
inlet, whose still waters are partly 
hemmed in l)y smaU pemnsulas 
and islets, with to the 1. the pro- 
montory of Kwannon-saki, and on 
the opposite side of Tokyo l^ay the 


Eoute 2. — Excursions from Yokohama. 

iong crest of Nokogiri-yama. The 
most conspicuous of the islands 
are Natsushima (Webster Island), 
■with Sarushima (Perry Island) 
beyond it, and Eboshi-jima -which 
is much smaller and recognisable 
by its triangular shape. But a 
mere catalogue of names can avail 
nothing towards conyeying an idea 
of the peculiar magic of a scene 
•which might be the original that 
inspired the Japanese landscajse- 
painter's art. 

Kanazawa ( Inns, Chiyo-moto, 
Azuma-ya), on the shores of the 
Mutsm-a Inlet, is chiefly noted for 
its Hak-kei, — a characteristically 
Japanese view from a small height 
just outside the village. Close to 
the ferry at Xojima (Inn, Nishino- 
ya), is a celebrated peony garden, 
which attracts many visitors 
during the season of flowering. 
Some of the plants are said to be 
over 300 years old. — Kanazawa 
may also be reached by the coast 
road -^ia Tomioka on foot in 3 hrs. 
The way back to Yokohama can be 
jjleasantly varied by taking the 
jinrildsha road across the neck of 
the little peninsula of llisald to 
Dzushi station on the Yokosuka 
branch of the Tokaido Eailway, a 
distance of 2-J- ri (G m.) 

This trii3 may advantageously be 
combined with a \isit to Kamakura, 
the station beyond Dzushi, or to 
Yokosuka, \i& Will Adams' tomb. 
The whole neighbourhood ofEers 
delightful walks, as paths leading 
to the top of every hill command 
exquisite views. 

7. — BrKEXJi. 

Bukenji, a temple of the Nichi- 
reu sect, about h hr. walk from 
Kanagawa station, is a favourite 
resort of picnic parties from Y'oko- 
hama. From the top of the hUl 
there_is a fine view towards Fuji 
and Oyama. On the way there, the 
(clearly a^Docryphal) grave of Ura- 
shima, the Japanese Rii3 Van 
Winkle, is passetl (see p. 85). 

S. — The Caves of Totstjka. 
(Taya no Ana.) 

Though known to foreigners as 
the Caves of Totsuka, these 
caves, or rather galleries cut in the 
soft standstone, are really nearer to 
Ofuna, the next station beyond 
Totsuka on the Tokaido Railway, 
4:0 min. run from Yokohama. They 
lie at a distance _of 17 chr) (a little 
over 1 m.) from Ofuna station, but 
nearly 1^ ri from Totsuka station. 
Whichever station one decides to 
alight at, the trip on to the caves 
can be done by jinriMsha, and hes 
through pleasing scenery. The 
caves are Avell worth a visit. The 
best time to choose is the spring, 
as the cherry-trees too will then 
be seen to advantage. Candles 
are provided at a house near the 
entrance, also cloaks to ward off 
any wet that may di-ip fi'om the 
walls, and a local guide ^^ill point 
out the Buddhist cai-vings with 
which the walls and ceilings are 

These naves, with their carvings, are a 
monumeDt of modern Buddhist piety. 
Existing in embryo since the IMiddle Ages 
(tradition asserts them to have been 
resorted to for the concealment both of 
troops, and of treasure in the 1-ith 
century), they have only been excavated 
to their present extent during the last 
fifty years. In the year 1851, a man 
called Sato Shichizaemon, whose family 
had for generations been rich peasants in 
this locality, was urged in a dream to 
devote his life to making these caves into 
an imperishable shrine to various Bud- 
dhist divinities, and especially to the 
goddess Benten. This he accordingly did 
until his death in 18y2, at the age of 81, 
employing his own money for the enter- 
prise and local talent for the carvings. 
It is intended to continue the work by 
representing the whole life of Buddha. 

Among the siibjects pourtrayed 
may be distinguished angels, dra- 
gons, lions, birds both natural and 
mythical, the Twelve Signs of the 
Zodiac, the Eighteen Eakan, the 
Thirty-Three Kwannon of the dis- 
trict of Chichibu, and other Bud- 
dhas innumerable. To explore the 
caves properly takes about 1 hr. 

Oyama. Oiso. 


9. — Oyama. 

This celebrated mountain, 4,150 
ft. high, is most easily reached 
from Yokohama by alighting at 
Hiratsnka station on the Tokaidd 
EaUway, a rrni of a little over 1 hr.; 
thence by jinrikisha to the vill. of 
Oyama on the lower slope, 3J ri, 
(9j]- m.) distant. It is a favonrite 
goal of ijilgi-ims, who continne to 
be attracted to its shrine, althongh 
the old Buddhist objects of wor- 
ship have here, as in so many other 
parts of the coTintry, been replaced 
hj comparatively obscure Shinto 

Indeed, according to Sir Ernest Satow, 
it is uncertain who these gods are : but 
the best authority asserts that the chief 
deity is Iwanaga-hime, sister to the 
goddess of Mount Fuji. The people of 
the neighbouring country-side often call 
the mountain by the name of Srlison-s-an . 
Yet another name is Afuri-yama. 

•Jinrikishas are left at the vill. of 
Koyasu (Inn, Kami-ya), a long 
street of steps, which at its upper 
end changes its name to Oyama 
(Inns, Koma-ya, with a curious 
garden ; Izn-ya). Such of the 
inhabitants as do not keep houses 
of entertainment for the pilgrims 
who flock here chiefly during the 
month of June, busy themselves 
with the manufacture of rosaries, 
toys, and domestic utensils. The 
traveller will notice that the posts 
of two shrines in the village are so 
much cut away as scarcely any 
longer to supjport the roof, — a 
result of the visit of many devotees 
who believe that the chips act as 

The ascent and descent of the 
mountain take from 4i to 5 hrs., 
but are far more fatiguing than 
most climbs of the same length, 
owing to the multitude of steps. 
A little way beyond the inns, a 
stream rushes out of a hole in a 
rocky wall some 20 ft. high, and 
falls into a pool, in which it is con- 
sidered highly meritorious to bathe 
as long as the cold can be endured. 
Ten cho further np, the entrance 

to the sacred domain is indicated 
by a iorii perched on the top of a 
flight of steps. Here the traveller 
has to choose between the Otoko- 
zaka (man's ascent), and Onna- 
saka (woman's ascent), — the former 
a continuous series of steep flights 
of high steps, the latter longer but 
less fatiguing. Both j)aths unite 
higher up. The jjrospect from this 
latter point includes the plains of 
Sagami and Musashi, with the 
river Banyu, capes Misaki and 
Sunosaki at the entrance of Tokyo 
Bay, the sea, and the mountains of 
Kazusa. Some flights of steps lead 
up to the main temple, whence it 
is a climb of 28 rlul to the summit, 
which commands a view of Fuji, 
the wooded top of Tanzawa, the 
mountains of Niklvo, Enoshima, etc. 
(Tanzawa, whose name occurs 
several times in this volume, is a 
sinall range situated close to 
Oyama on the Avest. It includes 
Sobutsu-yama, Tanzawa projjer, 
and Bodai-yama, but offers little 

10.— Oiso. 

Oiso is 1|- hr. from Yokohama by 
the Tokaido Railway. The Japa- 
nese come here to loiter on the 
beautiful beach and bathe in the 
sea. There is a lovely ^dew : — to 
the r., Fuji, the Hakone range, and 
the peninsula of Izu ; ahead, Yries 
Island ; to the 1., the promontory 
of Misaki with the islet of Eno- 
shima. The *Tdryu-kican at Oiso 
is an excellent inn in Japanese 
style, at which some simple Euro- 
pean dishes may be obtained, and 
where there is a resident doctor. 
There is also a foreign restau- 
rant, said to be fair. 

Oiso, though appirentlj- so insignift- 
cant a pk'ce, boasts considerable anti- 
quity. Mention of it occurs in the storj' 
of the Soga Brethren's Revenge, in the 
l'2th century (see p. 84). Quite lately it 
has again assumed a sort of importance. 
Here the leaders of the Japanese political 
world have their villas, where those in- 
formal meetings are held which fore- 
shadow the creation or overthrow of 
coteries and Cabinets. 


Route 8. — Yokohama to Tokyo by Rail, 

Yokohama to Tokyo by Eail. 

8 S 


of 1 Remarks 

Stations > j 






Kawasaki . . 


Shiiiiigawa .... 

TOKYO (Shim- 
bashi) ... 


Express runs 

Change carri- 
ages for Sub- 
urban and 
K or th ern 

This railway, biiilt by English 
engineers and finished in the 
iiutiimn of 1872, was the first line 
opened to traflic in Japan. The 
journey fi-om Yokohama to Tokyo 
occupies 50 uiin. The line skirts 
the shores of Tokyo Bay, with the 
old Tokaidd Mghwm/ recognisable at 
intervals on the r. by its avenue of 
pines, (xlinipses are caught of the 
hills of Kazusa beyond the bay. 

Soon after leading Y'^okohamu, the 
Toliaido Kail way branches off ]. 
Observe the fine Aiew of Fuji near 
the first station. 

Kanagawa, once a noted post- 
town on the Tokaidd, and intimate- 
ly connected with the early settle- 
ment of foreigners in this part of 
Japan. (See p. 100). 

On the Tokaidd avenue near Xamamugi, 
between this station and the next, occur- 
red the umrder of Mr. Richardson, who, 
with two other I'^nglishmen ;iud a lady, 
got entangled in the armed procession of 
Shimazu Rabnro, prince of Satsuma, on 
the 14th September, 1862, — an outrage 
which ultimately led to the bombard- 
ment of Kagoshiiua. The whole story 
will be found in Black's Young Japan, 
Chap, 13. 

Kawasaki (Inn, Asadu-ya) is 
noted for a temple situated 1| m. 
from the station, dedicated to Kob5 
Daishi, and commonly known as 

JJaishi Sama. An electric tramway 
connects the two places. 

Local legend attributes the sanctity of 
the spot to an image of Kobo Daishi 
earvea by that saint himself while in 
China, aud consigned by him to the 
waves. It floated to this coast, where it 
was caught in a fisherman's net, and 
being conveyed ashore, performed nume- 
rous miracles. The trees in the temple- 
grounds, trained in the shape of junka 
under sail, attest the devotion paid to 
this holy image by the sea-faring folk. 

So great is its popularity that 
special trains are run on the 21st 
of each month to accommodate the 
crowds that -visit it. The chief 
festival takes place on the 21st 
March, when the grounds are filled 
with cheap stalls and itinerant 
shows. The temple possesses some 
excellent carvings and a handsome 
gateway erected in 1897. A Plum 
Garden [Bai-en), with pleasant tea- 
houses attached, adjoins the temple 
grounds, and is one of the show- 
places of the fragrant blossom. 

The river crossed just beyond 
Kawasaki is the Tamagaioa or 
Hokufjo, the upper course of which 
is romantically beautiful, and is 
described in Ete. 27, Sect. 3. Ex- 
tensive pear orchards stretch on 
either side of the line. Between 
this station and the next, the 
whole Hakone range, Buko-zan, 
and the other mountains of Chichi- 
bu come in view ahead to the 1. 
On nearing 

Omori, the wooded bluff seen 
1. is the site of the celebrated 
temple of Ikeyami. Immediately 
above the station lie the groundi? 
of a tea-house commanding a fine 
prospect, and the range of the Im- 
perial Japanese Kifle Club. 

Some extremely ancient shell-heaps 
discovered here by Professor E. S. Morse, 
but since removed, have been the subject 
of vehement discussion among the learn- 
ed. Mention of them will be found in 
Thinffs Japanese, article "Archaeology." 


Shinagawa, we see the forts 
buUt in Tokyo Bay during the 

latter days of the Shogunate, to 


±u SniDa , „ , 

from the British Lesration.— (Japa- | is a schedide :— 




Route 4. — Tokyo. 


impede hostile access to the great 
city, but now dismantled because 
(iseless in modern warfare. 

The numerous factory chimneys 
seen on nearing Tokyo are an in- 
novation of the last decade. Many, 
it will be noticed, are of thin iron 
tubing instead of the usual brick. 
This plan is adopted as a safeguard 
against earthquakes, which natural 
visitation afEects the Tokyo-Yoko- 
hama district with special fre- 
quency, owing to the fact that (as 
demonstrated by Prof. Milne) two 
lines of seismic activity here in- 

Just beyond the gas-works, the 
line skirts r. the prettily laid out 
garden of the 8hiba Pukyu, one of 
the minor Imperial palaces. A little 
further on, the noble trees in the 
grounds of the summer palace called 
Mama FdPzyn are seen also to the r.; 
and soon after, the train enters the 

Shimbaslii terminus, and the 
traveller is in Tokyo. 



Tokyd, formerly Yedo. 

Hotels. — Hotel Metropole, in 
Tsukiji ; Imperial ( Teiknku) Hotel, 
centrally situated. 

Japanese Inns. — Taizan-kwan, 
and Tori-kwan, near the Imperial 

Restaurants . — - (ForeignJ'ood) 
Shimbashi Terminus (upstairs) ; Sei- 
yo-ken, in Ueno Park ; San-en-tei, 
in Shiba Park ; Fujimi-ken, not far 
from the British Legation. — {Japa- 

nese food) Yaozen, at Han-ya, Asa- 
kusa ; Yaomatsu, at Mukdjiraa ; 
Hirasei, in Fukagawa ; Tokiwa-ya, 
in Hamacho (Kyu Hana-l'ashild). 

Tea-houses (for entertainments 
in Japanese style). — Koyo-kwan 
(Maple Club), in 8hiba Park ; Naka- 
mura-ro, at llyogolai ; Umegawa-ro, 
in Ueno Park. 

Club. — The Tokyo Club, at Saiwai- 
bashi, with mixed foreign and 
Japanese uiembership. 

Foreign Jegaivrns. — Great Britain. 
], Koji-machi Gobancho ; United 
States, 1, Akasaka Enold-zaka ; 
France, 1 . Eda-machi Itchome ; 
Germany, 14, Nagata-cho ; Holland 
(Denmark and Norway), II Shiba 

General Post Office di Central Tele- 
graph Office. — At Yedo-bashi. Sub- 
offices in various districts of the 

Parks. — Shiba, Ueno, Asakusa. 

Museums. — The H a k ii b u t s u - 
kwan, in Ueno Park ; Commercial 
Museum {Sho-hiii Chinretsu-kwan), 
near Shimbashi terminus : Museum 
of Arms {Yusha-kwan), in the 
grounds of the Shokonsha temple 
at Kudan. 

Public Library. — The Tosho- 
kwan, in Ueno Park. 

Churches. — Church of England, 
in Shiba Sakae-cho ; American 
Episcopal, Union Church (Pro- 
testant), Roman Cathohc, — aU in 

Theatres. — Kabuki-za, in Kobild- 
ch5 ; Meiji-za, in Hama-cho. 

Wrestling. — At Eko-in, in Honjo, 
twice yearly for ten days in winter 
and spring. Also at other times 
and places not fixed. 

Bazaars (Kicankoba). — At Shim- 
bashi bridge, in Shiba Park, and 
in Ueno Park {Shohin 
Fixed prices. 

A Railway, officially styled the 
Tokyo and Akabane Junction, but 
generally known as the Circular 
liailway, aifords an easy means of 
reaching certain points on the out- 
skirts of the city. The following 
is a schedule : — 


Route 4. — Tokyo. 


o "S 1 Xames 

lil of 


S S Stations 










Shinjiku Jet 

( Change f oiHa- 
? chioji Branch. 







J ChajiKe for the 
* North. 

An Urban Hoihcay, ninning part- 
ly througli the old castle moat, 
with, stations at lida-machi, Ushi- 
gome, Yotsnya, and Shinano- 
maclu, connects with the Circular 
Eailway at Shinjiku. 

Conveyances. — Jinrikishas are in 
universal use. Tram-cars, not much 
liatronised by the gentry or by 
Europeans, because usually crowd- 
ed with the Japanese lower classes, 
run fi-om the Shimbashi terminus 
along the principal thoroughfares 
to Ueno and Asakusa. Omnibuses 
of a sort are numerous. 

Livery Stables, — Tokyo Basha 
Kabu-shiki Gwaisha, with offices at 
the Imperial Hotel, at Monzeki- 
mae in Tsukiji, and at Kanda 

Steam Communication. — The com- 
pany called Tokyo Wan Kisen 
Gwaisha runs steamers daily to 
Uraga and Yokosuka, Chiba, Ki- 
sarazu, and other ports on the 
opposite side of the bay, and occa- 
sionally to Kominato and other 
ports on the Pacific Coast of the 
Kazusa-Boshu peninsula, to Atami, 
and other poi-ts in Izu. Its steam- 
ers start fi-om Beigan-jima. 

The Tsu-un Gwaisha runs daily 
steamers on the Tonegawa,— the 
Kami-Tone, or Upper Biver hne, 
taldng passengers to Gyotoku, Seki- 
yado, Koga, and numerous minor 
villages, while the Shimo-Tone, or 
Lower Biver line, branches off E. 
at Shinkawa for Sawara, Tsuno- 
miya, and Omigawa, whence S. to 

Choshi, and N. to Ofunatsu and 
Hokoda on the Kita-iu'a Lagoon. 
These steamers start from Eyogoku- 

The local steamers are but little 
used by foreigners and by the 
better class of Japanese, as they 
are small and make scant preten- 
sion to comfort. There is not even 
always a distinction of classes, 
though it is sometimes possible to 
secure a separate room by paying 
the price of five tickets. The fares 
are extremely low. 

The following are some of the 
chief shops at which articles likely 
to interest the tourist are sold : — 

Poreetaiu. —jNIikawa-ya, at Owari- 
cho Itchome ; Satsuma ware at 
Kono, No. 18, Shiba Tamachi, Shi- 
chome ; and at Itami, No. 5, Nihom- 
bashi, Hakuya-cho. 

Lacquer. — Kuroe-ya, at T5ri It- 
chome ; Hayashi, in Muromachi, 

Bronze. — Miyao, at No. 1, Nihom- 
bashi. Hon-Shirokane-cho (large 
things) ; ]VIikawa-ya, at Soto-Kanda, 
Hatago-chd Itchome (chiefly small 
things suited to foreign needs). 

Silver irare. — Itami, as above. 

Cloisonne. — Namikawa, at No. S, 
Nihom-bashi Shin-emon-cho. 

Ivory. — MaruM, in Himono-cho, 
Nihom-bashi ; Toyama, at Ginza 
Ni-chome, and at Higashi Naka- 
dori ; Miyamoto Sho, at 17 Asakusa, 
Saruya-cho ; Kaneda, 13, Ogacho. 

Bamboo-vorlc. — Fujimra-a, at 
Kojimachi Itchome. 

Old Silk and Embroideries. — Iwa- 
moto Denshichi, at No. 16, Nihom- 
bashi Kawasekoku-cho ; Morita, at 
No. S, Nihom-bashi Sanai-cho. 

Silk Mercers. — Mitsui, in Siaruga- 
cho, with show-rooms upstairs ; 
Daimaru, in Hatago-cho ; Shiroki- 
ya, in Tori Itchome ; Mizushima 
(chiefly modern embroideries and 
European articles for presents), in 
Honcho Itchdme, — aU in the 
Nihom-bashi district. 

Sakai Rugs. — ^Fujimoto, at Ginza 

Shops. Festivals 


Paper an/A Faas. — Haibara, No. 
1, Nihom-bashi, Tori Itchome. 

Bolls. — Jikken-dana (fine display 
for girls' festival, 3rd March, and 
boys' festival, 5tb May). 

Crape Paper Picture Books. — 
Hasegawa, in Hiyoshichd near 
SMmbasM Station. 

Coloured Prints. — Kobayashi, at 
Asakusa Komakata ; Ikeda, at 
Owari-ch5 Ni-chome. 

Photographs. — Ogawa, at No. 13, 
Kyobashi Hiyoshi-cho ; Okamoto, 
at Ginza San-chome. 

Bookseller. — Maruzen, at Nihom- 
bashi, Tori San-chome. 

Forei'pi, Proulsioa Dealer. — Kame- 
ya, at Ginza Takekawa-cho. 

Curios in general. — Ikeda, at 
Owari-cho Ni-chome ; Joko, at 
Kydbashi Yumi-cho ; Murata Kiui- 
bei, at Nihom-bashi Kawasekoku- 
cho ; Sawada-ya, at No. 17, Ginza 
Itchome ; Daizen, in Naka-ddri 
(chiefly for expensive articles). 

There is also an interesting street 
called Naka-ddri, running parallel 
to the main thoroughfare between 
Kyobashi and Nihom-bashi, full of 
shops where old curios and brocade 
are exposed for sale. 

Chief Populae Festivals. 

Monthly, 5th 

Monthly, 10th (October, 


Monthly, 17-18th 

Monthly, 21st (March, 


Monthly, 24th (September, 


First Day of the Hare 



April 18th 

May and November 6-8th. 

June 3rd .... 
June 3-14th. 





Kompira Tora-no-mon. 

Kwannon Asakusa. 

Baishl Kawasaki 

Afago Jinja Atago-shita. 

IVIid-July* . 

July 7-1-ith 
July 9-lOth 

July l.jth 

July 15th 

September ll-2Uth 
Sejit ember loth . . 
October r2-13th 



Sanja Matsuri 

Shokonsha (races, 

wrestling, etc.) 

Ejumano Jinja 

Tenno Matsuri 

Kaica-biraki ("Opening 
of the Eiver") 

Tenno Matsuri 

Shi-man Boku-sen 


Hikaica Jinja 

Shimmei Matsuri 

Ka nda Myqjin 

Eshiki (Anniversary 
of Nichiren's death.) 

November 22-2Sth Ko Mairi . 

November (on Days of the 
Bird, Torivo hi) 

Torino Machi ... 


Shilja and Ueno Parks. 



ligura and Aoyama. 
Shinagawa, Y'otsuya, 
Asakusa, Senji. 


Asakusa Kwannon. 





Ikegami and Hori-no- 

Monzeki temple at 



* Sometimea delayed by rainy weather to early August. 


Noide i. — Tdkyd. 

Temples having laontbly festivals are most crowded in January. 
May, and September. Further the 1st. loth, and 28th of each month 
are more or less specially observed. 

AMn to tlie popular festivals (matsurl or ennichi), are the following 
fairs {ichi), held at the close of the year for the citizens to make seasonable 
purchases : — 



December 13th Tenno Soma ShinagaAva. 

December 15th HacMman Fukagawa. 

Kwanaon Asfikusa. 

Kaivda Myojin Kandji. 

Shimmei Shiba. 

Atayo Atago-shita. 

Tenjin Hirakawa. 

Fiirlo Yagen-bori. 

December 17-I8th... 
December 20-21st . . . 
December 22-23rd . . . 
December 23-24:th . . . 

December 25th 

December 27-28th. 

The rite of Walking over Fiie (Hl-wituri) may be witnessed at the 
temple of Ontake at Kudan on the iJth April and 7th September. The 
less interesting Ih-dejil b> Boiling Wnter {Kutja-darhi) takes place on the 
previous da.\ . 


rinm-bios.suins ( (Jme). — Kamada. 
on the old Tokaido between CJmori 
and Kawasaki : Kameido Ume- 
yashiki and Kinegawa Ume- 
yashiM, l)oth close to Mukojima, 
Januar> to beginning of March. 

Cherry-hlossoms (Sakura). — Ueno, 
Mukdjima, and Shiba, early in 
April ; Koganei. middle of April. 
So many avenues of cherry-trees 
have been planted in Tokyo during 
the last twenty years, that for a 
brief space in spring the whole city 
is more or less a show of these 
lovely blossoms. 

Peonies (Botan). — Florists' gar- 
dens at Somei, end of April ; Sen- 
kwa-en and Shokwa-en in Azabu. 
beginning of May. 

Wistarias {Fuji). — Kameido. first 
week in May. 

Azaleas (Tsutsuji). — Florists' gar- 
dens at Okubo-mtura, early in May. 

Irises (Haroa-shobn). — HoriMri. 
beyond Mukdjima, early in June. 

Convolvuli {Asagao). — Florists' 
gardens at Iriya in Shitaya, end of 
July and beginning of August. 

Lotus-jlowers (Hasu). — Lake Shi- 
nobazu at Ueno, and the Palace 
moats, beginning of Augiist. These 

dowers can only be seen to perfec- 
tion during the morning hoiu's. 

Chrysapfhemums (Kikii). — Dan- 
go-zaka and Asakusa, beginning of 

Maples (Momijl). — Kaianji at 
Shinagawa. beginrdng of Novem- 
ber ; Oji, middle of November. 

Principal Places to visit. — Shiba 
and Ueno Parks (tombs of the 
Tokugawa Shoguns in both, the 
former more easily accessible). 
Temple of Kwannon at Asakusa 
and neighboiudng park, Hakubutsu- 
kwan Museiuu at Ueno, the Kwan- 
koba Bazaar in Shiba, Atago Tower 
for view of the city. Drive along 
the main thoroughfare (Ginza) to 
Nihom-bashi and round the inner 
moat {Naka-bori). 

Time of Chief Points by jinrikisha 
with two coolies : 

From Shimbashi terminus to : — 

Imperial Hotel 5 ilin. 

Tokyo Club 5 „ 

Hotel Metropole 12 „ 

British Legation 18 „ 

United States Legation... 10 „ 

Shiba Park 10 „ 

Ueno Park 35 „ 

Asakusa (Kwannon) 40 „ 

History. Shiha Park. 


HisTiiEY. — Tbe city ia of comparatively 
modem origin. Down to the middle ages, 
most of the ground which it covers was 
washed by the sea or occnpied by lagoons. 
On the sea-shore stood, in the 15th centu- 
ry, the fishing hamlet of I'e-do ("estuary 
gate'"), _near which a certain warrior, 
named Ota Dokwan, built himself a 
fortress in the year 14.50. The advantages 
of the position from a military point of 
view were discerned by Hideyoshi, who 
therefore caused his general, leyasu, to 
take possession of the castle, and when 
leyasu himself became Shogun iu 1G03. 
he made Yedo his capital. From that 
time forward Japan thus practically had 
two capitals, — Kyoto in the west, where 
the Mikado dwelt in stately seclusion, 
and Yedo in the east, whence the Shogun 
held sway over the whole land. The 
latter'a feudal retainers, — the Daimyos, or 
territorial nobility were obliged to reside 
in Yedo for half of each year. On the 
fall of the Shogunate in 18C8, the Mikado 
came and took up his abode in Yedo, and 
soon after the name of the city was 
changed to Tokyo or Tokei, these being 
alternative methods of pronouncing the 
Chinese characters jjT f?. with which the 
name is written. The meaning of the 
term Tokyo is "Eastern Capital." It was 
given in contradistinction to Saikyo, or 
"Western Capital," the name by which 
Kyoto was re-christened. The Emperor's 
palace stands in the centre of the city, 
within a double line of moats, on the site 
once occupied by_the Shogun's castle, 
and earlier still by Ota Dokwan'a fortress. 
A whole network of canals, traversing 
the business quarter of the city, connects 
these with the Sumida-gawa. 

Tokyo has been burnt down and built 
uj) again many times, fires having former- 
ly been as common in this wooden city 
as at Constantinople. It has also sufi'ered 
much from earthquakes, especially from 
what is still remembered as the great 
earthquake of 1855. At the present day 
Tokyo covers an immense area, popularly 
estimated at 4 ri in every direction, in 
other words, 100 square miles. 

The city ia divided for administrative 
purposes into fifteen districts (Ku), viz : — 
1, Koji-machi ; 2, Kanda : 3, Nihom-bashi ; 
4, Kyobashi ; 5, Shiba ; 6, Azabu ; 7, Aka- 
saka ; 8, Yotsuya : 9, Ushigome ; 10, Koishi- 
kawa ; 11, Hongo ; 12, Shitaya ; 1:3, Asa- 
kusa ; 14, Honjo ; 15, Fukagawa. The 
principal suburbs are Shiuagawa S., Naito 
Shinjiku W., Itabashi N. W., .and Senju 
N. E. 

Since 1869, a great change has taken 
place in the outward appearance of the 
city. Most of the yashikl. or Daimyos' 
mansions, have been pulled down to 
make room for buildings in European 
style, better adapted to modern needs. 
The two-sworded men have disappeared, 
the palanquin has given place to the 
iinrikisha, and foreign dres.? has been very 

generally adopted by the male half of the 
population. But Tokyo ia picturesque 
enough, and, as seen from any height has 
a tranquil and semi-rural aspect owing to 
the abundance of trees and foliage, — an 
effect increased of late years by the plant- 
ing of numerous avenues of cherry-trees, 
which, early in April, transform the town 
into a garden of blossom. 

A plan of city improvement has been 
adopted, in consequence of which the 
narrower streets of any district burnt 
down are widened, and better sanitary 
arrangements introduced. 

Waterworks are in process of construc- 
tion to supply Tokyo with water from the 
river Tamagawa. 

Owing to the shape and the vast 
extent of the city, it is impossible 
to combine the chief sights in a 
single round. The best plan is to 
take them in gi'oups, according to 
the direction in which they lie. 
The following description proceeds 
on this principle. 

1. — Shiba Pake. Temples and 
Tombs of the Shoguns. The 




From the 8himbashi Kailway 
terminus, a long naiTow street, 
called Hikage-cho at the beginning 
and Shimmei-mae at the end, leads 
to Shiba Park, and is particularly 
well worth strolling along for the 
sake of the shops. Nowhere can 
one more easily pick up the thou- 
sand and one little articles that are 
in daily use among the people. 

Passing in by the Daimon, or 
Great Gate, we turn through the 
park r. to the Kioankoba, one of 
the best bazaars in T5ky6, where 
everything is sold at fixed prices ; 
or if one enter Shiba Park by the 
N. gate ( Onari-Mon), the Kwankdba 
will be on the 1. 

Shiba Park (Shiba Komrhi) formed, till 
1877, the grounds of the great Buddhist 
temple of Zdjoji, the head-quarters in this 
city of the Jodo sect. Here are still 
preserved the Blortuary Temples {Go Rei- 
ya) of several of the Tokugawa Shoguns, 
leyasu, the founder of that dynasty and 
of Yedo, having taken Zojoji under his 
special protection, and chosen it as the 
temple where the funeral tablets {ihai't of 


Route 4. — Tokyo. 

himself and his descendants should be 
preserved. The temple had been 
originally founded in 1393, but wrts re- 
moved iu 1596 to the present site. The 
partial transfer of the temple to the Shin- 
toists, iu 1873, naturally led to friction 
between them and the Buddhists, the 
gravest consequence of which was the 
destruction by fire of the magnificent 
main building on the 1st January, 187i. It 
has been replaced by a new build- 
ing, smaller and much less imposing. 
Only the large gate (sammon) remains just 
as it was built in 1623. This temple, 
which is used for popular worship, must 
not be mistaken for one of the Mortuary 

The following is a list of the Tokugawa 
Shoguus. Those whose names are marked 
with an asterisk are buried at Ueno, at 
the opposite end of Tokyo; those whose 
names have a dagger prefixed lie at 
Xikko, 100 miles to the X. of Tokyo, and 
the others at Shiba. 




1. tieyasu Toshogu 1616 

'-'. Hidetada Taitoku-In 1632 

3. tiemitsu Taiyu-In 1651 

4. *Ietsuna Geny u-In 1080 

5. *Tsunayo8hi . . .Joken-In 1709 

6. lenobu Bunsho-In 1713 

7. Tetsugu Yiisho-In 1716 

8. *i'oshimune . . .Yutoku-In 17ril 

9 . leshige Junshin-In 1761 

10. *Ieharu Shimmei-ln 178G 

11. *Ienari Buukyo-In 1841 

12. leyoshi Shintoku-Iii 1853 

13. *Iesada Onkyo-In 1858 

U. lemochi Shotoku-In 1866 

15. Yoshinobu (usually called Kei- 

ki), abdicated, and is still living 
in retirement st Tokyo. 

The Shiba Temples, which 
count among the chief luarvels of 
Japanese art, should, if possible, be 
visited on the forenoon of a fine 
day. OtherM'ise their situation, and 
the black boarding which has been 
put up to ward off the attacks of 
the weather, will interfere ■with the 
full enjoyment of then- minutely 
elaborate decorations. They may 
best be taken in the following order. 
Persons pressed for time might 
limit themselves to an inspection 
of the temple and tomb (Octagonal 
Shrine) of the •2nd Shogun only 
(see p. 120). 

The entrance to the Mortuary 
Shrines of letsugu and leshige, 
the 7th and 9th Shoguns, is 

immediately opposite the Kwan- 
koba. A highly ornamented gate 
called the Ni-Ten Mon, or (rate 
of the Two Deva Kings, leads into 
a court containing numerous stone 
lanterns offered by Daimyos as a 
mark of respect to the memory of 
their deceased lord and master, the 
Shogun. At the opposite end of the 
court is the Choku-r/alcu Mon, or 
Gate of the Imperial Tablet, so 
called from a tablet hung over the 
hntel, containing in gold letters the 
posthumous name of the 7th Sho- 
gun in the fac-simile of the hand- 
writing of the Mikado known to 
history as Naka-no-Mikado-no-In 
(d. 1737). This gate is remarkable 
for its pillars with dragons twisted 
round them, originally gUt over a 
coating of red oxide of iron. Pass- 
ing through this gate, we enter an 
inner court hned with bronze lan- 
terns, two hundred and twelve in 
all, dating some fi'om A. D. 1716, 
some from 1761, also the gift of 
Daimyos, and ha\'ing r. a behry and 
1. a cistern for holy water. Hence 
through a third gate called the 
Kara Mon, or Chinese Gate, on 
either side of which extends a 
gaUery with beautifully painted 
carvings of flowers and bii'ds in the 
panels. Observe the angel on the 
ceUing, the work of Kano Ryosetsu. 
A short colonnade of black i)illars 
edged with gold leads to the portico 
of the temple, where, among other 
triumphs of carving, are two 
dragons, called " the Ascending and 
Descending Dragons" (Nobori-ryu 
and Kudari-ryu), which serve as 
beams to connect the temple with 
two pillars outside. 

Tii to this point the pubhc has 
free admittance. Those desirous 
of seeing the interior of the temple, 
together with the tombs, must 
apply to the custodian, and pay 
him on departing a fee of 20 sen per 
head. Boots must of course be 
removed before entering. (These 
observations hold good at all the 
other Mortuary Temples.) The 
-visitor is led directly into the 

Shiba Temples. 


sanctum containixig the altar. 
And here be it noticed that each 
of these Mortuary Temples consists 
of three parts, — an outer oratory 
(haiden), a connecting gallery or 
corridor {ai-iio-ma), and an inner 
sanctum (hondcn). In each of these 
one finds oneself in a blaze of 
gold, colours, and elaborate ara- 
besques, which, especially if the 
day be fine, quite dazzle the eye by 
their briUiancy. In feudal times, 
when the Shogun came to worship 
the spirits of his ancestors, he 
alone ascended to the sanctum, 
the gi'eater Daimyos ranged them- 
selves next to him in the corridor 
below, and the lesser nobihty oc- 
cupied the oratory. 

The altar of this temple is sepa- 
rated from the corridor by one of 
those bamboo blinds bound with 
silk, which, together with a pecuhar 
kind of banner, temj^er the brillian- 
cy of the other decorations. The 
sanctum contains three double- 
roofed shiines of the most gor- 
geous gold lacquer, picked out with 
body-colour below the eaves, and 
held together by costly and elabo- 
rate metal-work. That to the r. 
contains a wooden image of the 
father of the 6th Shogun, that in 
the middle an image of the 7th 
Shogun, and that to the 1. one of 
the 9th Shdgun, together with the 
funeral tablets of each. The 
images, which are considered sacred 
because presented by Mikados, are 
never shown. On either side of 
each shiine stand wooden statu- 
ettes of the Shi-Tenno, who guard 
the world against the attacks of 
demons. In front are Kwannon 
and Benten. The wall at the back 
is gilt, while the altar and two 
tables in front are of splendid red 
lacquer. In innumerable places 
may be seen the three-leaved 
asarum or kamo-aoi, which is the 
crest of the Tokugawa family, and 
the lotus, the Buddhist emblem of 
purity. The altar is protected at 
night by massive gilt gates, orna- 
mented with the famUy crest and 

conventional floM'ers. Descending 
into the corridor, and noticing as 
we pass the gorgeous paneUing of 
the ceiling, we reach the oratory, 
where the decorations are on a 
similar scale of magnificence. Ob- 
serve the conventional paintings of 
Uons on the wall. Under the 
baldachin sits on festival days (12th 
and 13th of each month, when visi- 
tors are not admitted) the abbot of 
Zojoji, while the priests are ranged 
around at small lacquer tables. 
The lacquer boxes on these tables 
contain scroUs of the Buddhist 
sutras. As the guide leads the 
way from the temple to the tombs, 
observe on the eaves the carvings 
of musical instruments, lions, 
dragons, etc. Observe, too, the 
carvings of unicorns (kirin) on the 
Oshi-kiri Mon, or Dividing Gate, 
which is now passed through. 
Although the carving is open-work, 
the dragons appear quite different 
according to the side from which 
they are viewed. Thence, through 
a noble coui't with more bronze 
lanterns, to a stone staircase which 
leads up to the site of the Tombs, — 
that of the 7th Shdgun to the 1., 
that of the 9th Shogun to the r. 
Below each tomb is a highly 
decorated oratory. The tombs are 
of stone, in the shape called hoto 
(treasure shrine), which somewhat 
resembles a pagoda. They stand 
on an octagonal gi'anite base, with 
a stone balustrade. Their simplici- 
ty contrasts strongly with the 
lavish magnificence of all that goes 
before. As lilitford says in his 
Tales of Old Japan, " The sermon 
may have been preached by design, 
or it may have been by accident, 
but the lesson is there." 

The pattern on the black copper 
sheeting round the wall enclosing 
the tomb, is intended to represent 
the waves of the sea. The body is 
said to be buried at a depth of 20 
ft., and to have been coated with 
vermilion and charcoal powder to 
prevent decay. The tomb of the 
9th Shogun is a replica of that of 

Shiba Temples 


the 7tb. On lea\ing- this place, we 
pass the oratory of the 7th Shogun, 
and notice the exquisite carvings 
in high relief of peacocks on the 
panels of the gate. 

Leaving this temple by the Cho- 
ku-gnlcu Mo7i, and turning r. 
through rows of stone lanterns, we 
soon reach r. another splendidly 
carved gate, which gives access to 
the temple and tombs of the Gth, 
12th, and 14th Shoguns. In 

arrangement, the temj)le closely 
resembles the one we have just 
left ; but the gilt is fresher, the 
carvings are truer to nature, and 
the general impression more 
magniticent, the result jjerhaps 
of the interest taken by the 6th 
Shogun in the preparation of 
his own last resting-place. The 
flowers and birds in the spaces 
between the cornice and the lintel 
of the oratory are perfect, both 
in chiselling and in dehcacy of 
colour. The coffered ceihng is a 
masterpiece ; and the \'ista of the 
altar, as one stands under the 
baldachin, reveals an inde- 
scribable glory of blended gold 
and colours. The order of the 
shrines on the altar is, from r. to 
1., that of the 12th, 6th, and lith 
Shoguns, the shrine of the last 
containing also the funeral tablet 
of his consort. 

From the Mortuary Temple, a 
flight of steps at the back leads iip 
to the tombs of these three Shoguns 
and of the consort of the Idtli, who 
was aunt to the present Mikado, 
and after the death of her husband 

bore the title of Sei-kwan-in-no- 
Miya. Her obsequies, in 1877, 
were the last performed within 
these precincts. Each tomb has a 
small oratory attached. The fine 
bronze gate of the enclosure of No. 
6, which is the first tomb reached, 
is said to be the work of Korean 
artificers ; but the design was 
probably furnished by a Japanese 
draughtsman. The dragons in low 
relief on the r. and 1., both inside 
and out, are specially worthy of 
attention. Next to it is the tomb 
of the 12th Shogun, and beyond it 
again those of the 14th and his 
consort. The tomb of this princess 
is of bronze and marked by the 
Imperial crest, the sixteen-petalled 

Quitting the gi'ounds of this 
Mortuary Temple by a small side 
door to the r., we turn down 1. to 
the main road, and enter the 
grounds of the Temple of Zojoji by 
the Great Gate {Sammon), which 
is the oldest (277 years) of all the 
buildings, it having escaped the 
gi-eat tire of 1874. Notice that 
it is lacquered red, not simply 
painted. The upper storey, which 
is reached by an extremely steep 
staircase, contains large images of 
the Sixteen Eakan, coloured and 
seated in an artificial rockwork. 
In the middle is Shaka, finely gUt. 
These can generally be seen only 
on application to the priests. The 
gi-and bell, on the r., was saved 
from the fire, and only suspended 
again in 1892. On the 1. are the 
priests' apartments {Hqjo) and 

Index to PijAN of Shtba Temples. 

1. Ni-TenMon. 

2. Temple of 7th and 9th Shoguns. 

3. Tombs of 7th and 9th Shoguns. 

4. Temple of 6th, 12th, and 14th 


5. Tombs of 6th, 12th, and 14th 


6. Great Gate (Sammon). 

7. Shrine of Five Hundi-ed Kakan. 

8. Priests' Apartments. 

9. Zojoji. 

10. Gokoku-den. 

11. Ten-ei-in. 

12. Temple of 2nd Shogun. 

13. Octagonal HaU {Hakkaloj.-dd). 

14. Ankoku-den (Tos/to^rM). 

15. Maruyama. 

16. Pagoda. 

17. Shrine of Benten. 

18. Koyo-kwan (Maple Club). 


Boule 4. — Tokyo. 

temple offices {Jimusho). In front 
is the main temple of Zojoji, 
restored outwardly in the plainest 
style, but spacious mthin. The 
large gilt image of Amida enthron- 
ed on the altar is from the chisel 
of the famous Buddhist abbot and 
artist Eshin. The temple pos- 
sesses many objects of artistic and 
historical interest, but they are 
only occasionally displayed. Just 
outside, on the 1., is a stone with 
the imprint of Buddha's feet, 
which are of phenomenal size. 

The Kttle temjile at the back of 
Z6j5ji, in the same biilhant style 
of decoration as the Mortuary 
Temples, is called Gokoku-den. It 
contains the Kuro-Honzon, or Black 
Image, — a statuette of Amida by 
Eshin, noteworthy on account of 
the veneration in which it was 
held by leyasu, who used to cany 
it about with him in his campaigns, 
and ascribed his victories to its 
influence. Admittance to the 
Gokoku-den is gained through the 
priests' house to the 1. The Black 
Image, which is not shown save on 
great occasions, is enclosed in a 
handsome gold reUquary. Another 
rehquary contains small marble 
images of the Sixteen Rakan. 
Notice the curious plate-shaped 
ornaments above the pillars in 
front of the altar, with the Bud- 
dhist gods Shaka, Monju, and 
Fugen, and attendant animals in 
high relief. The bold j)aintings of 
hawks round the waUs recall 
leyasu's fondness for hawking. 
The fine bronze image of Shaka 
outside dates from the year 1763. 

Such unprotected statues are called in 
Japanese by the rather irreverent name 
of "wet saints" (nurc-hotoke). The thin 
sticks inscribed with Sanskrit characters 
■which stand behind it, are sotoba (see 
p. 43-4). 

Coming down from Gokokunlen, 
and leaving the Zdjoji enclosure by 
an opening to the r., we next reach 
the Mortuary Temple ( Ten-ei-in) at- 
tached to the tombs of the consorts 
of the '2nd, 6th, 11th, and 12th 

Shogvms. Admittance is by the 
priests' house to the 1. Though 
the oratory is plainer than those 
already described, the altar is by 
no means less splendid. Gilded 
gates. gilded panelling, huge 
gilded pillars, — everything sparldes 
with gold, while the shrines on the 
altar are the most magniticent 
specimens extant of a peciiliar kind 
of lacquer adorned M-ith metal- 
work. Their order is, from r. to 1., 
the consorts of the 12th, 6th, 2nd, 
and 11th Shoguns, while in the 
extreme 1. corner is that of the 
concubine of the 5th. The coffered 
ceihng, decorated -nith the phoenix 
in various colours, is specially 

From this temple, we pass into 
the coiu-t of that attached to the 
tomb of the 2nd Shogiui, — entrance 
though the priests' house to the 
r. The sanctum is a grand ex- 
ample of Japanese religious ar- 
chitectui-e. Two huge gilded pillars 
called daijin-hashira, r. and 1. of 
the altar, support the lofty vaulted 
roof, curiously constructed of a net- 
work of beams. The upper part of 
the walls is decorated with large 
carved medalhons of birds in high 
relief, richly painted and gilt. The 
shrine is of fine gold lacquer, over 
two and a half centuries old, and 
the tjibles in front also deserve 
inspection. The bronze incense- 
burner in the form of a lion dates 
from 1635. leyasu's war-drum 
rests on a large ornamental stand. 
The coffers in the ceilings are filled 
with fretwork over lacquer. 

A short walk among the lofty 
trees behind to the 1. leads up to 
the Hakkaku-do, or Octagonal Hall, 
containing the tomb of the 2nd 
Shogun, which is the largest speci- 
men of gold lacquer in the world 
and one of the most magnificent. 
Parts of it are inlaid A^-ith enamel 
and crystals. The scenes on the 
upper half represent the "Eight 
Views " of Siao-Siang in China and 
of Lake Biwa in Japan, while the 
lower half is adorned with the lion 

Shiha Temples. Forty-seven Ronins. 


and i^eony, — the Mng of beasts and 
the Mng of flowers. The base is of 
stone shaped Hke a lotns-flower. 
The shrine contains only an efligy 
of the Shogun and his fnneral 
tablet, the actual body being be- 
neath the pavement. The interior 
walls of the hall are of lacquer 
gilded over. Eight pillars covered 
-with gilt copper plates support the 

Outside this building are two 
curiously carved stones, dating 
fi-om 16i4. The subject of one is 
" Shaka's Entry into Nirvana," and 
of the other the " Mve-and-Twenty 
Bosatsu" coming with Amida to 
welcome the departed soul. The 
oratory in fi'ont of the Octagonal 
Hall contains nothing worthy of 
special notice. 

Descending again to the Mortua- 
ry Temple, and passing through its 
two gates, the visitor rejoins the 
main road, and turning r., •will 
reach, a hundred yards further on, 
the large gate stanthng in front of 
the temple of Ankoku-den. Here, 
on the 17th of every month, a 
popular festival is held in honour 
of the Shogun leyasu, who is wor- 
shipped as a Shinto deity under 
the name of Toshogu. Constructed 
when Buddhism was dominant, 
this temple is architecturally as 
highly ornamented as the rest, the 
present supremacy of the Shinto 
cult being indicated only by the 
paper symbols {gohel) in the orato- 
ry, which also contains a large 
bronze mirror and two gilt arna- 
iaa. The sanctum (admittance 
through the Shamusho, or temple 
office, to the r.) stands behind, in a 
separate enclosure. The cotfered 
ceiling is very fine, as are the 
hawks and birds of paradise on a 
gold ground in the panels round 
the interior. Particularly excellent 
is a painting by Kano Hogen at the 
back of the altar, representing 
Shaka attended by Monju and 
Fugen. The shrine is about 4 ft. 
high, with an elaborate cornice of 
three rows of brackets ; and its 

walls are of splendid gold lacquer 
with raised designs. In front, on 
the door-panels, are eight small 
landscapes, with dragons de- 
scending through the clouds on 
either hand. At the sides are 
boldly designed groups of the pine 
and bamboo. Inside is a life-like 
wooden effigy of leyasu, which can 
be seen only on the 17th day of the 

A visit to Shiba may be termi- 
nated by walking up Mnruyama, 
the little hill at the back, which 
commands a pretty view of the 
bay. Close to the Pagoda, which 
is not open to the public, stands a 
monument erected in 1890 to the 
memory of Ino Chtikei, the father 
of Japanese cartography, who floru'- 
ished in the ISth century. 

The mound of which this monument 
stands has recfntly been discovered by 
Prof. Tsuboi to be an artilicial tumulus 
(tsuha) of the gourd-shape used for Im- 
perial interments over a thousand years 
ago ; and there are two smaller tumuli 
close by. The larger was probably the 
burial-jilace of some prince, as a branch 
of the reigning family settled in Eastern 
Japan in very early times. 

Thence one descends to the little 
Temple of Benteti, picturesquely 
situated on an islet in a lake over- 
gTOwn with lotuses. Further back 
in the wood stands the Kdyd-ku:an, 
or Maple Club, vrhere excellent 
dinners and beautiful dances in 
native style are given. 

Shiba is particularly lovely in 
early Ajiril, when the cheiTV-trees 
are in blossom. 

About 1 m. from the Shiba tem- 
ples, in the direction of Shinagawa, 
stands the Buddhist temple of 
Sengakuji, where the Forty-seven 
Ronins {Shi-ju-sldchi Shi) lie 

For their dramatic stoiy, see Things 
Japanese. A more minute account is 
given in Mitford's Tales of Old Japan. 

Just ^vithin the gate is a two- 
storied building called Kanranjo, 
where swords, armour, and other 


Route 4, — Tokyo. 

relics o£ these heroes are shown 
on payment of a small fee. The 
well (Kuhi-arai ido), where the 
E,6nins washed the head of the 
foe on whom they had taken ven- 
geance, still exists by the side of 
the path leading to the tombs, 
which are ranged on the r. side of 
a small square court. That in^ the 
further corner is the gi'ave of Oishi 
Kuranosuke, the leader of the 
faithful band ; and the monument 
next to his, on the other side of the 
stone fence, marks the grave of the 
lord for whose sake he and his 
comrades sacrificed their lives. 
The popular reverence for these 
heroes is attested by the incense 
perpetually kept burning before 
Oishi's gi'ave, and by the visiting 
cards constantly left there. Paint- 
ed statuettes of the Eonins are 
exhibited in a building below. 

On the way back, one may obtain 
a good ^iew of the city by going 
up Aiarjo-yamu, a small hill a short 
w^ay to the K. of Shiba Park, named 
after the higher Mount Atago at 

Aiaijo i.s proiierly the uaine of ;t di- 
vinity ; see p. 15. 

Atago-yama, like many other 
such places in Japan, has two 
flights of stejjs leading up, it, one 
of which, called '-the men's stair- 
case" (otoko-zaka), is straight and 
s eep, while the other, or " women's 
sUdrcase" (onna-zaka), is circuitous 
but less fatiguing. A tower has 
been erected on Atago-yama, which 
visitors pay a trifling fee to ascend. 
The viewjncludes Fuji, the Hakone 
range, Oyama, Mitake, Mount 
Tsukuba, and the pro^inces beyond 
T5ky5 Bay with Kano-zan and No- 

'2.' .4KASAKA .\XD AzABU. 

Akasaka and Azabu are the 
highest and healthiest parts of 
Tokyo, but contain very httle to 
interest the tourist. In a jjart of 
Akasaka called Aoyima, is situated 

the palace occupied for many years 
by the Mikado while his present 
palace was building, and now by 
the Crown Prince. It is not open 
to the public ; but the elite of 
Tokyo society is invited there once 
yearly to a garden party in Novem- 
Iber, given on the occasion of what 
is perhajjs the most wonderful chry- 
santhemum show in the world. 
Closel}' adjoining it, is an immense 
Parade Ground (liempei-bu), where 
the annual review on the Mikado's 
birthday (3rd November) is held. 
A little further to the S. lies the 
Aoyama Cemetery, part of which has 
been reserved for the interment of 

Zempukujl, a temple of the Monto 
sect, dates from A.D. 1'23'2, and is 
somewhat striking. The temple 
relics are exhibited from the 1st to 
6th November. In the courtyard 
stands an enormous iclH) tree, 
known as the " Staff Icho." 

Local tradition says tliat when Hhinraii 
Shonin. the founder of the Moiito .sect, 
was about to depart for Kyoto, and bade 
adieu to Ryokai, the apostle of the sect 
in Eastern Japan, he stuck his staff upside 
down in the ground, saying, "Like this 
staff shall be the strength of the faith and 
the salvation of the lieople," — whereupon 
the staff immediately begiiii to take root 
and sprout uii wards. 

To the W. of Azabu, in the suburb 
of Shibuya, stands the lied Cross 
Hospital {Seki-j nji-slm Byohi), a 
large and admiraljly organised in- 

3, — Chief Builuino.s ix Koji- 
MACHi. The Diet. Sanno. 

Leaving Hhimbashi station and 
turning 1. along the moat, the 
wooden buildings of the Imperial 
Diet will be seen beyond the em- 
bankment on the other side. The 
large brick buildings soon passed r. 
were completed in 1877 for the 
College of Engineering, the earliest 
scientific academy established in 
Japan, and jiresided over by English 
professors. Since the amalgama- 

Sanyi.o. Shokonsha: Yushu-kwav. 


tioa of this College with the Impe- 
rial University in 1886, the build- 
ings have been nsed for various 
other purposes. 

Turning along the moat r., we 
come to a stretch of flat gi"Ound, 
which was till recently a swamp 
called Tame-ike. On the hill to the 
r. is the mansion of Marquis 
Nabeshima, formerly Daimyo of 
Hizen and now Grand Master of 
Ceremonies at the Imperial Comt. 
In front is the prettily wooded emi- 
nence on which stands the Shinto 
Temple of Sauno, ofticially styled 
Hie Jinja. Dating in its jDresent 
form from 1654, it was adopted by 
the Shoguns of the Tokugawa 
dynasty as their tutelary shrine. 
.All the buildings, except the main 
temple, are falling into decay. 
Each of the inner compartments of 
the large gate contains a seated 
image of a monkey ornamented 
with a bib, that animal being re- 
garded as the servant of the divinity 
of Hie, for which reason monkeys 
also figure on the altar. 

This neighbourhood, of which 
the chief part is called Naijaia-cho, 
is one of the most fashionable in 
Tokyo. Here stand the palaces of 
Princes Kita-8hirakawa and Arisu- 
gawa, and the residences of man)"" 
high officials and foreign dij^lomats. 
Hence, in local parlance, it is some- 
times nicknamed Daimyo Koji, or 
the Daimyo Quarter. Below 
Prince Kita-Shirakawa's Palace lies 
the Kioi-cho Koenchi, a garden 
planted with azaleas and contain- 
ing a luige monolith commemora- 
tive of ( )kubo Toshimichi, one of 
the founders of the new order of 
things in Jajjan, who was assassin- 
ated near this spot on the l-lth 
May, 1878. On the flat top of the 
Kudan hill, a short way beyond the 
British Legation, stands the Hhinto 
temple of Yasukuni, better known 
as the 

Shokouslia, or Spirit-Invoking 

This temple was erected in 18C9 for the 
worship of the aijirits of those who had 

fallen iightiug for the Mikado's cause in 
the revolutionary war of the previous 
year. Services are also held in honour of 
those who fell in the Saga troubles of 
1873, the Satsuma rebellion of 1877, and 
the China war of 1894;-.5. 

The Shokonsha is built in accord- 
ance with the severest canons of 
pure Shinto architecture, and is 
comjpletely empty except for a 
mirror, a European drugget, and a 
dozen cheap wooden chairs for the 
use of the officials who come to 
assist at the memoiial services 
which are held from time to time, 
the principal ones being on the 6- 
8th May and 6-8th November. 
These occasions are enlivened by 
horse-races, wrestling, and other 
popular amusements. The enor- 
mous bronze forii was manufactur- 
ed in the Osaka arsenal, and set up 
in December, 1887. 

The grounds behind the temple 
have been tastefully laid out, and 
look their best in early spring when 
the plum-trees are in blossom. 

The brick building to the r. of 
the temple is the Yiishu-kican, a 
Museum of Arms, which is open 
on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Sat- 
urdays, from 8 A.M. till 5 p.m. in 
Slimmer, and from 9 to 3 in winter. 
It well deserves a ^isit, for the sake 
of the magnificent specimens of old 
Japanese swords and scabbards 
which it contains, as well as ar- 
mour, old Korean bronze cannon, 
trophies of the China war of 1894-5, 
etc. The numerous jjortraits of 
modern military men are depressing 
specimens of the painter's art. The 
granite lanterns lining the avenue 
which runs down the centre of the 
race-coiu'se, were presented by the 
nobility in 1878. The large bronze 
statue of Omma Hyobu Tayu, 
a distinguished patriot in the war 
that restored the Mikado to jiower, 
was erected in 1892, and is remark- 
able as the first Japanese example 
of this method of commemorating 
departed worth. 

Leading the grounds of the Sho- 
konsha, we come to an ancient 


Route 4. — Tokyo. 

stone beacon, which formerly light- 
ed junks on their way up Yedo 
Bay. Opposite to it, stands a 
monument in the shape of a bayo- 
net, erected in 1880 by the soldiers 
of the Imperial Guard, in memory 
of their comrades who had fallen 
fighting on the loyalist side in the 
Satsuma rebellion. This point 
overlooks the city in the direction 
of Ueno. The prominent edifice on 
the bluff opposite {Suriuja-dai) is 
the Eusslan Cathedral, consecrated 
in 1891. To the citizens of Tokyd 
it is familiarly known as yikora't, 
from Bishop Nicolai, who built it. 
At the foot of Kudan-zaka stands 
the Temple of Ontake, where the 
curious ceremonies of " Ordeal by 
Boiling Water " and " Walking over 
Fire " are held on the 8-9th April 
and 16-17th September. For de- 
tails, see Percival Lowell's " Occult 

4. — KojEviACHi (continued). The 
Inner Moat. The Impeeial 
Palace. Insatst; Kyoktj. 

Another and more direct way 
from Shimbashi to the Shokonsha 
at Kudan, is by crossing the first 
bridge (Snkcai-hashi) over the moat, 
passing the Tokyo Club on the 1., 
and going straight on as far as the 
Houses of the Diet, at the further 
end of the open space known as 
Hibiya, now lined on its W. side 
with extensive public buildings, 
viz. (counting from 1. to i*.) the 
Naval Department, the Judicial 
Department, and the Courts of 
Justice. Here the road turns r., 
with the Russian Legation and the 
Foreign Office on the 1. Skirting the 
moat, the large building seen in 
front is the Head-Quarters of the 
General Staff Department. 

Near here, on the 21th March, 1860, li 
KamoQ-no-Kanii, Regent during the in- 
terval preceding the election of ;i new 
Shcigun, and a man of rare sagacity and 
favourable to foreign intercourse, was 
assassinated in broad daylight by emis- 
saries of the Prince of Mito, who was 
desirous of seating his own son on the 

throne. To elucidate this incident, it 
should be mentioned that there were three 
branches of the Tokugawa family, viz. 
Kishu, Mito. and Owari. from whom the 
Shoguns were elected by a family council, 
and that the election had fallen upon a 
young prince of Kishii, thus baiUking 
Mito's plans. 

The moat here, "ndth its green 
banks and spreading trees, and in 
winter the numerous wild-fowl 
fluttering in the water, is one of 
the prettiest bits of Tokyo. The 
vast enclosure of the Imperial 
Palace lies beyond the moat. 

The Imperial Palace. The 
new Palace, inhabited by His Ma- 
jesty the Mikado since 1.SS9, is not 
accessible to the jjublic, only those 
who are honoured with an Imperial 
Audience being admitted within its 
walls. Nevertheless the following 
description, abridged from the 
Japan Mall, may be of interest : — 
Entering through long coiTidors 
isolated by massive iron doors, we 
find ourselves in the smaller of two 
reception rooms, and at the com- 
mencement of what seems an 
endless vista of crystal chambers. 
This effect is due to the fact that the 
shojl, or sliding doors, are of jslate- 
glass. The workmanship and de- 
coration of these chambers are truly 
exquisite. It need scarcely be said 
that the woods employed are of the 
choicest description, and that the 
carpenters and joiners have done 
their part with such sldll as only 
Japanese artisans seem to possess. 
Every ceiling is a Mork of art, 
being divided by lactiuer ribs of a 
deep brown colour into numerous 
panels, each of which contains a 
beautifully executed decorative de- 
sign, painted, embroidered, or em- 
bossed. The walls are covered in 
most cases with rich but chaste 
brocades, except in the corridors, 
where a thick, embossed paper of 
charming tint and pattern shows 
what skill has been developed in 
this class of manufacture at the 
Imperial Printing Bureau. Amid 
this luxury of well-assorted but 
warm tints, remain the massive 

Impe.ri'd Palace. Insafsu Kyoku. 


square posts, — beautiful enough in 
themselves, but scarcely harmo- 
nising with their environment, and 
introducing an incongruous ele- 
ment into the building. The true 
type of what may be called Imperial 
esthetic decoration was essentially 
marked by refined sunplicity, — 
white wooden joinery, with pale 
neutral tints and mellow gilding. 
The splendour of richly painted 
ceihngs, lacquered lattice-work, and 
brocaded walls was reserved for 
Buddhist temples and mausolea. 
Thus we have the Shinto, or triie 
Imj)erial style, presenting itself in 
the severely colourless pillars, while 
the resources of Budilhist architec- 
ture have been di-awn upon for the 
rest of the decoration. In one part 
of the building the severest canons 
have been strictly followed : the six 
Imperial Stiidies, three below stairs 
and three above, are precisely such 
chaste and pure apartments as a 
scholar would choose for the abode 
of learning, lij way of an example 
in the other direction, we may take 
the Banqueting Hall, — a room of 
magnificent size (540 sq. yds.) and 
noble proj)ortions, its immense ex- 
panse of ceiling glowing Avith gold 
and colours, and its broad walls 
hung with the costliest silks. The 
Throne Chamber is scarcely less 
striking, though of smaller dimen- 
sions and more subdued decoration. 
Every detail of the work shows in- 
finite painstaking, and is redolent 
of artistic instinct. A magnificent 
piece of tapestry hangs in one of 
the reception rooms. It is 40 ft. 
by 13 ft., woven in one piece by 
Kawashima of Kyoto. The weav- 
ing is of the kind known as 
tsuzuri-nri, so called because each 
part of the design is separated from 
the body of the stuff by a border 
of pin-points, so that the whole 
pattern seems suspended in the 
material. The subject represented 
is an Imperial procession in feudal 
Japan, and the designer has suc- 
ceeded in grouping an immense 
number of figm-es with admirable 

taste and skill. The colours are 
rich and harmonious, and the 
whole forms probably one of the 
finest pieces of tajjestry in existence. 
The furniture of the palace was 
imported from Germany. Exter- 
nally the principal buildings are 
all in pure Jaxianese style. The ap- 
propriation for the Palace was 
$3,000,000 ; but to this amount 
must be added considerable sums 
voluntarily offered by wealthy 
Japanese, as well as A'aluable con- 
tributions of materials. 

The unpretentious brick and 
plaster structure to be seen from 
the E. side, rising above the moat 
in the palace enclosure, contains 
the offices of the Imperial lloiise- 
hold Department. — -On leaving the 
wide open space in front of the 
palace and crossing the moat, one 
comes to another wide extent of 
gi'ound called Maru-no-uchi, former- 
ly occupied by Daimyds' mansions, 
and now gi-adually being covered 
with the offices of various public 

Not far off, in an E. dii-ection, 
is the Insatsu Kyoku, or Govern- 
ment Printing Office, a vast and 
well-organised establishment, to 
the inspection of which a day may 
be profitably devoted, as its scope 
is very wide, including much be- 
sides mere printing. Here, among 
other things, is manufactured the 
paper cunency of the country. 
The IVIinistiies of Finance, of Edu- 
cation, and of the Interior, together 
with various other Government 
offices, are in the same neighbour- 

&. — GlNZA. SuiTENGfT. NlHOM- 


Kanda Myojin. Impekial Uni- 


NON. Botanical Gakden. Koi- 
SHIKAWA Arsenal .4Nd Gabden. 


The most important thorough- 
fare in Tdkyo, which none should 
fail to see. leads from the Shimbashi 


Route 4. — Toki/o. 

terminus to Megane-bashi and 
Ueno. The portion of it which is 
nearest to the station is called the 
Ginza, and has a number of shops 
in Eurojjean style. Proceeding 
along it. the traveller crosses the 
Kyobashi and Xihoin-bashi bridges, 
from the latter of which all dis- 
tances in Eastern Japan are cal- 
culated. The General Post-Office 
stands close by. Parallel to the 
portion of the main thoroughfare be- 
tween these bridges is Xaka-clori, a 
street highly attractive on account 
of its second-hand cuiio shops, and 
hence commonly known as Ciuio 
Street among the foreign residents. 
2^ihorn-bashi has also given its name 
to the surrounding large and btisy 
district, which is filled Mith shops, 
market-places, and godowns. The 
great Ush-m'i rlcet is a notable sight 
in the early hours of the morning. 

Another sight (chiefly on the 5th 
day of the month, but also on the 
1st and 15th) is afforded by the 
concourse of worshippers at the 
Temple of SvUeiyju. in Kakigara- 

Notice the brass cylinders hung to 
ruetal pillars iu the grounds, and used by 
the inqui.^itive for reading their own for- 
tunes [mi kuji]. These cylinders contain 
brass slips with j-uch inscriptions in Chi- 
reae characters as "very lucky,'' "half 
lucky," "unlucky," etc." For the deity 
here worshipped, see p. o6. 

Megane-hasJd, or " Spectacles 
Bridge," is so called from its circu- 
lar arches. The portion of the canal 
to the 1. is popularly known as 
" Sendai's Weeping Excavation " 

Local history s^ays that Tsuuaiuune. 
Daimyo of Sendai, was in the habit of 
squandering large sums at the Yoshi- 
wara, and that the Shogun, in order to 
turn him from his rakish ways, and also 
to put such extravagance out of his 
power, imposed on him the task of deep- 
ening and widening this part of the moat, 
— a work wiiich he is said to have per- 
formed with much lamentation over the 
drain on his purse. 

A little way on is the former 
Seido, the '• Sage's HaU", or Tem- 

ple of Confucius, no^ used as an 
Educational Museum. It is plea- 
santly situated on rising ground in' 
the midst of a gi'ove of trees, among 
which the fragrant mok^i.sei is most 
conspicuous. The buildings, which 
date from 1091, are fine specimens 
of the Chinese style of architecture. 
The main hall facing the entrance 
is supported on black lacquered 
pillai-s, the ceiling also is of black 
lacquer, while the floor is of finely 
chiselled square blocks of, stone. 
Opposite the door is a wooden 
image of Confucius, possessing 
considerable merit as a work of art. 
The museum, which contains speci- 
mens of school and kindergarten 
furniture, books, maps, etc., is 
open daily to visitors. 

Just above, in the same gi-ounds. 
stand the two sections of the Higher 
Normal School, that in brick being 
for young men, the other for girls. 

Behind the Seido. is the Eyobu 
Shinto temple of Kanda Myojin, 
dedicated to the god Unamiiji and 
to Masakado, a celebrated rebel of 
the 10th century. 

Aft«r the final overthrow of Masakado. 
his ghost u.sed to haunt the neighbour- 
hood. In order to lay this spectre, apo- 
theosis was resorted to in the 13th cen- 
tury. The temple, for which a hoary 
antiquity is claimed, but which was only 
established on its present site in 1C16, has 
been frequently burnt down and rebuilt 
since that time. 

The temple, originally decorated 
'with paintings by artists of the 
Kano school, has now grown some- 
what dingy, but is still popular 'with 
the multitude. The chief festival, 
celebrated on the 1.5th September, 
is well worth seeing. 

Entering the main sti-eet of the 
district of Kanda, one of the chief 
arteries of the northern portion of 
the metropolis, we come r. to the 
Imperial University ( TelkoJcu 
Da'ujakv.), a set of handsome brick 
buildings standing in the gi'ounds 
of the former Kaga Yashiki, or 
mansion of the great Daimyo of 

UniversUy. Dango-zaka. Arsenal. 


The germ of this institution was the 
Hansho Shirahe-jo, or "Place for the Ex- 
amination of Barbarian "Writings." found- 
ed by the Tokugawa Government in 185G. 
Seven years later, this name was altered 
to that oi Kaisei-jo, or "Place for Develop- 
ing and Completinpf," which indicated a 
change for the better in the views held 
by the Japanese aB to the value of Euro- 
pean learning. Numerous other modjlica- 
tions have taken place both in the name 
and scope of the institution, which since 
1881 has been placed on a thoroughly 
modern footing, and now includes colleges 
of Law.Medicine, Engineering, Literature, 
Science, and Agriculture, where lectures 
are delivered by a large staff of professors 
o£ various nationalities and in various 
languages. The students number over 
2,700. The courses that attract most 
students are those of Law, Medicine, and 
Engineering. A large hospital connected 
with the University stands in the same 
grounds. Other institutions under the 
authority of the President of the Uni- 
versity are the Botanical Gardens in the 
district of Koishikawa, and the Tokyo 
Observatory at lignra. 

_ Further on, in the direction of 
Oji, are the tlorists' gardens of 
Dango-zaka, whither the towns- 
folk resort in thousands to see the 
chrysanthemum shows in Novem- 
ber. The flowers are trained over 
trellis-work to represent historical 
and mythological scenes, ships, 
dragons, and other cmioits objects. 

The O-Gicannon, or Great Kwan- 
non, may be w^orth a passing 
^dsit. The gilt image, which is 
16 ft. high, was an offering made in 
the 17th century by a merchant of 
Yedo, and represents the goddess 
bending slightly forward, and hold- 
ing in her hand the lotns, the em- 
blem of purity. Round the walls 
of the shrine containing the image, 
are ranged in tiers the Sen-tal 
Kicannon, or images of the Thou- 
sand Incarnations of Kwannon. 

The Koisliikawa Botanical 
Garden (Shoku-butsu-en) is open to 
the public, and duplicate specimens 
of the plants are for sale at the 

The small temple of Muryo-ln, in 
the same district, is connected with 
tie history of the early Catholic 
missionaries to Japan, . some of 
whom lie buried in the cemetery. 

Hence the name of Kirlshitau-zaka, 
or Christian Hill, by which the 
locality is poj^ularly known. The 
grave of the earliest of these mis- 
sionaries. Father Giuseppe Chiara, 
who died in 1G85, may be dis- 
tinguished by a priest's hat carved 
in the stone. 

Readers desirous of further details are 
referred to the writings of Sir Ernest 
Satow and Professor J. M. Dixon, in Vol. 
V). Part L and Vol. XVI, Part III, of the 
TramscicHons <;/' the Asiatic Society of 

The Koishikawa Arsenal (Hd- 
hei Kosho) occupies the site of the 
former mansion of the Prince of 
Mito. Here are manufactured the 
rifles called tiayi-ju-nen Shiki, or 
" 1898 pattern," adopted by the 
Japanese Army in lieu of the well- 
known Murata rifle. An order 
from the military authorities is 
necessary to gain admittance. An 
order is also necessary for the 
Garden [Koraku-en], which still re- 
mains intact, and is the finest 
specimen of the Japanese land- 
scape gardener's art to be seen 
in the capital. The object of its 
designer was to reproduce in minia- 
ture many of the scenes whose 
names are classic among the lite- 
rati of Japan. Prince Mitsukuni, 
generally known as jVIito Komon, 
laid oiit the grounds as a place in 
which to enjoy a calm old age after 
a life of labour. If the visitor has 
first inspected the Arsenal, he will 
then be conducted to a summer- 
house in the garden, Avith an 
extensive grass-plot attached, and 
overlooking a lake copied from a 
noted one in China, called Sei-ko. 
A small wooded hill rises beyond, 
which we ascend, and on which 
stands a miniature replica of the 
famous temple of Kiyomizu at 
Kyoto, enriched with carvings, but 
worn by time. Descending, we are 
plimged for a minute in the 
depths of a wood before reaching an 
old bridge A^dth a rivulet running 
far below. Crossing the bridge and 
following up a zigzag path, we come 


Route 4. — Tokyo. 

to the shrine of Haku-i and Shikii- 
sei, the loyal brothers of Chinese 
lore, who, after the overthrow of 
their lord and master, refused to eat 
the grain produced under the con- 
queror's sway, and, secluding them- 
selves on Mount Shuyo, lived on 
ferns till, being told that ferns grew 
also on their enemy's lands, they 
abstained even from that poor 
food, and so died of starvation. 
An arched stone bridge and 
another shiine, shaped octagonally 
in allusion to the Eight Diagi'ams 
of the Chinese system of divina- 
tion, are next passed. From here, 
a tunnel-like opening leads through 
a thicket of creepers and other 
trees to a lake several acres in 
extent and full of lotuses. The 
water, which comes fi'om the Tama- 
gawa aqueduct, is made to form 
a pretty cascade before falling 
into the lake. An island in the 
centre is connected with the main- 
land by a bridge. Everywhere 
there are magnilicent trees, — 
cherry-trees for the spring, maples 
for the autumn, plum-trees for the 
winter, making a change of scene 
at each season. Near the exit, is a 
hill with a path paveil in such 
manner as to imitate the road OA'er 
the Hakone Pass. 

On the extreme N.W. outskirts of 
the city stands the Buddhist tem- 
ple of Gokokuji, now used as the 
head-quarters of the Bhingon sect, 
which has a seminary for young 
priests. With its extensive grounds, 
its sUent beKry, and the perfect 
stillness of its surroundings, it 
recalls the memory of days now 
irreti-ievably past, when Buddhism 
was a mighty power in the land. 
The azaleas here are noted for their 
beauty. The chief treasure of the 
temple is a gigantic kakemono of 
Buddha's Entry into Nirvana, by 
Kano Yasunobu, which is shown 
only during the month of April. 

Adjoining Gokokuji is the new Ce- 
metery of the Imperial family, select- 
ed since the removal of the Court to 
Tdkyo. It is not open to the public. 

6. — Ueno Pake, Temples, and 
Museum. Asakusa. Higashi 
HoNGWANJi. Temple of Kwan- 


Ueno Park, famed for its 

Temples and Tombs of the Shoguns, 
is the most popidar resort in the 
metropolis. Here, in April, all 
Tokyo assembles to admire the 
wonderful mass of cherry-blossom 
for which it is famous. No traveller 
should miss this opportunity of 
■witnessing a scene charming alike 
for natural beauty and pictiuesque 
Eastern life. 

The importance of Ueno, whk-h lies due 
X. E. of the palace, had its origin in a 
wide-spread superatition, which regards 
that quarter as the most unlucky of all the 
points of the compass, and brands it with 
the name of Ki-mon, or the Demon's Gate 
When, therefore, some progress had been 
made in the construction of the city of 
Yedo, the Shogun lemitsu, in the year 1625, 
determined to erect here a set of Bud- 
dhist temples, which, eclipsing all others 
in splendour, should ward off the ap- 
proach of such evil Influences. The origi- 
nal main temple {Kwan-eiji) then founded 
occupied the site of the present Museum, 
but was burnt down in 1868 on the 
occasion of a fierce battle fought between 
the partisans of the Mikado and those of 
the Shogun. The other gate still exists, 
showing the marks of bullets. This 
temple was counted among the triumphs 
of Japanese architecture. Here always 
resided as high-priest a son of the reign- 
ing Mikado, retained in gilded slavery 
for political reasons, as it was convenient 
for the Shoguns to have in their power 
a prince who could at once be decorated 
with the Imperial title, should the Court 
of Kyoto at any time prove refractory. 
The last high-priest of Ueno was actual- 
ly utilised in this manner by the 
Shogun's partisans, and carried off by 
them to Aizu in 1868, when they raised 
the standard of rebellion. 

Leaving his jiniilcisha at the 
bottom of the hiU, the traveller 
ascends r. a short flight of steps, 
leading to a plateau planted with 
cheiiy-trees and commanding a 
good view of the city, especially 
towards Asakusa, including the 
twelve-storied tower which is seen 
rising beyond the Ueno railway 
station, and the high roof of the 
great Hongwanji temple. The 

Ueiio Park and Museum. 


statue of »Saigo Takamori (see p. 
82) was erected in 1899. The stone 
monument close by is dedicated 
to the soldiers who fell fighting for 
the Shogun's cause in the battle of 
Ueno. To the 1., is a dingy Bud- 
dhist temple dedicated to the 
Thousand-handed Kwannon. 

Descending again to the main 
road, we reach the celebrated 
avenue of cherry-trees, a uniqiiely 
beautiful sight during the brief 
season of blossom, when the air 
seems to be filled ^vith pink clouds. 
To the 1., is a shallow piece of water, 
called Shinobazu no Ike, celebrated 
for its lotus-flowers in August. 
On a little peninsula jutting out 
into the lake, is a shrine sacred 
to the goddess Benten. This for- 
merly romantic spot fell a victim 
to vandalism, when the shores of 
the lake were tiirned into a race- 
course, itself now also done away 
with. A little further up, is 
the Seiyoken Eesicmravt, which 
commands a good view. The ex- 
tensive buildings seen iu the dis- 
tance, on a height, are the Imperial 
University and the First Higher 
School. Close to the restaurant is 
a bronze image of Buddha, 21i ft. 
high, known as the Daihutsu. This 
inferior specimen of the bronze- 
worker's art dates from about the 
year 1660. Following along the 
main road for a few yards, we come 
1. to a bullet-riddled gate, preserved 
as a relic of the battle of Ueno. 
An immense stone lantern just in- 
side it is one of the three largest 
in Japan, and dates from early in 
the 17th century. Further along 
the avenue of stately cryptomerias 
stand an ancient pagoda and a 
glorious gold gate at the end of a 
long row of stone lanterns, pre- 
sented in 1651 by various Daimyos 
as a tribute to the memory of the 
Shogun leyasu. To this Shogiin, 
under his posthumous name of 
Toshogu or Gongen Sama, the 
shrine within is dedicated. The 
gate itself, restored in 1890, is 
a dream of beauty. Carvings of 

dragons adorn it on either side ; 
above are geometrical figm-es, birds, 
foliage, and everywhere the Toku- 
gawa crest of three asarum leaves. 
It is intended to restore in the 
same style the temple whose gold 
has been sadly worn away. The 
details resemble those oi the Mor- 
tuary Shrines at Shiba. The temple 
contains some fine specimens of 
lacquer. Kound the walls hang 
pictures of the Sanju-rok-ka-sen, 
(see p. 8'2), below wluch are screens 
with conventional lions. 

Keturning to the main road the 
way we came, and passing by the 
former buildings of the last Na- 
tional Industrial Exhibition, now 
used for an industrial bazaar, we 
reach the 

Ueno Museum [Ueno Uaku- 
hutsu-kican). This institution, 

which is open from 8 to 5 in sum- 
mer, and from 9 to 4 in winter, 
Mondays and the three weeks fi'om 
the 16th December to the 4th Jan- 
uary excepted, vi'ell merits a visit. 
The contents are in the main ar- 
ranged as follows, though frequent- 
ly altered as to details : 

Entrance. Giant drum for the 
sacred Bungaku dances, palan- 
quins, and stuffed animals. 

Ground Floor. E. of Entrance. 
Natural History Department : — 
observe the cocks from Tosa, with 
tail feathers 12.J ft. long. The front 
rooms contain the Zoological Sec- 
tion ; the back rooms, the Mineral- 
ogical Section. A wing lying bej'ond 
the room chiefly devoted to osteo- 
logical and conchological spe- 
cimens, is the Dej>artment of In- 
dustry, containing glass and por- 
celain (both foreign and Japanese), 
stuffs, drawings, etc., beyond which 
are a couple of rooms devoted to 
modern pictures in both Japanese 
and European style. 

An annexe at the back of the 
main building contains the surplus 
of the Mineral ogical Section. The 
landscape garden in Japanese style, 
which has been laid out behind it, 
need scarcely detain the traveller. 


Route 4. — Tokyo. 

Groiuvd Floor. L. ot Entrance. 
Front rooms. Historical or Archre- 
logical Department, inchicling 

EooM I. 

Ancient manuscripts and print- 
ed books, old maps, painted scrolls, 
and rubbings. 

Room II. 

Department of History. — This 
room is chiefly devoted to ancient 
objects from Horytiji, such as tem- 
ple furniture, seals, golden tokko. 
etc. There are also manuscripts, 
which rank among the earliest spe- 
cimens of Japanese calligrajDhy. 
They are all in the Chinese lan- 
guage. The principal other exhibits 
are facsimile fi of ancient objects of 
daily use at the Imperial Court 
preserved at the 8h6so-in, a cele- 
brated storehouse attached to the 
temple of Todaiji at Nara, and im- 
plements used in tho Shinto reli- 
gious CTllt. 

Two cases in this room have a 
special interest, as they are tilled 
with Christian relics. 

Many of these date from the embassy 
to Kome of Hasekura Rokuemon, who was 
sent thither by Date Masamune, Daiinyo 
of Sendai, in 161i, with a train of follow- 
ers, and returned to Jajiau in 1020. The 
official Japanese account of this curious 
episode is that the embassy went at the 
Shoguns desire, in order to investigate 
the political strength and resources of 
Europe. The version usually accepted by 
Euroi^ean writers is that the expedition 
really was what it avowed itself to be, — 
an act of submission to the religious 
supremacy of the Pope. The envoy was 
well received at the Roman Court, and 
was presented with the freedom of the 
city of Kome, besides being loaded with 
presents. The relics remained in the 
possession of the Date family at Sendai 
until a few years ago. 

Among the objects in these cases, 
are an oil-painting of Hasekura 
in prayer before a crucifix, an il- 
luminated Latin document confer- 
ring on him the freedom of the 
city of Rome, holy pictures, 
rosaries, crucifixes, a smaU Japa- 
nese book of Catholic devotion in 

Hirafjana characters, photographs 
of Date Masamune's letters to the 
Pope in Japanese and Latin, a 
portrait of Hasekura in Italian 
costume, etc. To a set of circum- 
stances very different in their 
nature, though not far removed 
in time, belong the fumi-ita, or 
" trampling boards," — oblong 
blocks of metal with figures in high 
relief of Christ before Pilate, the 
Descent from the Cross, the Virgin 
and Child, etc., on which persons 
suspected of the crime of Christian- 
ity were obliged to trample dur- 
ing times of persecution, in order 
to testify their abjxu-ation of the 
" Depraved Sect," as it was called. 
The Dutch traders at Nagasaki are 
suspected of having lent them- 
selves to this infamous practice for 
the sake of pecuniary gain. One 
of the old kosatsu, or public notice 
boards prohibiting Christianity, is 
also here exhibited. 

Room III. (End Room.) 

Stone arrow-heads, spear-heads, 
and pottery of the prehistoric 
period ; proto-historic copper bells 
and miiTors, iron swords, armour, 
horse-trappings, shoes, and cooking 
utensils. Besides the above, notice 
also the pottery anciently used for 
the presentation of offerings to the 
Shintd gods. Some pieces fi'om 
the provinces on the N.E. shore of 
the Inland Sea are remarkably 
ornamented with human figures in 
high relief. Particvdarly curious 
are the earthenware images of men 
and horses used in proto-historic 
times for interment in the graves 
of illustrious personages, after the 
custom of burying their chief 
retainers alive with them had been 
discontinued, the figures of birds — 
apparently geese — which were used 
as a fence round the tumulus of 
the Emperor Ojin in the province 
of Kawachi, and fragments of 
earthenware posts put to a similar 

The adjoining room at the back 

Ueno Museum. 


has more prehistoric stone imple- 
ments and pottery, swords, etc. 
The most characteristically Japa- 
nese specimens are the maga-tnma 
and kuda-tama in jasper, agate, etc. 

The maga-tama, or "curved jewels, " 
■which somewhat resemble a tadpole in 
shape, were anciently (say, prior to the 
7th century) strung together and used as 
necklaces and ornaments for the waist 
both by men and women, as were also 
the kuda-tama, or "tube-shaped jewels." 
Their use survived in the Luchu Islands 
till a much more recent date. 

The second back room is devoted 
to objects illnstrating the manners 
and customs of the Chinese, Kore- 
ans, Australian aborigines, natives 
of India,- American Indians, and 
Siberian tribes. The third back 
room is given up to Japan's semi- 
foreign dependencies, — Formosa, 
Yezo, and Luchu. 

The collection here to be seen of 
weapons, ornaments, and wearing apparel 
of the head-hunting tribes and other 
aborigines of Formosa is lent by Mr. 
Montague Kirkwood, who made a 
prolonged official tour through almost 
every part of Formosa and the outlying 
islands in 1897-8 as adviser to the Japa- 
nese Government. 

(Tpper Floor La>itliii<i. — Ancient 
Imperial state bullock cart and 
palanquins ; model of the Tendd 
Mnrn, or Ship of Heaven and 
Earth, which was the state barge 
used by the Shdguns. 

The stift" flowers and geometrical pat- 
terns of the Imperial bullock cart exem- 
plify a feature often noticed in early 
Japanese ornamentation, when art was 
still in Chinese leading-strings, and had 
not yet gained the freedom, together 
witli the happy use of irregularity, charac- 
terisfii- of later days. 

<-'eidrfd lioo'in, adjoining the 
landing. — Imperial robes, and other 
articles used by the Mikado under 
the old regime, including the thi-one 
hung with silk curtains, which 
served to shroud Majesty from the 
gaze of ordinary mortals, who — so 
it Avas believed— would be struck 
blind if they looked ujjon the 
'• Dragon Face." 

Turning to the 1. (over the 
Natural History Department), we 
come to the Fine Arts Department. 
Room 1 contains old kakemonos, 
makimonos, and screens ; Room 2, 
ancient masks and images, chiefly 
bronze ; Room 3, more images and 
temple plans. The back rooms on 
this side, comprising the Art In- 
dustry Dej^artment — lacquer, por- 
celain, bronze, etc. display a large 
collection of articles of rare beauty. 

Upper Stoeey. R. of Enteance. 

Room I. 

Ancient kakemonos and maki- 

Room II. 

Another Department of History, 
containing a collection of ancient 
robes, foot-gear, and belts. 

Room HI. (End Room.) 

Musical instruments, utensUs for 
the tea ceremonies, and specimens 
of games. 

The adjoining room at the back 
contains ancient standard weights 
and measures, and imitation speci- 
mens of ancient gold and silver 
coins. The second back room 
contains armour, swords, bows 
and aiTows, horse-traj^pings, war- 
fans, and other martial gear. The 
third back room has old boxes, 
images, manuscripts, and other 
objects, the most interesting to the 
antiquarian being the specimens 
of the miniatiu-e pagodas (Ilachi- 
nuDi-to), of which, in A.D. 704:, the 
reigning Mikado caused a million 
to be made for distribution through- 
out the land. 

On quitting the Museum, an 
avenue r. leads to the Art School 
{Bijutsu Gakko), not accessible 
without a special introduction. In 
the same grounds are a Public 
Library and Reading Room {Tosho- 
kv-aii), the largest in the emigre, 


Route 4. — Tokyo. 

tliongh of qnite modest dimensions, 
and a learned Academy called the 
(rakushi Ewai-in. Close by are the 
Zoological Gardens (Ddbutsii-en). 

Before reaching the Tosho-kwan, 
an avenue turns off r. to the 

Tombs of tlie Shoguns (Go 
Beiya), abutting on the second and 
finer of the two Mortuary Temples 
(Ni no Go Beiya). The main gate 
is always kept closed, but a side en- 
trance 1. leads to the priests' 
house. The resident custodian will 
act as guide for a small fee. 

The six Shoguns buried at TJeno belong- 
ed to the Toliugawa family, being the 4th, 
5th, 8th, 10th 11th, and Vith of their line. 
It is still at the private expense of the 
family that these shrines are kept up. In 
general style, they closely resemble those 
at Shiba, described on pj). 116 — 121, and 
are among the priceless legacies of the art 
of Old Japan. Like the Shiba shrines, 
too, they have suffered at the hands of 
thieves since the Kevolution of 1868. 

This glorious building, a sym- 
phony in gold and blended colom-s, 
has a wooden colonnade in front, 
the red walls of which are divided 
into compartments, each contain- 
ing a medallion in the centre, filled 
vdih. painted open-work carvings 
of birds and flowers, with arabes- 
ques derived from the chrysan- 
themum above and a carved wave- 
design below. In the centre of this 
colonnade is a gate decorated with 
a painting of an angel. From here, 
an open colonnade leads up to the 
steps of the main building. The 
porch has brackets carved -\\-ith 
conventional chrysanthemums. Its 
square columns are adorned -^ith 
plum-blossoms in red and gold. 
Under the beams are red and gold 
lions' heads as brackets. The 
doors of the oratory are carved in 
diapers, and gilded all over. Note 
the tastefully painted diapers on 
the architrave. The ceiling is 
massive and loaded with metal 
fastenings. In the coffers are 
di-agons in gold on a blue ground. 
The interior waUs are gilded, hav- 
ing in some places conventional 
paintings of lions, in others mova- 

ble shutters. This apartment is 48 
ft. wide by 21 ft. in depth. The 
corridor which succeeds it is 12 ft. 
wdde by 24 ft. in depth, and leads 
to the black lacquered steps of the 
inner sanctum. Its ceiling is 
decorated with the phcenix on a 
green and gold ground. Handsome 
gilt doors covered with carved 
arabesques close the entrance to 
the sanctum, which measures 21 
ft. in depth by 33 ft. in width. 
The ceiling is decorated with fine 
gilt lattice-work in the coffers. The 
small shrines, containing the 
memorial tablets of the illustrious 
dead, are gorgeous specimens of 
gold lacquer. Beginning at the r., 
these shrines are respectively those 
of the 5th, 8th, and 13th Shoguns, 
and of Kokyo-In, son of the 10th 
Shogun. R. and 1. are two shrines 
containing tablets of eight mothers 
of Shoguns. Curiously enough, all 
were concubines not legitimate 
consorts. The actual graves are in 
the gi'ounds behind. The finest, a 
bronze one, is that of the 5th Sho- 
gun. Its bronze gate has magnifi- 
cent panels, with the phoenix and 
unicorn in bas-relief, — Korean 
castings from Japanese designs 
about 150 years old. 

The First Mortuary Temple (Ichi 
no Go Beiya) is close to the Second. 
On leaving the Second, turn to the 
1. to reach the priests' house, where 
apphcation for admission must be 
made. Here are buried the 4th, 
10th, and 11th Shoguns, together 
with several princesses. The monu- 
ment of the 4th is in bronze, the 
others in simple stone. Over the 
grave of the 11th Shogun hangs a 
weeping cherry-tree, placed there 
to commemorate tlie love of flowers 
which distinguished that amiable 
prince, whose reign (A.D. 1787-1838) 
formed the culminating iDoint of 
the splendour of Old Japan. 

Returning towards the entrance 
of the park, we reach the Buddhist 
temple popularly known as Byd 
Daishi, properly Jiijen-do, dedicated 
to the two great abbots, Jie Daishi 

Higashi Hongwanji. Asakusa Kwannon. 


and Jigen DaisM, the former of 
whom flourished in the 9th 
century, the latter in the 16th and 
17th. The portrait of Jie Daishi 
here preserved is considered one 
of the masterpieces of the great 
painter Kand Tan-yii. On this 
side of the park are some buildings 
often used of late years for art 
exhibitions of various Mnds. 

We now leave Ueno, and passing 
along a busy thoroughfare, reach 
the district of Asakusa. The first 
object of interest here is the 
spacious temple of Hig"ash.i Hon- 
gwanji, popularly called Monzeki, 
the chief religious edifice in Tokyo 
of the Monto sect of Buddhists. 
Though very plain, as is usual with 
the buildings of this sect, the 
Monzeki deserves a visit on ac- 
count of its noble proportions. It 
was founded in 1657. The iron 
netting thrown over the temple is 
intended to prevent sparks from 
falling on the wood-work, should 
a conflagration occur in the 
neighbourhood. The huge porch 
is adorned with finely carved 
wooden brackets, the designs being 
chrysanthemum flowers and leaves, 
and peony flowers and leaves. On 
the transverse beams are some 
curiously involved dragons, which 
are the best specimens of this 
sort of work in Tokyo, and should 
therefore not be passed over. 
Observe, too, the manner — peculiar 
to the buildings of this sect — in 
which the beams are picked out 
with white. The area of the 
matted floor of the nave (gcjin) 
is 140 mats, and roiind the front 
and sides runs a wooden aisle 12 
ft. wide. Over the screen which 
separates the chancel and its side- 
chapels from the nave, are massive 
gilt open-work carvings of angels 
and phoenixes, the largest of which 
are 12 ft. in length by 4 ft. in 
height. The rest of the builtiing 
is unadorned. Hanging against 
the gilt background of the temple 
wall, on either side of the altar, are 
to be seen several kakemonos of 

Buddhist saints, indistinguishable 
in the " dim rehgious light ; " also r. 
the posthumous tablet of leyasu, 
which is exposed for veneration on 
the 17th of each month. The 
honzon, Amida, is a black image, 
always exposed to view, and stand- 
ing in a very handsome shrine of 
black and gold lacquer. From the 
r. side of the main hall, a bridge 
leads down to the Jiki-dO, or 
preaching hall. At the main 
temple, sermons are only preached 
for one octave in the year, viz. 
from the 21st to 28th November, 
when the imposing services (Ho-on- 
ko) held in honour of the founder 
of the sect are well worth witness- 
ing. On this occasion, the men all 
go to the temple in the style of 
dress known as kata-ginu, and the 
women with a head-dress called 
tsuno-kakushi (lit. " horn-hider "), — 
both relics of the past. The "horn- 
hider" would seem to have been so 
named in allusion to a Buddhist 
text which says : " A woman's 
exterior is that of a saint, but her 
heart is that of a demon." — Lesser 
services are held at the time of the 
vernal and autumnal equinoxes. 
Quaint testimony is borne to the 
popularity of this temple with the 
lower middle class by the notices 
posted up on some of the great 
columns in the main hall. Not 
only is there one to prohibit smok- 
ing, but one warning people not 
to come here for their afternoon 
nap (Hiru-ne muyo) ! On quitting 
the Monzeki, notice its nobly mass- 
ive roof, with lions rampant at the 
corners, also the two large mono- 
liths r., commemorative of soldiers 
who fell in the China war of 1894:-5. 
About 7 did from the Monzeki, 
stands the gi'eat Buddhist temple 
of Sensdji, popularly known as the 

Asakusa Kwannon, because 
dedicated to Kwannon, the goddess 
of Mercy. 

A fabulous antiquity is claimed for the 
founding in this locality of a Bbrine 
sacred to Kwannon, the tradition being 
that the image which is now worshipped 


RovU: 4. — Tokyo. 

there, was flshed up on the neighbouring 
strand during the reign of the Empress 
Suiko (A.D. 593-628) by a noble of the 
name of Hashl-no-Nakatomo, who had 
been exiled to this then desolate portion 
ijf the coast, and with two attendants 
gained his livelihood by casting his nets 
at the mouth of the river Sumida. In his 
fishing-hut the first altar is said to have 
been raised : and the crest of three nets, 
which is to be seen marking certain 
portions of the buildings, was devised in 
memory of the event. The miraculous 
image is never shown, but is commonly 
believed to be but 1 ; inch in height : and 
the disproportion between the smallness 
of the image and the vastness of the 
temple has passed into a popular saying. 
Instead of the original sacred image, there 
i.s exhibited on the 13th December of 
evei-y year a newer and larger one which 
stands in front of the high altar. In the 
year 1180,1 Yoritomo endowed the temple 
with ninety acres of arable land. But 
when leyasu made Yedo his capita], he 
found the temple gone to ruin, and the 
priests living in disorder and immorality. 
The present buildings date from the reign 
of lemitsu, after the destruction by fire 
of the former edifice. They are in the 
possession of the Tendai sect of Bud- 

On no account shoiiM a visit to 
this popular temple and the sur- 
ronnding grounds {KOenchi) be 
omitted; for it is a gi-eat holiday 
resort of the middle and lower 
classes, and nothing is more strik- 
ing than the juxtaposition of piety 
and pleasiure, of gorgeous altars 
and grotesque ex-votos, of dainty 
costumes and dingy idols, the 
clatter of the clogs, cocks and hens 
and pigeons strutting about among 
the worshippers, children playing, 
soldiers smoking, believers chaffer- 
ing A\-ith dealers of charms, ancient 
art, modern advertisements, — in 
fine, a sjiectacle than which surely 
nothing more motley was ever wit- 
nessed M-ithin the precincts of a 
rehgious edifice. The most crowd- 
e<l times are Sunday afternoon, and 
the 17th and 18th of each month, 
days sacred to Kwannon. 

The outer main gate of the 
temple no longer exists. One 
walks up through a lane of red 
brick shojjs, where toys, photo- 
graphs, and gewgaws of all kinds are 
spread out to tempt the multitude.. 

The two-storied gate in front of the 
temple is a huge structure of red 
wood, %^'ith images of the Ni-o on 
either side. The immense sandals 
hung up in front of the cages con- 
taining these images, are placed 
there by persons desirous of 
becoming good walkers. To the 1., 
immediately before passing through 
the big gate, is a popular Shrine of 
Fiido, just outside of which is a 
shrine of Jizo, distinguishable by 
a praying-wheel {gosho-guruma) 
fixed in a wooden pillar, the whole 
roughly resembling a pillar post- 
box. There is a newer and better 
one inside the court of the Fudo 
shrine, with an inscription to the 
" Lord Jizo, Nourisher of Little 
Children." Images of Jizo on a 
small hexagonal structure stand 
behind it. 

The jiraying-wheel is in Japan, found 
only in connection with the mystic doc- 
trine of the Tendai and Shingon sects. 
and its use diflers slightly from that to 
which it is put in Thibet. Xo prayers are 
written on it; but the worshipper, attri- 
buting to ingwa (the Sanskrit kornw, which 
means, the efi'ect in this life of the actions 
in a former state of existence) any sin 
of which he wishes to be cleansed, or any 
desire that occurs to him, turns the wheel 
with a simple request to Jizo to let this 
ingwii duly ran its course — the course of 
ingwa resembling the perpetual revolu- 
tions of a wheel. 

On the opposite or r. side of the 
lane, on a mound, is the large Asa- 
laisa bell, whose sonorous notes are 
heard all over the northern part 
of the city. 

The great hall of the temple of 
Kwannon is 102 ft. square, and is 
entirely suiTounded by a wide 
gallery. The large picttire hanging 
above the entrance to the r. re- 
presents life (under the figure of 
two sleeping men and a sleep- 
ing tiger) as nothing more than a 
dream, the only h\-ing reality in 
which is the power of religion 
(typified by a Buddhist priest). 
Just below this rests a huge moku- 
gyo, — a hollow wooden block, fish- 
shaped, which priests strike while 
l>raying. The eye is caught, on 

Temjihi of Kwannon at 


entering, 1)y the iniiuense number 
of lanterns and pictm'es whic^L 
cover the ceiling and M'alls. These 
are all offerings presented by be- 
lievers. Some of the pictures are 
by good modern artists. One over 
the shrine to the r. represents a 
performance of the No, or iuefli;eval 
lyric drama, in which the red-hair- 
ed sea-demon called Shojo plays 
the chief part. Opi^osite is a 
curious painted carving in relief, 
representing the " Three Heroes of 
Shoku " (a Chinese state established 
in the "iud century chiefly by their 
efforts). The hero on the r., called 
Kwan-u, is no^\• worshijiped in 
China as the God of War. To the 
1. of this, is one showing On-Uma- 
ya-no-Kisanda fixing his bow-string 
to shoot the foes of his master 
Yoshitsiine, the latter (to the r.) 
being awakened by his mistress, the 
renowned and lovely Shizuka Go- 
zen. The ceiUng is painted with 
representations of angels, the \A'ork 
of Kano .Doshun. The seated image 
to the r., with a pink bib round its 
neck, is a celebrated work of Jikaku 
Daishi, and represents Binznru, 
the helper of the sick. At any time 
of the day believers may be 
observed rublnng it (see p. 45), so 
that it is now partially rubbed 
away. The stalls in front of the 
main shrine are for the sale t)f 
pictures of the goddess Kwannon, 
which are used as charms against 
sickness, to help women in child- 
birth, etc., of tickets to say whether 
a child aliout to be born will Ije a 
l)oy or a girl, and so forth. There 
is also a place where fortunes are 
told by the priests. 

The chancel is, as usual, separat- 
ed from the nave by a wire screen, 
and is not accessible to the public. 
A small douceur tendered to one of 
the priests in charge will, however, 
generally procure admission. On the 
high altar, resplendent with laiui^s, 
(lowers, gold damask, and sacred 
vessels, and guarded by figures of 
the Shi-Tenno, of Bon ten, and of 
Taishaku,— the latter said to be the 

work of Oyogi Bosatsu, — stands the 
shrine containing the sacred image 
of Kwannon. On either side are 
ranged im.ages, some 2 or 3 ft. 
high, of Kwannon in her " Three- 
and-Thirty Terrestrial Embodi- 
ments," each set in a handsome 
shrine standing out against the 
gold ground of the wall. K. and 1. 
of the altar hang a pair of votive 
offerings — golden horses in high 
rehef on a lacqiier ground — present- 
ed by the Hhogun lemitsu. On the 
ceiling is n dragon, the work of 
Kano Eishin. The side altar to 
the r. is dethcated to Fudo. Observe 
the numerous vessels used in the 
ceremony of the Goma 2)rayers, 
which are frequently offered up 
here for the recovery of the sick. 
The twelve small images are the 
Ju-ni Doji, or attendants of Kwan- 
non. The altar to the 1. is de- 
dicated to Aizen Myo-o, whose red 
image with three eyes and six arms 
is contained in a gaudy slirine. 
The two-storied miniature pagoda 
is simply an offeiing, as are also 
the thousand small images of 
Kwannon in a case to the 1., and 
the large European miiTor, in front 
of which is a hfe-hke image of the 
abbot Zenniu Shonin. At the back 
of the main altar is another called 
Ur'a Ktcannon (wa lueaning 
"back"), which should l>e visited 
for the sake of the modern wall- 
liictures on lacquer with a back- 
ground of gold leaf, by artists of 
the Kano school. 

True wall-paintings, that is, paintings 
executed on a vertical surface, are ex- 
tremely rare in Japan, the only well- 
authenticatcfl examples known to us being 
these at Asakiisa, some on plaster in the 
Kouclo of the ancient monastery of Horyuji 
near Kara, and others in the lower storey 
of the pagoda of Toji at Kyoto. As a rule, 
all so-called Japanese wall-paintings are 
on large sheets of paper fl.xed in their 
places after having been painted in a hori- 
zontal position. 

Above are a crowd of supernatu- 
ral beings, headed by a converted 
dragon in the form of a Ijeautiful 
woman, who offers a large jewel to 


Route 4. — Tokyo. 

Shaka. Two of the latter's disciples 
(Bakan) are at Ms r. foot, Monju at 
ids 1. foot, and Fugen below on the 
1. The figure of Fugen has been 
restored within the last forty years. 
Those on the r. and 1. walls are 
intended for the Twenty-eight 
Manifestations of Kwannon. 

In the grounds are several biaild- 
ings of interest, and a number of 
icho trees whose golden f ohage in 
autumn is in itself a sight. Behind 
the great temple to the 1., stands a 
small shrine full of ex-votos in- 
scribed with the character ^5, 
" eye," presented by persons afflict- 
ed with eye disease. Beside it is a 
large bronze image of Biiddlia, and 
close by is a lantern on which be- 
lievers pour water to obtain an an- 
swer to their prayers. The small 
hexagonal building immediately be- 
hind the gi-eat temple is the JDaiho- 
do or Jizo-do, containing a crowd of 
little stone images seated in tiers 
round a large one of Jizo. This 
divinity being the special protector 
of children, parents bring the 
playthings of their dead httle ones 
to his shiine. Beyond the Jizo-do, 
is the Nemhidsu-do, with a pretty 
altar. Turning r., we come to the 
Sanja, — a Shinto shrine dechcated 
to the Three Fishermen of the local 
legend, and having panels decorat- 
ed with mythological monsters in 
gaudy colours. Note the bronze 
and stone hons in front. Passing 
the stage on which the Kagura 
dances are performed, w-e reach 
the Rinzo, or Revolving Library 
(see p. 47), contained in a square 
biiilding with carved hons on the 
eaves. The Revolving Library is 
of red lacquer on a black lacquer 
base and stone lotus-shaped pedes- 
tal. The ceiling of the small bnild- 
ing containing it has representa- 
tions of clouds and angels. The 
images in front, on entering, re- 
present Fu Daishi with his sons. 
Those tramphng on demons are 
the Shi-Tenno, and the hfe-size 
gilt figure is Shaka. The books, 
which were brought from China 

early in the 13th century, are aired 
every year at the autumn equinox, 
but are not shown at other times. 
The custochan, in return for a small 
gratuity, will allow Adsitors to 
make the library revolve. 

The Fagoda close by is no longer 
open to the pubhc. 

Adjacent to the temple enclosure 
we find the Asakusa Koenchi, or 
Public Grounds, where stands the 
lofty tower properly called Ryo-un- 
kaku, and more popularly, Ju-ni- 
kai. This building, erected in 1890, 
has twelve storeys, as its popular 
name implies, is 220 ft. in height, 
nearly 50 ft. in internal diameter 
at the base, and commands a more 
extensive view than any other point 
in the city. The grounds of Asa- 
kusa are the quaintest and liveliest 
place in Tokyo. Here are raree- 
shows, penny gaffs, performing 
monkeys, cheap photogi-aphers, 
street artists, jugglers, wrestlers, 
theatrical and other figures (ningyo) 
in painted wood and clay, an aqua- 
rium {sidzoku-kwan), vendors of 
toys and lollypops of every sort, 
and, circulating amidst all these 
cheap attractions, a seething crowd 
of busy hohday-makers. 

Five min. drive behind the big 
temple, stands a small but noted 
one, Kinryu-zan, dedicated to the 
god Shoden, on a mound called 
Malsuchi-yama. This is a breezy 
place, with a view across the river 
Sumida towards the cherry avenue 
of Mukojima. There is a ferry 
close by. 

The name Kinryu-zan, lit. "Golden 
Dragon Hill," comes from a legend tell- 
ing how the dragon which anciently 
inhabited the river, climbed up to it 
with a lantern to keep watch over the 
great temple of Kwannon. Far-Eastern 
dragons, be it observed, almost always 
have some connection with water, whe- 
ther river, lake, or rain-cloud. 

About 1 m. to the N. of Asakusa 
Park lies the world-famed Yoshi- 
icara, the principal quarter inhabit- 
ed by the licensed hetairte of the 
metropolis. Many of the houses 

Yoshiwara. Mukojima. Eko-in. 


■within this distiict are almost pala- 
tial in appearance, and in the eve- 
ning present a spectacle probably 
unparalleled in any other country, 
but reproduced on a smaller scale 
in the provincial Japanese cities. 
The unfortunate inmates, decked 
out in gorgeous raiment, sit in rows 
with gold screens behind, and pro- 
tected from the outside by iron 
bars. As the whole quarter is 
under special municipal surveill- 
ance, perfect order prevails, ena- 
bling the stranger to study, while 
walking along the streets, the 
manner in which the Japanese 
have solved one of the vexed ques- 
tions of all ages. Their method, 
though running counter to Anglo- 
Saxon ideas, preserves Tokyo from 
the disorderly scenes that obtrude 
themselves on the passer-by in our 
western cities. 

On the other side of Azuma-bashi, 
one of the big bridges of Tokyo, 
is the Satake Yashiki, which otfers 
an excellent specimen of the 
Japanese style of landscape garden- 
ing. A small fee will procure ad- 
mittance to it. The noted Yao- 
matsu tea-house stands close by. 

Muk5jixna, celebrated for its 
avenue of cherry-trees, stretches 
for more than a mile along the 
1. bank of the Sumida-gatca. When 
the blossoms are out in April, 
Mukojima is densely crowded with 
holiday-makers from morn till dusk, 
and the tea-houses on the banks 
and the boats on the river re-echo 
with music and meiTiment. This 
sight, which lasts for about a week, 
should on no account be missed. 
Various regattas are held about the 
same season. Tlie little temple at 
the end of tlie avenue was raised in 
remembrance of a touching episode 
of the 10th centiiry, which forms 
the subject of a famoiis lyiic 

Ume-wafea, the child of a noble family, 
was carried off from Kyoto by ii slave- 
merchant, and perinhed in this distant 
spot, where his body was found by a 
good priest who gave it burial. The next 

year hia mother, who had roamed over 
the country in search of her boy, came to 
the place, where, under a willow-tree, the 
villagers were weeping over a lowly 
grave. On asking the name of the dead, 
she discovered that it was none other 
than her own son, who during the night 
appeared in ghostly form, and held con- 
verse with her ; but when day dawned, 
nothing remained bnt the waving 
branches of the willow, and instead of 
hia voice only the sighing of the breeze. 
A commemorative service is still held on 
the 15th March ; and if it rains on that 
day, the people say that the rain-dropa 
are Ume-waka's tears. 

Another favourite flower resort, 
lying some little way beyond 
Mukojima, is Horikiri, famed for 
its irises which bloom in June. 
The excursion is a pleasant one at 
that time of year. 

7. — Eko-in. The Five Hundeed 
Rakan. Kametdo. Distkict of 
fukagawa. susaki. 

Crossing Eyogoku-hashi, one of 
the largest bridges in the metro- 
polis spanning the Sumida-gawa, 
we reach the noted Buddhist tem- 
ple of Eko-in. 

In the spring of 1C57, on the occasion of 
a terrible conilagration which lasted for 
two days and nights, 107.040 persons are 
said to have perished in the flames. This 
figure is no doubt a gross exaggeration, 
but whatever the number of victims may 
have been, the Government undertook 
the care of their interment, and orders 
were given to Daiizaemon, the chief of 
the pariahs,* to convey the bodies to 
Ushijima, as tliis part of Yedo was then 
called, and dig for them a common pit. 
Priests from all the different Buddhist 
sects came together to recite, for tho apace 
of seven days, a thousand scrolls of tiie 
sacred books for the benefit of tho souls 
of the departed. The grave was called 
Mueri-zuhi, or the Mound of Destitution, 
and the temple which was built near it 
is, therefore, also popularly entitled Mwn- 
ji. The services for the dead {segaki\ are 
regularly held on the 'ind and 19th days 

* In Japanese, Eta. Their occupations 
were to slaughter animals, tan leather, 
assist at executions, etc. The class aa 
such is now abolished ; but remnants of 
its peculiar costume may still occasionally 
be seen in tho persons of young girls with 
broad hats, who go about the streets 
playing and singing. 


Pioute L—Tolyo. 

of each month. Eljo-in being, ou account 
of its peculiar origin, without the usual 
means of support derived from the gifts 
of the relatives of the dead, was formerly 
used as the jjlace whither sacred images 
were brought from other provinces to be 
worshipped for a time by the people of 
Yedo, and as a scene of public perform- 
ances. The latter custom still survives 
in the wrestling-matches and other shows, 
which draw great crowds here every 
spring and winter. At Eko-in prayers are 
offered up daily for the souls of dead 
animals. A fee of 30 cents will procure a 
short service and burial in the temple 
grounds for such domestic pets as cats, 
dogs, etc., a larger sum being necessary if 
the animal's thai, or funeral tablet, has 
also to be furnished. 

Eko-in might well be taken us a 
text by those who denounce 
"heathen" temples. Dirty, gaudy, 
full of semi-defaced images, the 
walls plastered with advertise- 
meuts, the altiir guarded by two 
hideous red Ni-6, children scamper- 
ing in and out, MTestlers stamping, 
crowds shoitting, — -the place lacks 
even the semblance of sanctity. 
In a small arched enclosure behind 
the temple, stands the grave of the 
celebrated highwayman Kezwni 
Kozo, where incense is always kept 
burning. The cemetery at the back 
contains monuments to those who 
l^erished in the great lire of 1657, 
and in the great earthquake of 1855. 

In Midori-cho, in the district of 
Honjo, about 1 mile further on, is 
a temple containing wooden images, 
originally gilt over red lacquer, 
almost life-size, of the Five Hund- 
red Kalcan (Go-hyfdcu lialcan), 
seated on slielves reaching from 
the bare earth of the floor to the 
rafters of the roof. They are from 
the chisel of Shoun, an artist of 
the 17th centiu-y. On some of 
them are pasted sUps of paper with 
their names. The much larger 
image in the centre represents 
Shaka, with Anan on his r. hand 
and K.asho on his 1. The white 
image in front of Shaka is Kwan- 
non. The temple also contains a 
hundretl small images of Kwannon. 

Not far ofE stands the Shinto 

temple of Temuiangfi, commonly 
known as Kameido, from a stone 
tortoise seated on a weU in the 
grounds. Sugawara-no->Iichizane 
is here worshipped under the title 
of Temman Daijizai, i.e., " the Per- 
fectly Free and Heaven-FilUng 
Heavenly Divinity." The temi^le 
grounds have been laid out in 
imitation of those at Dazaifu, the 
place of his exile. Passing in 
through the outer gate, the eye is 
tirst attracted by the wistarias 
trained on trellis, whose blossoms, 
during the last week of Ajjril, make 
Kameido one of the chief show- 
places of the capital. They grow on 
the borders of a pond called »S7( inji 
no Ike, or "Pond of the Word Heart," 
on accoimt of a supposed resem- 
blance to (t\ the Chinese character 
for " heart ; " and one of the 
amusements of visitors is to feed 
the carp and tortoises which it 
contains. A semi-circular bridge 
leads over the pond to a large gate 
in yatsu-mune-zukuri (i.e., eight- 
roofed) style, standing in front of 
the temple. Glass cases inside the 
gate enclose the usual large images 
of Zuijin. Piound the walls of the 
temjDle hang small pictures ou a 
gold ground of the ancient religious 
dances called BiKjaku. 

Be^'^ond a shed containing two 
life-size images of sacred ironies, is 
an exit by Avhich the visitor can 
reach the Ume-yasldki, or Plum- 
Garden of Kameido, 4 did distant. 
Here grow the Gicaryohal (lit. 
Pluiu-trees of the Kecumbent Dra- 
gon), and it is much \isited by the 
citizens early in March, when the 
blossoms are all out. There are over 
500 trees, all extremely old and 
partly creej)ing along the ground, 
whence the name. Most of the cut 
stones which stand about the 
grounds are inscribed with stanzas 
of poetry in praise of the flowers ; 
and during the season, similar 
tributes ASTitten on paper Mill be 
seen hung up on the branches. A 
few vlio ofE lies Miihiijinid, described 

Fahigairu. Susalci. T^uJciji. 


The S.E. piirt of T6ky5, consist- 
ing of the district of Fukagawa 
on the 1. bank of the Suiaidii-gawa, 
is a maze of narro\\' streets, chietly 
inhabited by the lower trading and 
artisan classes, and offers little for 
the sightseer. 

Joshinji, though the chief temple 
of the Nichiren sect in Tokyo, is 
quite iini)reteutious ; IjTit there are 
some good carvings on the gates of 
the priests' dwellings which line 
the narrow street leachng np to it. 
In the conrt-yard is a large l)ronze 
image of Shaka supported on the 
shoulders of stone demons ; and at 
the back, l)eyond the cemeterj', a 
curious superstitious practice may 
be witnessed at the shrine of 
Shogyo Bosatsu. The stone figure 
of the saint stands in a little wooden 
shed hung round with small reg- 
ularly cut bundles of straw. The 
faithful buy these at the gate, dip 
them in water, brush the image 
«ith them, and then ladle water 
over its head, believing that this 
ceremony will ensure a favourable 
reply to their petitions. The image 
is constantly wet, showing how tlrm 
the belief is. The priests of the 
sect seem unable to acccnint for the 
origin of the usage. 

The Buddhist tempL- commoidy 
known as Fnlcai/mrK uo Ftuld, in 
Tomioka Monzen-cho, is subsidiary 
to the great shrine at Narita ; and 
in imitation of the latter the 
grcmnds are laid out in rococo 
style, with inscribed stone slabs 
and numerous small bronze 
statuettes. It presents a lively 
appearance i>n the 1st, loth, and 
'28th of each month. 

The adjacent Shinto teuiplo oi 
JLarliinmii, dating from A.D. ICiSS, 
shows traces of former Buddliist 
influence. The walls and ceiling 
are decorated with paintings ot 
birds and flowers, and there are 
also some pretty wood-carvings. 
The ornamentation of the chancc^l 
is extremely rich, the ceiling being 
panelled, and gold profusely em- 
ployed. Doves fly about the 

gi'ounds, as is usual in temples 
sacred to Hachiman. They are 
supposed to act as this god's mes- 
sengers, — strange messengers from 
the Crod of War ! 

Down to the bBgiuning of the pre.sent 
reign, the god Fudo mentiouedin the last 
paragraph but one was worshii^ped in the 
building now exclusively dedicated to 
Hachiman. "rure 8hinto" views, how- 
ever, then led to the separation of the two 
cults and to the "purilication " of the ori- 
ginal edifice, the Buddhist congregation 
having been forced to remove next door 
and build for themselves. 

The district sitiuited between the 
temi>le of Hachiman and that of 
Sitsaki-no-Benten is noted for its 
trade in timber, the town being here 
intersected l>y numerous canals 
commtinicating with the river, 
down which come the timl)er-laden 
rafts from the inland provinces. 
The temple of Susaki 7(o Beiifen 
(Susaki being the name of the pro- 
jecting point of land on which it is 
situated) dates from the latter ])art 
of the 17th century, at which time 
the ground on which it was erected 
I'.ad only recently been reclaimed. 
The temple itself is uninteresting ; 
l)ut on a clear day there is a gooii 
view from the embankment built 
after the ra\ages of the inundations 
and tidal waves of the eighth 
decade of the IHth century. At 
lo^^' tide, ^hich the Japanese con- 
sider the prettiest tuue, and 
especially if the season be spring, 
numerous jileasure boats, with 
singing-girls and other merry- 
makers, will be seen lazily floating 
about in the offing, watching the 
oystev-catchers ply their trade. 


On the way from the 8himl)ashi 
terminus to the former Foreig-n 
Concession in Tsukiji, several 
imi)ortant modern buildings are 
l)assed : — 1. the Fifteenth Bank, r. 
the Inqierial Dei>artment of Com- 
munications, and further on the 
Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce (Xoshoinushd), a huge 


Route 5. — Excursions from Tokyo. 

"building, one "wing of whicli is 
occupied by a small but interesting 
Commercial Museum, open from 9 
to 3 in summer, and 10 to 3 in 
winter. Near by stands the Kabuki- 
za, one of the best theatres in the 
metropolis. The Naval Academy is 
seen to the r. beyond the canal. 
Still further to the r. is the Shiha 
Bikyu, formerly the summer palace 
of the Shoguns, and more recently 
a place of entertainment for il- 
lustrious Tisitors. It is also \ised 
once a year for an Imperial Garden 
party, at the season when the 
masses of double cherry-flowers are 
in bloom. The Shiba Eikyu is 
unfortunately not open to the 
general public. 

To the 1. is the enclosure of the 
Nishi Hongvcanji, popularly called 
the Tsukiji Monzeki, a huge temple 
belonging to the rich and powerful 
Monto sect. It has fi-equently been 
burnt down, last of all in 18'J7, 
but is now rebuilding. 

A large proportion of the build- 
ings in the Foreign Concession is 
devoted to rehgious and education- 
al purposes, testifying to the zeal 
of the various missionary bodies, 
whose members form the bullc of the 
population. The most conspicuous 
places of worshif) are the Cathedral 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of iVmerica and the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral. Another striking 
building is the Hotel Jletropole, 
situated on the Bund facing the 
Sumida-gawa near its mouth. Be- 
yond the river lies Ishikaica-jima, 
where stands a large Convict 
Prison. The land is gaining 
rapidly on the water in this 
district, the whole spit opposite 
the Blind having been reclaimed 
within the last five-and-twenty 
years. On a fine breezy day, the 
vessels sailing into the river mouth 
add picturesque animation to the 


Excursions pkom Tokyo. 

1. meguko and kithon-butstj. 2. 
ikegami and haneda. 3. ftjtago 


tjchi, and i-no-kashira. 5. ccr- 
moeant-fishing on the tama- 
g.4.wa. 6. koganei. 7. takao-zan. 
8. mitake. 9. oji. 10. the caves 
neab konosu. 11. naeita. 12. 
ascent of tsukuba-san. 

1. Meguko and Ktjhon-butsu. 

Meguro (Tea-houses, * Uchida, 
Hashiwa-ya ; there are several 
others, but they are apt to be 
noisy) is a native picnic resort, 
3 m. out of the city westwards by 
road or Suburban Railway ; but the 
station is about a mile from the 
village. Shortly after leaving the 
station at the top of a descent call- 
ed Gyonin-zaka, one sees 1. the 
small temple of Daienji, which 
deserves passing notice for the sake 
of the Oo-hyaku Bakan, — tier upon 
tier of small seated Buddhist 
images in various attitudes of 
meditation, quaint yet pathetic in 
their stony stillness. Meguro is 
seen to best advantage when either 
the peonies or the chrysanthemums 
are in blossom. There are two 
permanent sights, — the Temple of 
Fudo, and the gi-aves of Gompachi 
and Komurasaki. The key to the 
latter is kept at the Kado-Ise tea- 
house at r. corner of the turning 
which leads to the temple. The 
grave is called Hiyoku-zuka, after 
the hiyoku, a fabulous double bird 
which is revered as the emblem of 
constancy in love. It may be added 
that sentiment is the only motive 
for visiting the gi'ave, as there is 
really nothing to see. 

About 260 years ago, there lived a 
young man called Shirai Gompachi, who 
at the age of sixteen had already won a 
name for his skill in the use of arms, but, 
having had the misfortune to kill a fellow- 
clan.^ man in a quarrel over a dog, was 

-~^ V 7' 

C jy^afibajAi 
F .AiyuitA</ 

K ^o/ifftf 

R 7^uii// 

S iMp/. /'ti/t/rr 

T SttJft/it 

Meguro. Kuhon-butsu. Ikegami. 


compelled to fly from bis native province. 
While resting at an inn on his way to 
Tedo, a beautiful girl named Komurasaki 
came and awoke him at midnight, to tell 
him that a band of robbers, who had 
stolen her from her home, intended to 
kill him for the sake of the sword which 
every samurai at that time carried. 
Being thus forewarned, Gompachi 
succeeded in slaying the thieves when the 
attack was made upon him. He also 
restored the girl to her grateful father, a 
rich merchant, who would have been glad 
to make the young man his son-iu-law ; 
but being ambitious, Gompachi insisted on 
pursuing his way to Yedo. Meanwhile, 
unhajapy Komurasaki was left to pine for 
the handsome youth with whom she had 
fallen deeply in love. After further 
adventures. Gompachi reached Yedo, only 
however to fall into dissolute habits. 
Hearing much praise of a lovely and ac- 
complished girl who had lately become 
an inmate of the Yoshiwara, Gompachi 
went to see her, anil was astonished to 
find in the famous beavity no other than 
the maiden whom he had but a few 
months before rescued from the robbers' 
den. It was the usual pathetic story. 
Her parents having become poverty- 
stricken, she had sold herself in order to 
alleviate their distress. Frequent visits 
to his sweetheart soon exhausted Gom- 
pachi's slender means, and having no 
fixed employment, he was driven in des- 
peration to murder a man for the sake of 
money to spend at the Yoshiwara. The 
crime was repeated, until he was caught 
red-handed, and ultimately beheaded as 
a common malefactor. A friend claimed 
the body and buried it at Meguro, whither 
poor Komurasaki hastened on hearing the 
sad news of her lover's end, and throwing 
herself on the newly-made grave, plunged 
a dagger into her bosom aud died. 

At the bottom of the steps lead- 
ing lip to the temjile of Fudo, is a 
pool fed by two tiny cascades. To 
stand naked imder the stream of 
water for several hours in cold 
weather is considered a meritorious 
penance, the efEect of which is to 
wash away all taint of sin. Tradi- 
tion says that Jikaku Daishi, the 
foiander of this temple, miraculous- 
ly called the spring into existence 
by the aid of his mace (tokko), 
whence the name of Tokko-no-iaki, 
or Mace Cascade. The most re- 
markable of the ex-votos is a huge 
sword, such as the god Fudo is 
often represented with. 

(To prevent mistakes, it may here 
be noted that J ri from Meg^uro 

proper, and nearer Tokyo, lies an- 
other village called Knmi-Meguro.) 

Kuhon-butsu. These temples, 
containing the nine large and hand- 
somely gilt images of Buddha fi'om 
which the place derives its name, 
are situated in the vicinity of 
Meguro. The direct way is along 
the main road to Futago, — J hr. 
ride from the Meguro railway 
station, — thence for 15 min. by 
]5ath 1. across the fields, which 
finally emerges on an avenue lead- 
ing to the temple buildings, charm- 
ingly situated amongst finely wood- 
ed surroundings. Kuhon-butsu be- 
longs to the Jodo sect of Biiddhists. 
In the upper storey of the massive 
gateway repose a number of gilt, 
but sadly neglected, images of 
Kwannon. The main hall stands 
in the centre of the grounds, and 
faces the three shrines in each of 
which are three images, — excellent 
specimens of the sculptor's art, and 
all in a good state of preservation. 

2. — Ikeoami. Haneda-no-Inaei. 

_ Ikegami is reached by train to 
Omori station on the Yokohama 
line in ^ hr., whence it is about 1 m. 
by jinnkisha. The great temple 
of Hommonji (see p. 42 for plan) is 
celebrated as the spot where the 
Buddhist saint Nichiren died in 
A.D. 1282. Its tine situation and 
magnificent timber make it one of 
the most attractive points within 
easy reach of Tokyd. The best 
time to visit it is on the 12th — 13th 
October, when the annual festival 
in Nichiren' s honour takes place. 
On this occasion over 20,000 per- 
sons make the pilgrimage. An- 
other festival is held from the 22nd 
to 28th April. At the top of the 
temple steps is 1. the Daiinoku-do, 
where some of the faithful are gen- 
erally to be heard beating the drum 
and reciting the formulary of the 
sect, — " Nariiu Mydho JRenge Kyo." 
Next to this is a shrine dedicated 
to Kato Kiyomasa. Then comes 
the 8haka-dd, or HaU of Shaka, 


Route 5. — Excursions from Tohvo. 

where worshippers pass the night 
at the time of the annual festival, 
with, behind it, another bnilding 
containing a complete set of the 
Bnddhist scriptures that may be 
made to revolve on a huge 
hexagonal wheel. Fronting the gate 
is the Soslii-flo, or Founder's Hall, 
dedicated to Nichiren, the restora- 
tion of which in handsome style 
evinces the popularity which this 
sect enjoys. On the altar stands 
an exquisitely lacqiiered shrine, 
containing a life-size image of 
Nichiren in sitting ix)sture, sfiid 
to have been carved by Nichiro, 
one of his chief disciples. The 
upper part of the wall is decorated 
Avith pictures of angels playing on 
musical instruments. Behind the 
altar, outside the temple, is a 
pictorial representation of the chief 
incidents in the saint's life. The 
extensive buildings at the rear are 
the residences of the abbot and 
monks. Although Nichiren died at 
Ikegami, his bones were conveyed 
to Minobii ; all that remain here 
are one tooth and the ashes of his 
funeral pyre. The shrine {Koisu-do) 
containing these relics is a short 
way down the hill to the 1., in a 
line viith the Priests" Apartments. 
This building, about '20 ft. in 
diameter, is of the shape of an 
Imhan stupa reposiug on a huge 
lotus-tlower of stone. A gilt shrine 
of the same form as the building 
itself stands inside on a table 
formed of a lotus-flower canied by 
eight green tortoises, and inside 
this again is a crystal jar A\ith the 
relics. The interior, though not 
accessiljle, may be fairly well seen 
through the wire grating of the 
A^dndows. At the top of the small 
hill immediately above the Kotsu- 
do, stands a stone monument 
marking the original burial-place 
of the saint (A'o.s-o Mi-tmnaya). 
Below the Kotsu-do, down a few 
steps, there are three shrines, the 
smallest of which {Daiho), much 
A'isited by pilgrims, f)ccupies the 
site of the house in which Nichiren 

died. Ifere is ^hown a tiny image 
which he is said to have carved A\ith 
the aid of a mirror on the day 
preceding his death ; also the pillar 
against which he leant during his 
last moments. 

One may picnic either sit the iea- 
Itouse (Tamba-ya) in the village, or 
(but in this case notice must be 
sent the day before, as the matter 
is more or less one of favour) at 
Eijuin, a temple in the wood behind 
the pagoda, having beautiful plum- 
trees and peonies, besides a fine 
A-ieM-. The imposing-looking tomb 
in the temple garden is that of a 
Daimyo's wife. A third place, im- 
mediately below the pagoda, is the 
immense tea-house of Akebono-ro, 
popularly known as Ikeijami Otisen. 
It is quite a curiosity, sprawling as 
it does up and down two hills by 
means of galleries and bridges, 
which remind the beholder of 
scenes in Chinese art. This tea- 
house is a favourite native holiday 

In this neighbourhood, aboTit 2 
ri S. E. of Omori station, near the 
mouth of the Tamagawa, stands 
the shrine of Haneda-no-Inari, 
— quite small, but curious 
to the thousands of torii in the 
grounds. The two cMef festivals 
are on the " Middle Day of the 
Horse" (Naka-nu-uma) in March 
and September. Visitors to the 
temple nnght rest at the Kaname- 
kwan or Haneda-kwan iea-house, 
where there are jets of natural gas 
and cold mineral spring. 


Futago (111 II, Kame-ya) stands 
on the banks of the Tamagawa, 2 J ri 
by jinrikisha ft-om Tokyo. Just 
before reaching the river, there is 
a striking view of Fuji with a pano- 
rama f)f the surroumhng country. 
During the summer months, the 
Japanese visit Futago for the sake 
of the sport — if sjiort it can be 
termetl — of watching tishermen net 

Jini ISO. Hori-no-uclii. l-iKj-Las/u'ra. 


the (iL ii kind of trout. One ri 
d( )wu the river from Futago lies 

Mariko (Imi., Wakamatsu-ya, on 
the Tokyo side), a place of similar 
liharacter. The distance by the 
direct jiiirildsha road from Mariko 
to Tokyo is 2 ri 30 cho. An alter- 
native way of returning to Tokyo 
is to take boat down the river to 
Kawasaki station, which is abont 
2 hrs. from Ftitago. It is quite a 
pretty walk from Mariko to Ike- 
gami, mostly by the side of a 
stream, 1 rl. 



Juaiso. Train to Shinjiku sta- 
tion on the Siibiirban Line, or jin- 
rildsha all the way. Crossing the 
railway, the extensive buildings 
seen on the 1. are those of the new 
water-works for the supply of 
Tokyo, whence, proceeding along 
the Ome Kaido for 10 min., the 
path to Juniso turns 1. through the 
fields, and in 10 min. more a short 
avenue of pines is reached, leading 
to the small and deserted temple 
of Jiiniso Gongen. Below the 
temple lies a small lake, plentifully 
stocked with a species of carp. 
Several tea-sheds stand at the 
upper end. Juniso is a favourite 
spot for pleasiire parties during the 
summer months. 

Hori-no-uchi may be reached 
in I hr. from Juniso. A lane 
directly behind the tea-sheds soon 
rejoins the Ome Kaidd, along 
which we proceed for \ hr., to leave 
it again by a path 1., at the corner 
of which is a pretty plum orchard. 
A short distance beyond, the path 
turns r., where a stone inthcates 
the distance to Hori-no-uchi as 1(5 
(li.o. From here stretches an avenue 
of double cherry-trees lined with 
shops for the sale of rosaries, salted 
plums, toys, etc. The temple of 
Myohoji at Hori-no-uchi, belonging 
to the Nichiren sect, merits a visit 
for the sake of the excellent 
carvings that adorn the main 

building, — those of dragons in the 
porch, below the architrave, and in 
the eaves being especially spirited. 
The iron gates and railing to the r. 
of the main entrance are good 
specimens of modern worlcman- 
ship. On the 1. of the court, is a 
long shed tilled with a curious 
collection of ex-votos, such as the 
queues of men whose prayers have 
been gi'anted by the interposition 
of Nichiren, oil-paintings, etc. In 
the main hall, a splendid shrine 5 
ft. square and 10 ft. long, covered 
with gilt carvings, occupies the 
centre of the further side of the 
chancel. It contains a seated 
image of Nichiren, said to be the 
earliest efKgy of that saint, and to 
have been carved in A.D. 12G1. It 
can be seen and a short service in 
its honour witnessed, on payment 
of a small fee. The principal 
festival is held on the 13th Octo- 
ber, the anniversary of Nichiren's 
death. A polite request wll gener- 
ally gain permission to visit the 
pretty landscape garden attached 
to the main temple. 

Half a rl further on, the once 
noted temple of Omiya Hachiman 
stands mouldering and deserted. 
A stately avenue of cryptomerias 
and maple-trees, together with 
several toril, attests its former im- 

Proceeding through the flat 
fields for 3.1m. further, vro reach 
the Temple of Bpnicn, situated on 
the borders of the Uttle lake of 
I-no-kashira, w-hose waters, de- 
rived fi'om seven small springs, 
supply the aqueduct leading to 
Kanda in Tokyo. 

History says that iu 1000 the lake was 
visited by leyasu, who foiiiul the water 
so excelleut that it was used ever after 
for making His Highness's tea. In 163;» 
his grandson, the Shogim lemitsu, gave 
orders for the water to be laid on to the 
Castle in Yedo. He also, on the occasion 
of a visit to the lake, carved with the 
small knife from his dirk the head of a 
wild boar {i-no-l;ashira) on the trunk of a 
tree close by, whence the present name. 

I-no-kashira attracts visitors 


Route 5. — Excursions from Tokyo. 

chiefly in Apiil for the cheiTy- 
blossoms, and in May for the 
azaleas. The return may be made 
from Kichijoji station, which is 
only 2 cho from I-no-kashira, and i- 
hr. fi'om Shinjikn. 



This curious method of catching 
fish may be seen at Hlno, a Till, 
on the TamagaM'a. This place is 
reached by train from Tol^yo (Shin- 
jiku station, see next column) in 
a httle over 1 hr., whence 8 chd by 
jinriMsha to the Tamagaica-tei tea- 
house where the cormorants are 
kept, and 2 cho further to the river. 
The charge for three fishermen 
and a servant is 2 yen ; a covered 
boat (yane-bune) costs 1 yen extra. 
The sport lasts fi'om the middle of 
May to the end of September, being 
conveniently carried on during the 
daytime, — not at night, as at the 
better known cormorant fishery 
of Gifu on the Tokaido. The 
fishermen wade about in the 
water, holding the ungainly bu'ds 
by strings, and reUeving them of 
their prey, wliich is then handed 
over to the servant. A fan- quantity 
of small trout (ai) may generally 
be reckoned on, and can be cooked 
at the tea-house if desired. 


Koganei, with a fine avenue 
of cherry-trees 2<} m. in length 
along the banks of the smaU canal 
that conducts the waters of the 
Tamagawa to Tokyo, only deserves 
a visit when the trees are in blos- 
som. It is reached by train to 
Sakai on the Hachioji hne, J hr. 
from Shinjiku Junction, and 20 
min. distant from the avenue. 

Ten thousand young trees were brought 
from Yoshino in Yaniato, — the most 
famous place for cherry-trees in Japan, — 
and from the banks of the Sakura-gawa in 
Hitachi, and planted here in 1735 by com- 
mand of the Shogun Yoshimune. 

The crowds that assemble daily to 
revel under the shade of the pink 
and white blossoms about the mid- 
dle of April, present a gay spectacle. 
Instead of returning to Sakai, it 
will be found shorter to walk on to 
Kokubiinji station, about 20 min. 
from the upper end of the avenue. 

7. — -By the K5bu Kailwat 
TO Takao-zan. 

S 3 






.2 <W *^ 



J m. 




5 J 


7 i 


For I-no-kashi- 



For Koganei. 


Kokubunji Jet. . . 


Tachikawa Jet. . . 

For Tamagawa 
Valley, Rte.27. 





This is a favourite exciu'sion in 
spring and aiitumn ■with holiday- 
makers from Tokyo. The railway 
journey to Hachioji occupies 1^ hr., 
whence it is 2 ri along the jilain to 
the foot of Takao-zan. JinriMshas 
or basha traverse this distance in 
1 hr. 

The railway, on lea^'ing Shinjiku, 
leads for a short distance close to 
the Florists' Gardens of Okubo, 
noted for their azaleas, the rest of 
the route passing mostly over a 
flat country, with heavy, clayey 
soil. The Tamagawa and one of 
its afliuents are crossed before 

Hachioji {Lin, Kado-ya), the 
centre of an important silk district, 
but otherwise uninteresting. A 
short distance beyond the vill. of 
Komagino, the path leading up 
Takao-zan turns oflE r. from the 
main road, and crosses the 
stream, from which point to the 
temple buildings is a walk of about 

Takao-zan. Mitake. Oji. 


Takao-zan is a hill rising some 
1,600 n. above the sea. On the 
summit stands a much fi-equent- 
ed temple, surrounded by a splen- 
did grove, chiefly of cryptomerias, 
planted by Buddhist devotees. 
The road is lined \\-ith posts on 
which are recorded the names of 
persons who have presented young 
trees, so many hundreds at a time, 
with the object of maintaining the 
grove undiminished. On the plat- 
form at the top of the ascent stands 
a fine bronze pagoda, 12 ft. in height. 
Above this, on another terrace, are 
three shrines dedicated to Fudo, 
Yakushi, and Dainichi ; and at the 
top of a long flight of steps is a 
gaudily decorated Shinto shrine 
with painted carvings. ITie annual 
festival takes place on the 21st 
April. Trees shut out the view 
from this point ; but lower down a 
space has been cleared, from which 
the eye ranges over the plain of 
Tokyo and the sea in the distance. 
A narrower and steeper path than 
that ascended may be taken on 
the way down, which affords pretty 
glimpses of the densely wooded 

8. MlTAKE. 

Mitake is a sacred peak, easUy 
reached from Tokyo in_one day 
by taking train to Ome (see 
Eoute 27). There are_two ways of 
proceeding on from Ome, viz., the 
M'main Kaido, or "Sunny Boad" 
on the 1. bank of the Tamagawa, 
and the Hilcage Kaido. or "Shady 
Eoad," on the r. bank. It is possi- 
ble to go the whole way in jinriM- 
sha with three men by either of 
these. The distance is estimated 
at 4 ri. The -sill, of Mitake possess- 
es no inns ; but accommodation 
can be had at the houses of the 
priests, who, though not making any 
charge, should be diily remunerat- 
ed. The priesthood here has for 
ages been hereditary in a few fa- 
mihes, who intermarry almost ex- 
clusively among each other. The 

Main Temple, just above the A-ilL, 
is sacred to the Shinto deities 
Onamuji, Kushimachi, Sukuna- 
bikona, and Ukemochi-no-kami, 
the divine j)rotectress of silkworms. 
The Oku-no-in, 18 cho distant, is 
dedicated to Yamato-take. 

Grand timber and a profusion of 
flowering shrubs clothe the steep 
sides of all this maze of hills. The 
best expedition at Mitake, occupy- 
ing half a day, is to the waterfalls 
of Kanm/o-taki, thence up Odake, 
a high peak at a considerable dis- 
tance, and back over the Oku-no-in 
to the village. T)ais walk may be 
curtailed by omitting Odake. 

The return to Ome may be va- 
ried by taking the hill path over to 
Unazawa on the Tamagawa, a walk 
of IJ hr., almost entirely under 
shade, and yet aifording i^rettily 
diversified views, whence 14 miles 
down_ the valley by the main road 
into Ome. 

9.— Oji. 

The viih of Oji, long a favourite 
retreat in the suburbs of Tokyo, 
now presents more the aspect of a 
manufacturing centre than of a 
holiday resort. Huge brick build- 
ings, paper and cotton mills, the 
clash of machinery, and lofty chim- 
neys from which columns of smoke 
sweep over the cherry-trees on 
Asuka-yama, depiive the place of 
much of its former tranquillity 
and beauty. Oji, nevertheless, stiU 
remains one of the attractions in 
the environs of the great city ; and 
crowds flock thitlier t'W'ice yearly, — 
in spring when the cherry-trees are 
in blossom, and in autumn when 
the maples lining the banlcs of the 
little stream called Takino-mwa 
put on their crimson tints. 

The train from Ueno station 
lands one in a few minutes close to 
the noted iea-hoiises, Ogi-ya and 
Ebi-ya, which stand together on 
the edge of the water, and look out 
on a small but tastefully arranged 
garden. Half a mile bej^ond the 


Route 5. — Excursions from Tokyo. 

tea-houses, iu a grove of evergreen 
oaks on the top of a sUght emi- 
nence, stands the Temple of Luiri, 
consisting of two rather dilapidat- 
ed bnildings. In the coiirt-yard 
are some line old cherry-trees. 
The temple and httle waterfall 
dethcated to Fndo, also in the 
vicinity of the tea-houses, attract 
many "sisitors. As the trains are 
generally full to overflowing during 
the cherry and maple seasons, 
some -visitors may prefer to go out 
by road. The prettiest way, 5 m., 
leaves the httle lake at Ueno, and 
passing through the suburb of 
yhinio Komagome, turns to the r. 
on reaching the tomb of the Dai- 
myo of Kaga, descends the hill, 
and follows up the valley to the 1. 

lU. — The Caves (Hyaka Aiui) neab 

These interesting artificial Caves 
are situated at Kita Yoshimi-mura 
in the prefecture of Saitama, and 
are witlun the limits of a short day's 
exciirsion fi'om Tokyo. Konosu 
is reached in 1^ hr. by train from 
Ueno station. The jinriMsha road 
to Kita Yoshimi-mura, '2J ri distant, 
crosses the railway line not far 
from the station, and runs over 
the plain straight towards the 
Chichibu mountains. Kita Yoshi- 
mi-mura nestles under the first hill 
met Avith on the road. At the fur- 
ther end of the village, the path to 
the caves turns ofE r. On the way, 
a (juaint old temple of Kivannon is 
seen, wedged in between rocks, from 
the inner side of which an entrance 
leads to a chamber containing a 
number of stone images of Kwan- 
non. A few yards beyond stands 
the office of the local authorities, 
by whom the caves, which he close 
by, are now maintained. The 
whole hillside, a greyish tufaceous 
sandstone, is honeycombed with 
these reHcs of a remote antiqiuty, 
^hose origin and use have given 
rise to controversy amongst the 

Mr. Aston, the liioneer iu Japauese ar- 
cliieological research, declares that there 
is good reason to believe that the caves 
were primarily intended for sepulchres, 
although some were doubtless used as 
shelters by beggars and outlaws at a 
later period ; while Dr. Tsuboi, of the 
Imperial University of Tokyo, an energe- 
tic worker iu the same tield, and the dis- 
coverer of most (if the caves at Yoshimi- 
mura, maintains that they were the habita- 
tions of the beings whom the Japa- 
nese term "earth-spiders." The original word is tswhi-gumo. There is 
considerable doubt as to its etymology, 
though every one agrees in interpreting it 
to denote a race of cave-dwelling savages. 
Motoori, the greatest of all Japanese 
literati, explains the name by a com- 
parison of the habits of the race in ques- 
tion with those of the spider. But it is 
surely more rational to regard the word 
tSKChi-guiHo as a eomiption of tsuchi-go- 
rtiori. " ea-rth-hiderx," than which no name 
could be more appropriate to troglodytes. 
These people, who were widely spread 
over Jajjan in prehistoric times, were 
probably the ancestors of the modem 
Ainos. One of the earliest Japanese his- 
tories describes them as ' ' short in stature, 
and having long arms and legs like 
pigmies." Jimmu Tenno is said to havf^ 
massacred a number of them iu one of 
their cave-dwellings. — Although the chief 
authority on such matters, Mr. Willian 
Gowland, in his elaborate monograph on 
the "Dolmens and Burial .Mounds in 
Japan," does not mention this particular 
locality, which was only discovered after 
his departure from Japan, a careful perusal 
of hi.s work leaves no room for doubt that 
Mr. Aston was right in regarding them, 
not as dwellings but as burial places, a- 
greeing, as they do, iu so many respects 
with the dolmens widely scattered over 
Japan south of latitude 37'^. 

The caves, most of which face 
due S., are believed to number two 
hundred and thirty-seven in all. 
The entrances are about 3 ft. 
square ; then comes a passage of (5 
ft. and iipwards in length, leading 
to a second doorway within which 
are the chambers. These are of 
various sizes, many being 6 ft. 
square, and from 5 to 6 ft. high. 
The ceilings are dome-shaped. 
Each chamber contains one or two 
ledges having slightly raised 
borders. Traces of the use of tools 
are visible on the walls. Iron 
rings, arrow-heads, etc., have been 
found in some of the caves ; but 
the presence of these is doubtless 

The Temple of Narita. 


ilue to the fact, as local tradition 
asserts, that parties of fighting men 
took refuge here in more modem 
times. The hill affords an extensive 
view of the adjacent mountains, 
including Buk5-zan in the Chichibu 
range, Fuji, and Asama-yama. The 
town of Matsuyama (Inn, K6ji-ya) 
lies only V-i cho ofp. It contains a 
large Shinto temple to the gods of 
Inari, called the Yakyii Innri. 

10. — The Temple op Naeita. 
Shedje of Sakxtba Sogoeo. Kadoei. 

A visit to the famous shrine of 
the god Fudo at Narita is recom- 
mended to those who would see 
Buddhism still a power in the land, 
alive and flourishing in the soil of 
popular piety. The wood-carvings, 
too, that adorn some of the build- 
ings are excellent specimens of 
modern art. Trains run from 
Tokyo (Honjo station) in 2^ hrs. (see 
Route 21). The village clustering 
at the base of the low hill on which 
the temple stands, possesses a large 
number of inns. The Wakamatsu- 
ya and Ebi-ya are the best. 

The full name of this holy place is 
Narita-san Shingo Shinshoji, i.e. "the 
Divinely Protected Temple of Beeent Vic- 
tory on Mount Narita." The story of its 
origin is as follows : — 

At the time of the foundation of the 
Buddhist faith, an Indian sculptor named 
Bishukatsuma carved a wonder worldng 
image of the god Fudo (see p. 48), which 
image, after the lapse of many centuries, 
was sent to China, where it passed into 
the hands of a holy priest named Keikwa 
Ajari. When the great Japanese saint, 
Kobo Daishi. visited China in A.D. 804, 
to seek instruction in Buddhist mysteries, 
this priest it was who became his teacher: 
and when teacher and disciple were about 
to part, each was warned in a dream 
that the miraculous image was destined 
for Japan, and accordingly Kobo Daishi 
brought it home with him and enshrined 
it in a temple on Takao-zan near 
Kyoto, together with attendant flgures of 
Seitaka Doji and Kongara Doji which he 
carved with his own hand. iSow it hap- 
pened that about a century and a half 
later, a revolution broke out. Masakado, 
a courtier of high birth, taking ofieuce 
at the refusal to appoint him on the staff 
of an embassy about to start for China, 

rebelled against the legitimate sovereign 
Shujaku Tenno. Retiring to his native 
province of Shimosa, he sacrilegiously 
assumed the title of Mikado, bnilt liini- 
self a capital in which the place-names 
round about Kyoto were plagiarised, 
established a mimic Court, and havin"- 
made himself master of several provinces 
in Eastern Japan, prejjared to march 
upon Kyoto. The legitimate Mikado, 
thereupon, not content with despatchinc^ 
against the rebel such valiant loval wai^ 
riors as Fujiwara-no-Tadabumi, faira-no- 
Sadamori, and Tawara Toda Hidesato, 
applied to the priests for supernatuiai 
assistance. It was found that no god was 
so powerful as Fudo, and no image of 
him so miraculous as that which K6b5 
Daishi had brought over. Accordingly 
Kwancho Daisqjo, a celebrated abbot 
of those days, who was also a scion 
of the Imperial family, was com- 
missioned to carry the image to the seat 
of war and exorcise the enemy. The 
abbot _ embarked at Naniwa (now the 
city of Osaka), and soon landed on the 
coast of Eastern Japan, whence he pro- 
ceeded inland, and, having set up the 
miraculous image on a rock near the 
rebel's capital, performed before it for 
three weeks the Goma ceremony, that is 
prayers and incantations recited while a 
Are is kept burning on the altar. The 
result was the total defeat and death of 
Masakado in the year 940, the triumph 
of the loyalists, and preparations on 
the part of the abbot to return home 
when lo and behold ! the image waxed 
heavy as a rock, and utterly refused to 
move ! As usual, a dream served to ex- 
plam matters. The god Fudo appeared 
and declared his intention of remaining 
where he was, to bless and civilise East- 
ern Japan. Accordingly the grateful 
Mikado granted fund.s for the construc- 
tion of a temple on a grand scale : and as 
local circumstances forbade remaining on 
the exact spot where the image had at 
first been set up, lots were drawn by 
thirty-three villages in the surrounding 
<ouutry-side, and the lot feU on Narita" 
Time brought further changes, and the 
present site— the hill known as Myo- 
ken-zan— was built on only in 1704. Pro- 
bably the great popularity of the Narita 
.-shrine dates from about that period. In 
any case, the then recent founding of the 
new capital, Yedo, in the near neighbour- 
hood had furnished it with a lar^e 
number of potential pilgrims : and for 
some reason otherwise inexplicable, actors 
and other public entertainers, who flourish 
most in groat cities, have long been its 
most ardent votaries. Many repairs and 
additions have been made during the 
present century, the gi-eat Ni-o gate datins 
from 1831, and the MidO from 1856. Of 
the many relics preserved in the treasure- 
house of Narita, the_ most highly valued 
is the Ama/cicni iin Iwken, a .sword said to 


Route 5. — Excursions from. Tokyo. 

have been forged by A-uiakuni, the first 
of all Japanese smiths, for the Emperor 
Mommu (A.D. 683—697). who prized it 
equally with his crown regalia After 
the suppression of Masakado's rebellion, 
this sword was presented to the god Fudo 
by the then Emperor Shu.iaku, in grate- 
ful acknowledgment of that deity's assis- 
tance. One touch of it is VjeUeved to cure 
insane iiersons and those possessed of 
foxes. It would seem, however, to be 
now never shown. A festival takes place 
on the 2Sth of each month, April and 
May being the most crowded. 

The temple stands on the side of 
a Mil in a line gi-ove of cryptomeri- 
as and otlier trees. It is approacli- 
ed from the inns by a paved avenue 
lined with stone lanterns. To the 
r. of the Tamagakl (stone wall), is 
a well where pilgrims perform the 
ceremony of washing ■s\-ith cold 
water. Close by is the Danjiki-do, 
■whither devotees retire to fast 
during a whole week, the only 
refi-eshment permitted to them 
being the use of the cold bath. For- 
merly the period was three weeks. 

Tradition says that this practice was 
instituted about the middle of the 16th 
century by the saint Doyo, who passed 
a hundred days in religious exercises. 
At last his prayers were answered by a 
vision of the god, who offered him the 
choice of a sharp or a blunt sword to 
swallow. The saint chose the sharp one, 
which the god thrust down his throat, 
causing the blood to llow freely. On 
awakening he found his intellectual 
powers immensely increased, and felt no 
traces of the wound. Nevertheless, 
priests' robes dyed with the blood spilt on 
this occasion are preserved am.0Lig the 
treasures of the temple. 

In a building to the r. of the Dan- 
jiki-do, worshipijers may often be 
seen seated in a circle, handing 
round one to another a huge rosary 
to which a bunch of horse-hair is 
attached, and chanting the invoca- 
tion " JVamu Amida Butsu." Oppo- 
site is the Onna Danjiki-do, reserved 
for females. Both buildings have 
ex-votos over the entrance. 

To the 1. of the TamagaM, a 
shrine called the Daishi-do dedicated 
to Kobo Daishi, contains an image 
of that saint, besides tine carvings 
of dragons. The other buildings are 
residences of the priests. 

The Ni-o-mon at the top of the 
first flight of steps is a massive 
structure of keyaki wood, orna- 
mented with carvings by Got5 
Kisaburo. Under the architrave 
are eight groups representing Chi- 
nese children at play, and sages, 
probably intended for the " Seven 
Sages of the Bamboo Grove," whose 
recreations are chess, music, draw- 
ing, and calligraphy. At the r. end 
are groups of young cock-fighters, 
and the child delivered from the 
tall water-jar by his sharp-witted 
companion Shiba Onko, who breaks 
a hole in it with a stone to let the 
water escape. In front r. is a sage 
■«Titing an inscription, 1. another 
plajing on the harp. On the 1. 
side are children at play, and a 
group the central figure of which 
dances to the music of flageolet and 
dnun. At the back are groups of 
checker-players and of sages in- 
specting a picture. Close to the r. 
of the Ni-o-mon stands a hand- 
some granite beacon erected in 
1894, and decorated with the names 
of the donors in lettering of bright 
red, — the colour of Fudo's flames. 
Notice also the huge sword meant 
to scare away evil-doers. 

On either side of the steps lead- 
ing up from this gate to the Hondo, 
or Main Temple, the prettily ar- 
ranged rockwork crowded ^\ith 
bronze and stone figures has a pe- 
culiarly bizaiTe but not unpleasing 

As one approaches the Hondo, 
the first thing that strikes the eye 
is the huge receptacle for money- 
offerings. Above it is a large panel 
^vith carvings of phoenixes gor- 
geously coloui-ed, and on the r. and 
1. of this are coloured panels of 
peacocks, also in rehef. This is 
the only colouring about the build- 
ing, the rest of the exterior being 
of unpainted keyaki wood. The 
sides and the back are decorated 
with eight splendid panels, each 
9 ft. by 4 ft., representing groups 
of the Go-hyaku Rakan in low rehef, 
with an immense variety of incident 

Narita. Sakura Sdgoro. Kadori. 


and portraiture. They were carved 
by Matsumoto Eydsan. On the 
huge doors that close the sliding 
windows of this part of the build- 
ing, are beautiful carvings of the 
Twenty-four Paragons of Fihal 
Kety, each panel (2J ft. by 2 ft.) 
• containing twosubjects by Shima- 
mura Shumbyo. The dragon and 
angels on the ceiling, and the bold 
sketches of the Ju-roku Eakan be- 
hind the main altar are by Kano 
Kazunobu, a painter of the present 

In the Naijin, or Holy of Hohes, 
is the sacred black image of Fudo 
(often called Dainichi, with whom, 
as mentioned on p. 46, Fudo is 
identified), hardly visible in the 
dim hght. Among the rockery 
behind are thirty-six small bronze 
figures ; in the centre at the top is 
Fudo in a cave, and higher up on 
the r. the saint En-no-Shokaku. 
The grotesque figures popularly 
called Baira-botchi in the gables, 
which bear the ends of the ridge- 
pole, are excellent expressions of 
the effort to support a heavy bur- 
den. Round the building, under 
the architrave, are groups of fabu- 
lous animals. 

The three-storied Pagoda is a 
beautiful exami^le of this architec- 
tural form, finely decorated and 
painted. The black groups on the 
four sides represent the Sixteen 
Rakan, the work of Shimamura 
Entetsu. The bell-tower opposite 
is also well worth a few minutes' 
attention. Close by on the r. is a 
handsome hbrary (Kyddn), contain- 
ing a highly decorated revolving 
octagonal box borne on the 
shoulders of parti-coloured demons. 
Note the pecuHar coffered ceiling 
painted ^ith kaleidoscopic pat- 
terns. In tlie ex-voto Hall {Ema- 
dd) to the 1. of the Library, are 
pictures of Fudo helping sui> 
phants ; also a huge rosary, the 
string of which is a cable made of 
human hair, and various other gifts. 
The two large anchors thickly en- 
crusted with barnacles were found 

by fishermen near Shirahama, off 
the coast of Boshu. 

A flight of steps leads up to 
another level where stands a large 
red shrine called the Komyn-dd, or 
Hall of Resplendent Light. The 
other ex-voto shed 1. contains a 
large variety of interesting offer- 
ings, where charms and pictui^es of 
all kinds may be purchased. The 
grounds constantly present the 
aspect of a fair. 

If time permits, a visit may be 
made to the small but noted shrine 
of Sakura Sogoro at Kozu-mura, 15 
cho W. of Narita by jinrikisha. 

In the year 1644 a band of village elders, 
headed by one Sogoro, proceeded to i'edo 
to protest against the tyranny of the lord 
of Sakura. Even to protest was in 
those days a capital offence, acquiescence 
in all the mandates of his superiors being 
an inferior's sole and sufficient duty. Not 
Sogoro only was put to death ; his wife 
was crucified with him and theii- ttiree 
children decapitated before their eyes. 
One, a child of seven, was butchered as he 
was eating the sweetmeats thrown to him 
by the compassionate spectators. This 
pathetic story is graphically told in Vol 
U. of Mitford's Taks of Old Joipan. 

The buildings are aU the outcome 
of modern piety, plain and sub- 
stantial, but adorned with carvings 
of some merit. Charms bearing 
the name of the martyred peasant 
together with pictures of him and 
his wife and children sell in large 
numbers. Near by on the r. is 
Sogoro's grave, where incense is 
kept perpetually burning. 

The Shinto Temple of Kadori, 
famous but not specially interest- 
ing, stands to the N. E. of Narita, 1 
hr. distant by train. The name of 
the nearest station is Sawara. 
Numerous imis crowd the entrance 
to the splendid giove of trees in 
which the temple stands. 

This temple is d-edicated to Futsn-naahi 
or Iwa-nuahi, a deified wacrior o£ the 
mythical period, whose symbol is aaword. 
The date of its foundation is unknown, 
but may be placed a good deal earlier 
than the 6th century. The present 
building was erected at the beginning of 
the 17th century, and restored in A.D. 
1700. It is said that, as late as the begin 


Route 6. — Miyanoshila and Hakone. 

ning of the 17th century, the waters of 
the Tonegawa came right up to the base 
of the hill on which the temple stands, 
and that all the rice-fields between it 
and Tsunomiya, about 3 m. distant, have 
been reclaimed since that period. 

11. — Ascent of Tstjktjba-san. 

Tsukuba-san, a mountain 2,925 
ft. liigli, situated 40 miles to the 
N.N.E. of Tokyo, and forming even 
at that distance a striking feature 
of the landscape, is best reached by 
taking train at Ueno Station for 
Tsuchiura [Inn, Matsu-ya), on the 
East Coast Railway (see Route 22), 
whence 4 ri by jinrikisha via Hojo 
to the foot of the mountain. Hence 
to the ^ill. of Tsukuba is 1 hr. walk 
gphill. It should be agreed upon 
beforehand with the jinrikisha-men 
that they must shoulder the luggage 
and act as guides as far as the inn. 
The name Tsukuba is said to be com- 
posed of two Chinese words meaning 
" built bank ; " and the legend is that 
Izanagi and Izanami constructed the 
mountain as a bulwark against the waves 
of the Pacific Ocean, which they had 
forced to retire to the other side of 
Kashima, formerly an island in the sea. 
This tradition is in accordance with the 
fact, recently verified by geologists, that 
the E. shores of Japan have been gradually 
rising during many centuries past. One 
legend says that Tsukuba is a fragment 
of the sacred mountain in China called 
Godai-san, which broke off and flew over 
to Japan. This is supposed to account 
for the peculiar plants found on it. But 
the fact is that no botanical species occur 
liere that are not also found on other 
Japanese mountains, although the in- 
habitants of the vicinity, noticing the 
difference between the floras of the 
mountain and the plain, might naturally 
be led to attribute a miraculous origin to 
the former. 

Saturnalia used formerly to be held 
here. The following is a translation of 
an extremely ancient ode : — 
Where many an eagle builds her nest. 
On Tsukuba's mountain-crest. 
There the men and maids foregather. 
And this the song they sing together : 
" I your mistress mean to woo ! 
You may take and love mine too ! 
For the gods that here do throne 
Ne'er this ancient use disown : 
So shut your eyes but for to-day, 
-Ynd find no fault howe'er we play ! " 

The cleanly little vill. of Tsiiku- 

ba {Inn, *Edo-ya), lies about halt- 
way up the mountain. Most of 
the houses command a fine view of 
the plain of T5kyo, stretching away 
towards Fuji. The ascent begins 
immediately after leaving the vill., 
the way passing through the 
grounds of a temple. From this 
point to the summit of the W. 
peak, called Naniai-zaa (Male 
Mountain), the distance is about 
50 did. This is the usual ascent, 
being less steep than the jsath up 
the E. and lower peak, Nyotai-zan 
(Female Mountain). The summit 
is dotted with numerous shrines, 
of which the largest is sacred to 
Izanagi. Similarly, the temple on 
Nyotai-zan is dedicated to his con- 
sort Izanami. There is a magni- 
ficent view of the T5ky6 plain, Fuji, 
Asama-yama, and the Nikko range. 
Pines and cryptomeiias cover the 
mountain, and the rocks about 
the summits are awkward to 
scramble over, the assistance of an 
iron chain being necessary in 
some places. From the W. to the 
E. peak is an interval of about ^ m. 
The descent from the latter is 70 
cho. It passes over and between 
huge rocks, to which fanciful names 
have been given, from their sup- 
posed resemblance to portions of 
the human body. The ascent and 
descent occupy about 4 hrs. 


The Hakone Disteict : Miyano- 


1. genebal initokmation. 2. miya- 
noshita and neighbotjehood. 
3. hakone and neighbourhood. 

1. — Genekaii Infoemation. 

This route is specially recom- 
mended, as uniting charm of 
scenery, accessibility, and an un- 





>. i Jd- \ 

Way to Miyanoshita. 


usual degree of comfort. All 
tourists arriving at Yokohama are 
advised to devote a week to it, and 
if they have not so much time at 
their disposal, then to devote two 
or three days to a portion of it. 
Even should they be disinclined 
for walking and sightseeing, they 
will find no place more pleasant 
for idling in at all seasons than 
Miyanoshita. It offers another 
advantage as a convenient starting- 
point for the ascent of Fuji. 

The word Hakone. it should be observed, 
.though employed by us, aa by all Euro- 
peans to deaoto the village called by the 
Japanese Jlalonf-no-shuku, Hakone-no-ehi, 
or llakone-machi, is properly the general 
name of the entire mountainous district 
lying at the neck of the peninsula of Izu, 
between the Bays of Odawara and Suruga. 
For this reason the Japanese talk of 
Miyanoshita, Kiga, etc., as being " in 
Hakone." The original name of Hakone 
Lake (now, however, used only in poetry) 
is Ashi-nn-Uiiii, that is, the Sea of Reeds. 
(Compare the name of Aahi-no-yit, "the 
Hot Water of the Beeds," which is really 
deserved, as these springs issue from a 
reedy marsh.) The lake measures, in 
round numbei-s, 1^ ri long, 4j ri round, 
and has a depth of 37 fathoms in its 
deepest part. 

The following are the heights of 
the chief villages and mountains 
mentioned in this route : — • 

Ashinoyu 2,870 feet. 

Futago-yama 3,630 

Gora 2,300 

Hakone 2,400 

Kamiyama 4,790 

Eintold-zan 4,040 

Koma-ga-take 4,420 

Kowaki-dani (Kojigoku) 2,100 

Miyanoshita 1,400 

Myojin-ga-take 3,880 

Myojo-ga-take 3,080 

Ojigoku 3,466 

Otome-toge 3,333 

Saijoji (D6ry5-san) 1,240 

Ten Province Pass 3,2 IG 

Yu-no-hana-zawa 3,100 

2. — Miyanoshita and Neighboue- 


Miyanoshita is easily reached 
from Y^okohama by the Tokaido 

Railway to Kozu station, 1^ hr. ; 
thence by electric tram to Yumoto. 
1 hr. ; thence by jinrikisha (at least 
two men necessary) or on foot, for 
1^ ri lip the valley of the Hayakawa 
to Miyanoshita, nearly 1 hr. by 
jiniildsha, 1\ hr. on foot, — say 4^ 
hrs. for the whole journey, includ- 
ing stoppages. From Tokyo it is 
1 hr. more, or 5| hrs. in all. The 
total distance from Kozu to Yu- 
moto is 10 m., and from Y''umoto 
to Miyanoshita, 4 miles. 

At Kozu [Inn, Kozu-kwan), it is 
worth devoting a few minutes to 
walking out on the beach to look at 
the beautiful view of Odawara Bay, 
with to the r. the peninsula of Izu 
on whose coast Atami is situated, 
ahead the volcano of Oshima (Vries 
Island), and the islet of Enoshima 
to the 1. Turning round, one has a 
magnificent view of Fuji. The road 
from Kozu to Y'umoto— the old 
Tokaido — leads past (about 1 m.) 
the Shoto-en, an inn situated on the 
beach, with detached apartments 
and sea bathing. It is patronised 
by the higher official class. 

A little further on, the broad 
iSakawa-gmca is crossed, where a 
cm-ious method often resorted to 
for the protection of the embank- 
ments of capricious rivers may be 
observed. Large open crates made 
of split bamboos are filled with 
stones, and set in rows along the 
bank. Their appearance has gained 
for them the name of ja-kago, 
hterally " serjient-baskets." The 
half-way station on the tram line is 

Odawara {Inn, Koise-ya), atown 
celebrated in Japanese history as 
the scene of many bloody conflicts 
in feudal times. 

Odawara belonged successively to vari- 
ous families of Daimyos, who dwelt in 
the castle which was not finally destroyed 
till the time of the late revolution. The 
most celebrated of these families were 
the Hojo, a younger branch of the family 
of "Regents," who ruled over Japan 
during the 13th century and the first 
three decades of the 14th. This younger 
branch, selecting Odawara as their seat 
in A.D. 1495, continued to reside there for 


Route G.—Miyanoshita and Halone. 

five generations, namely, till 1590. when 
they were defeated and the power of their 
house broken for ever by the Taiko Hide- 
yoshi in the battle of Ishikake-yama. 
Ketiring to their castle, the various com- 
manding officers on the Hojo side could 
come to no agreement, as time wore on, 
as to whether it were better to await the 
onslaught of the enemy, or to sally forth 
themselves and ofter battle. While they 
■were still discussing this question in all 
its bearings, Hideyoshi made a sudden 
attack and captured the castle by a coup 
de main. Hence the proverbial saying, 
Odawara hyogi, that is, "the Odawara 
Conference," which means endless talk 
resulting in nothing. 

The tram station stands ojiposite 
the mined walls of the castle. On 
leaving Odawara, the road enters 
the -valley of the Uayakau-a near 
the mouth of that stream, which 
takes its origin in Lake Hakone. 
The two round summits seen almost 
constantly ahead are Futago-yama, 
or the Twin Mountains. The 
avenue to the r. of the tram road 
marks the Tokaido. which carriages 
and jinrikishas still follow. Near 

Yumoto (10 min. out of the 
Till.), is a cascade knoAvn as Tama- 
dare no taki. A small fee is charged 
for admittance. Yumoto boasts 
a large inn, called Fukuzumi. 
Foreigners obliged to break the 
journey are, however, advised to 
push on h m. further to the viU. of 

Tonosawa, where the Suzuki 
Hotel will be found a pleasanter 
stopping place with good hot 
springs. The mosaic wood-work 
{kiji-mono), which from Yumoto 
onwards flUs such a prominent 
place in every shop-window, is the 
specialty for which the whole 
Hakone district is noted. The 
hamlet more than half-way Tip from 
Yumoto to Miyanoshita is called 
Ohiradai. On the r. side is a good 
wood-work shop, Watanabe, whose 
specialty is the iine bamboo basket- 
work of Shizuoka. 

Miyanoshita (Hotel, *Fuji-ya, 
in European style) is a pleasant 
resort for many reasons, — the pmity 
of the air, the excellence of the 
hotel accommodation, the numer- 

ous pretty walks both short and 
long, the plentiful supply of 
" chairs " and of specially large and 
comfortable kagos for those who 
prefer being carried, and the deli- 
cious hot baths, which, containing 
but faint traces of salt and soda, 
may be used without medical ad- 
vice. The upper portion of the 
village is called Sokokura. The 
principal short walks from Miyano- 
shita are : — • 

1. To Kigra (distance, 9 cho, say 
J hr.) : — no climbing, tame fish to 
feed with cakes at the favourite 
" Gold-fish Tea-house." Looking 
back from here, one sees the tea- 
house of Mi-harashi perched high 
up the steep hillside. Paths lead up 
to it from the main road. Equally 
flat and pleasant road 5 clto further 
up the valley of the Hayakawa to 
Miyagino, a vill. built on both sides 
of the stream. 

2. Instead of crossing the bridge 
to Kiga, turn 1. up the romantic 
gorge of the Jakoisu-gaica, lit. 
"Stream of the Serpent's Bones," 
so called fi'om some white stones 
popularly believed to be the bones 
of dead serpents. There is here a. 
waterfall, and the hot water which 
supplies the loUage can be seen 
issuing from the rocks in several 

3. To Dogashima, a hamlet 
some few hundred yards below 
Miyanoshita, down a steep raAdne. 
Here are a pretty cascade and a 
charming villa, permission to see 
which may sometimes be obtained 
through the proprietor of the 
Fujiya Hotel. 

4. CHmb half -May up Sengen- 
yanaa, the wooded hill immediate- 
ly at the back of the Japanese wing 
of the Fujiya Hotel. It is a steep 
pull of 25 or 30 min. to the tea- 
shed, some 700 ft. above the "viUage, 
whence beautiful -siew of upper 
half of Fuji. This walk may be 
continued along the ridge towards 
Ashinoyu, but is pleasanter if taken 
in the opposite direction. 

Somewhat longer (1 to 2 hrs.). 

Walka at Miyanoshita. 


less good walking, but very pictur- 
esque are : — 

5. To Kig-a and Miyagino, as 
in No. 1 ; then cross the river and 
turn sharp to the r., walking back 
on the other side, and re-crossing 
to the Miyanoshita side at Doga- 
shima. Guide indispensable. This, 
the most beautiful of all the walks 
near Miyanoshita, takes a good 
walker a little over 1 hr. 

6. Up to Kowaki-dani (Ko- 
jigoku), then down past the hamlet 
of Kinoiaira to Bliyagino and Kiga, 
whence back by the main road. 
This walk may be abridged by 
turning to the r. before reaching 
Kojigoku, almost all the paths r. 
leading down ultimately to the 
Kiga road. Many persons elect to 
stay at KowaM-dani rather than at 
Miyanoshita, as the former place 
is some 700 ft. higher, and con- 
sequently has cooler air. The semi- 
European !Mikawa-ya Hotel posses- 
ses excellent baths. The 15 cho 
(1 m.) from Miyanoshita to Kowaki- 
dani is done on foot or in chairs. 

The meaning of tbe name Kqjigoku is 
" Small Hell ". It was given to the place 
in allnaiou to some small sulishur springs, 
which supply the hotel baths. In 1877, 
on the occasion of the visit of H. M. the 
Mikado, the name of Kojigoku was 
officially altered to Kouaki-dani, which 
means the "Valley of the Lesser Boiling." 

7. To the hot spring of Gora, 
through the wood leading to O- 
jigoku ; returning home by the 
zigzag road over the moor to 
Miyagino ; under 2 hrs. 

Good half-dav excirrsions are 
to :— _ 

8. Ojigoku, or JJig Hell, alter- 
natively named Oicaki-dani, i.e., 
the Valley of the Greater Boiling — 
distance, a little under 2 ri to the 
top of the gorge. Neither name is 
a misnomer. The whole gorge 
reeks with sulphtxrous fiimes, vege- 
tation decreases as one ascends 
higher, and the aspect of the scene 
becomes weird and desolate. It is 
advisable to keep to the path and 
tread carefully after the guide, as 

more lives than one have been 
sacrificed by a false step on the 
treacherous crust. The view from 
the top of the gorge differs as wide- 
ly in its charms from the scene of 
desolation just traversed as can 
well be imagined. In the centre, 
Fuji .towers up in perfect beauty. 
To the extreme r. is tooth-shaped 
Kintoki-zan, then the Otome-toge, 
the Nagao-toge, and to the 1. the 
more imposing slopes of Ashi- 
taka. The summit of Kamiyama, 
which rises up immediately be- 
hind the sulphur springs, distin- 
guishes itself by its graceful out- 
line and by the dense forest cover- 
ing its sides. The vegetation of 
this neighbourhood is remarkable, 
consisting as it does chiefly of the 
small box and asemi {Andromeda 

9. UpMyojo-g'a-take, or Muko- 
yama, the big gi'assy hill immediate- 
ly opposite Miyanoshita, on the 1. 
side of the stream. It is a walk of 
1-^ hr. to the top, the path at first 
leading down through the vill. of 
Dogashima, there crossing the 
stream, and then turning consider- 
ably to the r., before turning 1. 
again along the crest of the hill. 
The view from the summit is 
magnificent. In the centre is Fuji, 
the dej)ression immediately in 
front of which is the Otome-t5ge ; 
then to the r. Kintoki and M3T6jin- 
ga-take, behind which rise Oyama 
and Tanza^a ; in the plain the 
Hakawa-gawa, and behind it the 
low range of Sogayama. The town 
of Odawara can be seen by walking 
back a few yards ; then the sea with 
Oshima, and to the r. the low slope 
of Ishikake-yama ; then Futago- 
yama, Koma-ga-take, Kamiyama, 
and Dai-ga-take. The blear spot 
on Kamiyama is the solfatara of 
So-un Jigokxi. Still further to the 
r., in the blue distance, is Ashitaka- 
yama. The best time to view this 
scene is at sunrise or at sunset. 
The coolie should therefore carry a 
lantern, either for the tii-st or for 


Route, 6. — Miyanoshita and Hak'one. 

tlie last portion of the w alk. The 
descent via Miyagino and Kiga is 
steeper in parts even than the 
ascent. This expedition is not 
recommended to people with weak 
heads or duiing the heat of sum- 
mer. The whole will take 82 hrs., 
including a short rest at the^ sum- 

10. To the Dai, or TeiTace, on 
the top of the hill leading to Saijoji 
{see No. 16), 1^- hi', climb for sake 
of splendid Tiew. Thence 1. along 
the ridge, and down the nest de- 
pression (Yagura-zawa-toge) also to 
the 1., and so home, — 4 or 5 hrs. 

The folloMong are longer excm-- 
sions, occupying the greater part 
of a day : — 

11. To Aslainojru and Hakone 
(1 n 8 cho to Ashinoyu, thence a 
little over 1 ri on to Hakone, say 
5-J m. altogether). Ashinoyu {Inns, 
IVIatsuzaka-ya, Europ. food and 
beds ; Kinokuni-ya) is famous for 
its sulphur springs, whose efficacy 
in the treatment of skin diseases 
and rheumatism attracts crowds of 
Japanese patients and not a few 
foreigners, despite the bare un- 
inviting appearance of the locahty. 
Ashinoyu is very cool in summer, 
owing to its height, but pays for 
this advantage by being fi-equently 
enveloped in mist. The road thither, 
about half of which is a stifE pull, 
leads close by Kowaki<lani. Just 
before reaching Ashinoyu, the giiide 
shorJd be told to lead over a small 
eminence, close to the road, known 
as Benten-yama, which offers a good 
view, — Odawara Bay, the peninsula 
of ilisaki with Enoshima like a 
Kttle knob on the coast ; and 
beyond that, Tokyo Bay and the 
blue outhne of the provinces of 
Kazusa and Boshu, which divide 
Toky5 Bay from the Pacific. The 
principal mountain to the 1. is 
Oyama, shaj^ed like an obtiise tri- 
angle. Tiirning round, one has 
Futago to the 1., Koma-ga-take 
and Kamiyama to the r. Ashinoyu 
itself commands no view, as it lies 

in a marshy depression, though on 
the top of a hUl. 

[At the end of the vill., a path 1. 
leads up Futago-yama, 

■ Futago-yama , lit. Twin Mountain, 
is a favourite designation for such 
double peaks. 

25 min. to the first summit of 
the nearer peak ( Uica-Futago), 
which presents a garden-lUce 
appearance, and J hr. more to 
the second summit, passing 
through an ancient crater now 
thickly carpeted with moss and 
overgrown with bushes and 
trees. The view from this second 
summit is the finer, includ- 
ing Lake Hakone and many of 
the points enumerated on the 
next page under Kamiyama. It 
is possible to reach the further 
peak of Futago-yama (Shita- 
Pidago) ; but the labour is not 
repaid, as the summit itself is 
covered with trees and bushes 
that shut out all view. 

On a hill 8 cho, say J hr., be- 
yond Ashinoyu, at a place 
called Yu-no-hana-zaica, a bath- 
ing establishment A\ith very 
strong sulphur baths was open- 
ed a few years ago. It com- 
mands a fine view, similar to 
that fi'om Benten-yama. This 
walk, and that along the flat 
in the direction of Hakone, are 
the two best for invalids stay- 
ing at Ashinoyu.] 

After leaving Ashinoyu, the path 
is at first level, and then descends 
most of the way to Hakone. The 
first object of interest passed is, 1., 
a set of three small stone monu- 
ments dedicated to the Soga Breth- 
ren and to Tora Gozen (see p. 84). 
A few yards f ui'ther on, to the r. 
and half-hidden among the grass 
and bushes, is a block of andesite 
rock well-worth pausing a moment 
to inspect, as it is covered with 
Buddhist images carved in relief. 
These images are known as the 
Ni-ju-go Bosatsu, that is, the 

Way to Ashinoyu and Hakonc 


Twenty-five Bosatsu ; (see p. 46). 
The carving apparently dates only 
from A.D. 1293, tliougli attributed 
to Kobo Daishi. 

Two or three of the images at the top 
are unfinished. According to a legend 
still credited by the country-folk, Kobo 
Daishi had carved the other twenty -two 
during a sinc;le night ; but as day broke 
before the completion of his labours, the 
rest perforce remained incomplete. 

But the chief ciiriosity on the 
road is the colossal image of Jiz5 
{Eokudo no Jizd) carved in relief on 
a block of andesite, and ranking 
among the triumphs of the Japa- 
nese chisel. Tradition has it that 
the great Buddhist saint, Kobo 
Daishi, carved this image also in a 
single night. A festival in its 
honoiir is celebrated yearly on the 
'23rd August. 

[Koxna-ga-take may be as- 
cended by a track starting from 
the depression immediately 
beyond the large image of Jizo, 
leading tip to the r., and fol- 
lowing along the ridge. This 
mountain is rather less worth 
climbing than Kamiyama, as 
the plateau-like nature of the 
top makes it impossible to take 
in the whole view from any 
single spot. It has, however, 
the advantage of affording the 
completest \iew of Lake Hako- 
ne. Time, 50 min., or say, 2^ 
hvs. from IVIiyanoshita. 

A boulder at the top of Koma-ga- 
take is the subject of a curious su- 
perstition. It is bilieved that the 
water contained in the hollows of 
this bouldtr never runs dry . and 
the peasants of the surrounding 
country make pilgrimages to it in 
seasons of drought, in order to ob- 
tain rain by scattering the droi)s to 
the four winds. But if any of the 
water be taken down the mountain, 
the result is a typhoon. 

Koma-ga-take may also be as- 
cended from a point nearer the 
vill. of Ashinoyu; but the climb 
is then considerably steeper.] 

ITie two meres (Shoni-ga-ike and 
Xazuna-(ja-ike), v. and I. on the way 

between Ashinoyu and Hakone, are 
the remains of ancient craters. 
Shoni-ga-ike generally affords fail- 
skating in the winter. The first 
hamlet reached on getting to the 
lake is Moto-IIakone, 15 chd this side 
of Hakone itself . The Maisuzaka- 
ya Inn, pleasantly situated on the 
border of the lake, commands the 
best view of Fuji in this neighbour- 

Instead of returning to Miyano- 
shita by the way one has come, it 
vrill be found pleasant in warm 
weather to take a boat from Hako- 
ne (or from Moto-Hakone, which 
shortens the expedition by one 
mile) to the far-end of the lake, — 
Umi-jiri, lit. '' sea-end," as it is 
termed. Alighting there, we go 
past the little bathing village of 
Ubago. up the spur separating the 
lake from Ojigoku, and return 
to Miyanoshita by the Ojigoku 
way, as in Walk No. 8. Those who 
have done the expedition, not on 
foot, but in chairs or kagos, can 
take these conveyances with them 
in the boat, and can be cari'ied 
most of the way home from 
Umijiri. It is only necessary to walk 
over the dangerous portion of the 
Ojigoku gorge. Instead of taking 
a boat, some may jjrefer to foUow 
the path along the edge of the lake. 
The distances, if this extension be 
adopted, are as follows : 

Miyanoshita to : — 111 Chd M. 

Ashinoyu .1 8 3 

Moto-Hakone 23 1\ 

Hakone 15 1 

Umijiri 1 IS 3i{ 

Ubago 1'2 i 

Ojigoku.. « ^ 

Miyanoshita I 34 4if 

Total 6 10 15^ 

12. Up Kamiyama, the central 
and highest peak of the Hakone 
range, the waj' — we purposely say 
" way," for there is not always a 
path — lying first among long grass, 
and then through scrub. It is best 


Route 6. — Miyanosliita and Hakone. 

to itscend fi-om a point on the O- 
jigokn road i)ast the atII. of Nino- 
taixa, and to descend Tia, Yu-no- 
hanazawa, whence do\\"n by a zigzag 
path passing throiigh Kowaki-dani. 
The ascent "«'ill take a fair ■walker 
■2J hrs., the whole expedition, say, 5 
hrs. Its roughness makes it unsuit- 
able for ladies. An old crater is 
traversed before reaching the sum- 
mit. Avhich commands a gi-ander 
panorama than any other in this 
district. Fuji towers to the N.W., 
flanked by the snowy summits of 
the Koshu mountains to the r. and 
the Shinshu mountains to the 1. 
Further 1. is Ashitaka-yama. then 
the blue Gulf of Svn-uga with its 
line of surf, and the nan'ow pine- 
clad promontory of Mio-no-Matsu- 
bara shutting in Shimizu Bay. Next 
comes the peninsula of Izu with 
the Amagi-san range, Hatsushima 
near Atami, smoking Yries Island 
and the smaller islands of Toshima, 
Niijima, etc., forming with it and 
with more distant Hachijo the 
" Seven Isles of Izu ; "' Sagami Bay, 
with the town of Odawara. the 
liver Sakawa. Enoshima, and the 
promontory of Misaki. with the 
further promontory of Sunosaki in 
Boshu behind ; the plain that 
stretches towards Fujisawa, Oyama, 
and the Tanzawa range. All the 
summits of the Hakone range are 
grouped in the nearer distance at 
the spectator's feet. Between him 
and Fuji is a ridge, the three lowest 
points of which are the Otome-toge, 
Nagao-toge, and Fukara-toge. 
The grassy summit on the other 
(southern) side is Koma-ga-take 
A\ith Futago-yama behind, while 
Taiko-yama and Ishikake-yama 
stretch behind that again like a 
long wall. Miyanoshita, too. is 
visible on this side. 

Taiko-ya;na, or TaJto-i/nc/ii, be It observ- 
ed, takes its name from a tradition to the 
effect that the Taiko Hideyoshi led his 
troops along it when going to fight the 
battle of Ishikake-yama. The way was 
shown him — so it is alleged — by a 
hunter, whom he thereupon killed, in 
order to make sure that the enemv shotiM 

not profit by the poor fellow's local 

13. Up most of the way to Ashi- 
noyn ; thence turning sharp 1. for 
30 cho down a steep and stony but 
picturesque path, which passes 
through the vill. of Hata on the 
old Tokaido. The first portion of 
the descent is called Takizaka, or 
Cascade Hill, on account of a pretty 
cascade seen to the r. about two- 
thirds of the way down. The 
return to ilij^anoshita is made via 
Yiimoto. Tonosawa. and Ohiradai, 
— total distance, about 5 rl. 

14. To the top of the Otome- 
toge, or Maiden's Pass, distant 3 
ri (7\ m.), whence can be gained the 
nearest and most complete view of 
Fuji and of the plain at its base. 
The path is not steep, excepting 
some 8 cho in the middle up a hill 
called the Usui-zaka, and 11 cho stiff 
climbing at the end. It is possible, 
however, to ride or to be carried the 
whole way in a chair. The path 
leads through Miyagino, crosses 
the Hayakawa. and continties up 
the vaUey to the vill. of Sengoku, 
noted for its cattle and horse-farm. 

[From Sengoku, the ascent of 
tooth-shaped Kintoki-zan 
takes ] hr., the climb being 
steep for a portion of the way. 
One may also reach it from the 
Otome-toge, but that is much 
longer. The summit, which is 
marked by several tiny shrines 
and is clear of trees, affords a 
grand viev/. The people of the 
suiTOunding country-side as- 
cend Kintoki-zan annually on 
the 17th day of the 3rd moon, 
old style, on which day the fes- 
tival of I-no-hana (" the boar's 
snout ") is held on the summit. 
The name of the mountain is 
derived from that of Kintoki, 
a mighty hunter of legendary 

The chmV) up the Otome-toge 
commences shortly after leaving 
Sengoku. The labour it entails is 
amply repaid by the view from the 



gap forming the pass. Persons 
with sufificient time will do well to 
climb up the hill to the r., from 
whose top are visible the snow-clad 
peaks of the mountains of Koshu 
and Shinshu. It is also possible to 
walk 1. along the ridge to the 
Nagao-toge, the first f hr. scram- 
ble through difficult scrub being 
rewarded by a glorious view from 
the open summit of the Nagao-dai. 
In this case the return is made via 
the farm. — To travel out to Miyano- 
shita viil the Otome-toge, is a plea- 
sant alternative route for those 
who intend visiting this district a 
second time. Instead of alighting 
at Kozu, one continues in the train 
as far as Gotemba station, situated 
in the plain at Fuji's base. From 
Gotemba it is 2 J ri to the top of 
the pass, but the first portion of 
the way may be done in jinrildsha. 
Gotemba is also the nearest station 
for travellers coming up the Tokai- 
do Railway from Kobe, bound for 
Miyanoshita. But if they have 
much luggage or object to walking, 
they shordd go on to Kozu, whence 
the facilities for proceeding to 
Miyanoshita are greater. 

15. To the vill. of Sengoku, as in 
the preceding walk ; there cross the 
liver to the thickly wooded hill of 
Dai-ga-take ; then past the hot 
springs of Yuba, again crossing and 
re-crossing the river to Miyagiuo, 
and so home. The park-like 
scenery about Dai-ga-take and 
Yuba differs from that of the other 
walks in the neighbourhood of 
Miyanoshita. Time, 2 hra. from 
Sengoku, or 4 hrs. altogether. 

16. To the Buddhist temple of 
Saijoji, sometimes called JJoryo- 
san, distant 3 ri. Though placed 
last, this long expedition is perhaps 
the most delightful of aU ; for it 
alone includes architectural beauties 
as well as beauties of nature. The 
path, after passing through Kiga 
and ]\Iiyagino and crossing the 
Hayakawa, leads up to a grassy 
plateau near the summit of Mydjin- 
ga-iake, — not to be confounded with 

the My5j6-ga-take of Walk No. 9. 
(Though kagos go this way, horses 
cannot. Eiders therefore have to 
go round via Yagura-zawa, w-hich 
increases the distance by about a 
couple of miles.) Tell the guide 
to lead to the spot called the Dai, 
or Terrace, \ hr. out of the way, 
to the 1., whence may best be seen 
the superb view : — on the one 
hand, the sea, with Vries Island, 
the peninsula of Boshu, and the 
nearer peninsula of Sagami, the 
plain of Sagami watered by the 
rivers Banyu and _Sakawa, the 
mountain ranges of Oyama, Kura- 
kake, Tanzawa, Sobutsu, Yagura- 
dake, and luany of the mountains 
of Koshu ; on the other, the wooded 
heights beyond the Hakone pass 
which dwarf the nearer ridge of 
Takanosu ; then tiu-ning towards 
the r., double-crested Futago-yama, 
Koma-ga-take, Kamiyama, and the 
long ridge to the W. of Hakone 
which terminates in Kintoki-zan ; 
and above and beyond all, the 
gigantic cone of Fuji. From this 
point it is a descent, Saijoji being 
even lower down on the far side of 
the mountain than Miyanoshita is 
on the near. Before reaching it, 
the open moorland of the hillside is 
exchanged for a fine grove of pines 
and cryptomerias, with an under- 
growth of beautiful flowering 
shrubs, — deutzia, azalea, pyrus ja- 
ponica, aucuba, etc., according to 
the season. 

The monastery of Saijoji, ■which belongs 
to the Soto sect of Buddhists, was founded 
by a hermit named Kyoan.'who died A.D. 
1401; but it owes its special reputation 
for sanctity to his successor Doryo, who 
was supposed to be one of the numerous 
incarnations of Kwannon, the Goddess of 

To Doryd's memory is dedicated 
the finest of all the shrines which 
collectively constitute Saijoji. It 
is called My5kwaku-d6, ami stands 
at the top of a flight of steps to the 
1. The links of the chain which 
divides the staiicase into two parts 
are often bound with scraps of 
paper, on which pilgiims have 


Roide 6. — Miyanoshita and Hakone 

writteu short prayers. The fan of 
feathers, which forms so striking a 
feature of the ornamentation, was 
Doryo's crest. The winged tigiires 
with large noses represent goblins 
(tengu), who dwell in the moun- 
tains. Do not fail to notice the 
elaborate wood-carvings. Most of 
the large upright stones of irregular 
shape inscribed with characters in 
red or gold, which are scattered 
about the grounds, are memorials 
of persons who have at various 
times contributed towards the 
repairs of the temple. So is the 
hideous grey railing, by which 
more recent piety has succeeded 
in marring the perfect taste and 
beauty of the scene. It is general- 
ly most convenient to lunch at 
Saijoji al fresco in one of the 
retired portions of the temple 
grounds. There are also several 
tea-sheds some way down the 
avenue beyond the temple. 

Instead of returning to Miyano- 
shita the way one came, it is far 
better to arrange at the hotel, be- 
fore starting, to have jinriMshas in 
waiting at the end of the stately 
avenue of cryptomerias leading 
from the temple down for 28 cho 
to the vill. of Sekimoto {tea-house, 
Saka-ya). After the fatigues of the 
walk, one can thence bowl along 
merrily through the jileasant valley 
of the Sakawa-gawa, skirting Oda- 
wara, whence by tram to Tonosawa, 
and by jinrikisha or on foot up 
to Miyanoshita. The total distance 
of the trip, as thus modified, is 10 
ri 25 cho (26 miles) ; but the 3 ri in 
jinrikisha from Sekimoto to Oda- 
wara, and the possibility of doing 
all the remainder of the way up to 
Miyanoshita by jiniildsha, diminish 
the exertion. Allow 9 lirs. for the 
whole. — It is also possible to take 
Saijoji on the way back from 
Miyanoshita to Yokohama, by join- 
ing the railway at Matsuda, the 
nearest station to the temple. The 
distance from the end of the ave- 
nue just mentioned, is under 
2 ri. From 6 to 7 hrs. should be 

allowed for the whole expedition, 
including a stoppage for lunch. 

3. — -Hakone and Neighbourhood. 

Hakone is most quickly reached 
from Yokohama and Tokyo by the 
Tokaido Eailway as far as Kozu, 
thence by tram to Yumoto, and on 
foot or in kago along the old To- 
kaido up the Hakone pass via 
Hata, the whole journey taking 
about G hrs. from Yokohama, or 7 
hrs. froiu Tokyo. The way up the 
Hakone pass is picturesque, not- 
withstanding recent deforestation ; 
but the road is stony beyond des- 
cription. Many residents prefer to 
travel via Miyanoshita, Avhere they 
spend the night, and then push on 
next morning by Walk No. II (see 
p. 154). 

The respective merits of Hakone 
and Miyanoshita as summer resorts 
form a constant subject of debate 
between the imrtisans of the two 
places. Miyanoshita has the ad- 
vantage of hot springs, a drier air, 
easier access, and a hotel in Euro- 
pean style. Hakone is cooler, be- 
ing 1,000 ft. higher, it affords more 
privacy, and has a picturesque lake 
where one may bathe and boat and 
go on water picnics. The view of 
Fiiji, too, and the reflection of Fuji 
in the lake (Hakone no saka-Fuji) 
are gi-eat attractions. In winter 
the advantage is altogether on 
Miyanoshita's side. No one thinks 
of staying at Hakone during that 
season, whereas Miyanoshita is 
equally pleasant all the year round. 
Indeed, many prefer the early 
winter there to the summer, as the 
air is almost always clear in ■winter, 
and walldng consequently more 
enjoyable. The chief inn at Hako- 
ne is the Hafu-ya, on the lake. 
But as nearly every hoiise in the 
village is to let during the summer 
season, the plan usually followed 
by families from Y'okohama and 
the China ports is to hire a separate 
residence by the month, bring their 
own servants with them, and set 

WaUoifrom Hakone. 


lip housekeeping. European furni- 
ture of a rough kind is generally 
obtainable, as also pro\isions dur- 
ing the summer season. 

Some of the most enjoyable ex- 
peditions from Hakone are the 
same as those already described 
from Miyanoshita, — for instance, 
those to Ojigoku, to Ashinoyu, 
up Futago-yama, etc. The follow- 
ing may also be recommended : — 

1. The Temple of Gong-en, 1^ m. 
The way leads along an avenue of 
tine cryptomerias that lines the 
Tokaido. A flight of steps will be 
seen r., near which formerly stood 
the old Barrier {Hakone no sekl) and 
guard-house, where all travellers 
were challenged and required to 
show their passports. The barrier 
was removed in 1871, but part of 
the stone-work still remains. 

Kaempfer, who passed this way ou 
Sunday, the 11th iJarch, 1091, writes of 
this guard-house as follows: — "We came 
to the Imperial guard at the end ot the 
village, where all the Japanese came out 
of their yorimons and Caiigns, and those 
on horseback alighted from their horses, 
presenting themselves very respectfully 
and bareheaded, to be search'd, which 
however was done but slightly. If there 
be any the least suspicion of a woman, 
disguis'd in man's cloaths, they must be 
more narrowly search'd, with this difler- 
euco however, that in this case, they are 
examin'd by women. Private persons 
going up to ./^'/o, must show their Pas.s- 
ports at this place, otherwise they are 
kept under arrest for three days, before 
they are permitted to pursue tludr 
journey. " 

Following along th(j avenue, wi: 
soon come 1. to an Imperial Sum- 
mer Palace (Biki/u), not accessible 
to the public. The next jjoint in 
the road is the Matsuzaka-ya inn, 
commanding the best view of Fuji 
to be had anywhere on the shores 
of the lake. A little further on, 
we pass under a stone torii, and 
enter the hamlet of Moto-Hakonc. 
We then turn slightly to the 1„ 
passing under a red torii, by the 
side of which stands a wooden shed 
containing two iron rice-boilers 
said to have been used by Yoritomo 
on his liunting expeditions. The 

road here skirts the lake, soon 
bringing us to a charming vista as 
we ascend to the foot of the temple 
steps. On the 1., just before pass- 
ing through the torii, stands the 
custodian's house, where Yoritomo's 
sword and other relics are preserv- 
ed. Also on the 1., half-way up, is 
a shrine dechcated to the Soga 
Brethren. The main temple is a 
picturesque relic of mouldering 
antiquity. The annual festival is 
celebrated on the 1st August. 

•2. Walk to the End of the Lake, 
5 m. along the E. shore, to 
Uniijiri, as the N. end of the lake is 

3. Along the Sukumo-gawa. — 
This is a picturesque, but rather 
rough walk. The stream has to be 
perpetually crossed and re-crossed,, 
and sometimes wading is unavoid- 
able. The path finally leads out 
near the aoU. of Hata, whence 
home. At the beginning of the 
valley, a path to the r. leads to 
Yoshihama on the coast. 

i. Walks in the direction of 
Ataxni. — Several pleasant walks 
can be taken in the direction of 
the Ten Piovince Pass and Atami, 
notably one ui) the slope of Okoma- 
yama and over Kazakoshi-rjama, to 
the highest point of the Tokaido, 
where, on a Uttle plateau, the 
boundary j)Ost between the provin- 
ces of Sagami and Izu is placed ; 
and back to Hakone by the 
Tokaido. ^\^lile crossing the 
plateau, there is a iine view of the 
lake, the mountains surroimding 
it, and Fuji beyond, with to the 
south the 15ay of Suruga, the 
peninsula of Izu, the towTis 
dotting the Tokaido, Ashitaka- 
yama, the Fujikawa far away in 
the distance like a streak of sUver, 
and still further the long point of 
Omae-zald stretching out into the 
ocean. Distance about 3i m. 

Of all walks in this direction, 
the most delightful is that to the 
Ten Province Pass(Jifcfcofcu-<(5ge). 
The cUmb is for the most part easy 
enough, and the panorama from 


Route 7. — Peninsula of Izu. 

the summit, especially on a line day 
in early winter, something never to 
be forgotten. The top of the ridge, 
which is marked by a stone known 
as the Ten Province Stone, looks 
•down on the provinc-es of Izu, 
Stiruga, Totomi, Koshu, Kotsuke, 
Musashi, Shimosa, Kazusa, Boshu, 
and Sagami. Bays, peninsulas, 
islands, mountain ranges lie 
spread out in entrancing variety of 
form and colour, Fuji towering up 
magnificently above all the rest. 
The almost artificial-looking little 
promontory seen constantly to the 
1. dTiring the higher portion of the 
walk is called Cape Manazuru. 
The distance fi-om Hakone is some- 
what less than 4 n, and can be 
done in 3 hrs. A steep descent of 
a little over 3 m. (1 hr.) leads fi-om 
the top down to Atami. 

5. The Subterranean Water- 
Course and the Fukara-toge. — 
The Fukara Pass (a very low one) 
is the most southerly of three 
that lead from the end of Lake 
Hakone to I'uji, the other two 
being the Nagao-toge and the 
Otome-toge. The first stage on 
the way to all three from Hakone 
is by boat nearly to the end of the 
lake. Close to the spot on the 
shore where the way up the 
Fukara Pass begins, is a tunnel 
{suimon), through which a portion 
of the waters of the lake is carried 
to several villages on the other 
side of the mountain, ser\'ing to 
irrigate their rice-fields, and then 
flowing on to form the falls of Sano. 

This subterranean channel is said to be 
entirely artificial, the local account being 
that it was pierced by two brothers, who 
bored through the mountain from oppo- 
site sides until they met in the middle. 

The walk up the pass takes only 
15 min. The exit of the tunnel 
{umi no ana) is some way down the 
valley, say 2 hrs. from the boat 
and back again. 

6. The Nagrao-toge.— This lies 
1 ri 7 elio from the end of the lake. 
The way leads first across the 
Hayakawa, the natural outlet of 

the lake, which later on flows past 
Miyanoshita ; then along a broad 
level cinder path to the foot of 
the pass, and finally by an easy 
climb of 12i cho to the top. The 
gap at the summit commands 
a complete view of Fuji from base 
to peak. On looldng back, the 
eye SM'eeps across the plain of 
Sengoku-hara and over the waters 
of Hakone Lake. Kamiyama is 
also seen to advantage, and on its 
slope can be distinctly traced the 
solfataras of Ojigoku. A more 
extensive and beautiful \'iew is, 
however, obtained by ascending 
the hill to the r. of the pass, called 
Hagao-Dai. From this summit, 
not only Fuji, but the peninsula 
of Izu, with Amagi-san, the whole 
of the fertile plain stretching away 
to the r. of the town of Mishima, 
the rugged peaks of Ashitaka, the 
course of the Fujikawa, the 
promontory of Mio-no-Matsubara, 
Kuno-zan, and the full sweep of 
Suruga Bay lie at the sx^ectator's 
feet. ^ 

The PKNiNsuiiA of Izr. 


(Conf. map faciwj p. 151.) 
1. — Atami and Neighbouehood. 

Atami (Higuchi Hotel, foreign 
style ; Sagami-ya, Fuji-ya, and 
many others) is a favourite 
winter resort of the Japanese, as 
it is protected by a high range 
of hiUs from the north-westerly 
winds which prevail at that 
season. The whole stretch of coast 

Walks at Atami. 


from Kozu on the Tokaido Bail- 
way to Atami partakes more or 
less of the same advantage ; and 
the soft air, the orange-groves, and 
the deep blue of Odawara Bay, 
combine to make of this district 
the Kiviera of Japan. 

Atami is most easily reached 
from Yokohama by rail as far as 
Kozu, 1^ hr., whence by tram to 
Odawara, k hr., and then by "jin- 
rikisha tram " (Jinsha Tetsudo) for 
the rest of the way, 4 hrs., along the 
coast. JinriMshas may also be 
availed of. Note that at Odawara 
time and trouble are saved by 
continuing on in the tram past the 
tramway station to the point 
where the Atami road turns off. 

Itinerary by Boad. 

KOZU to :— Ri Cho M. 

Odawara 1 28 4^ 

Hayakawa 10 f 

Nebukawa 1 20 3^ 

Enoura 1 12 3} 

Yoshihama 1 32 4|- 

Izu-san 2 12 5| 

ATAMI 18 li 

Total 9 24 23.* 

The road is delightfully pictur- 
esque and representatively Japa- 
nese, leading first under an ancient 
avenue most of the way to Oda- 
wara, and thence up and down 
along the coast, wdth ever-changing 
views of sea and land and of Vries 
Island smoking in the distance. 
The little peninsula whose neck is 
crossed about half-way, is called 
Cape Manazuru. 

Travellers approaching Atami 
from the Kyoto side may finii it a 
convenient saving of time to change 
trains at Mishima Junction for 
Daiha, and thence on foot or by 
jinrildsha over the hills to Atiimi, 
5 ri ; but pedestiiaus can save 
at least 1 ri by short-cuts over the 
springy turf of the higher portion 
of the walk. During most of the 
way up, a fine near view is obtained 
of Fuji, with to the r. Amaf^-san 

and the lower ranges of the penin- 
sula of Izu. 

A third way, much to be recom- 
mended to good walkers, is that 
from Miyanoshita via Ashinoyu to 
Hakone (see p. 154), and thence over 
the hiUs by the Ten Province Pass 
(see p. 159), with its incomparable 
view. The ascent is not very steep, 
but the descent on the Atami side 
is short and abrupt. The total 
distance from IVIiyanoshita to 
Atami by this way is between 6 
and 7 ri ; time, 7 hrs., including 

The curiosity for which Atami 
is noted is its geyser (Oytt), which 
breaks out once in every four hours 
in the middle of the town. It oii- 
ginaUy shot straight xip into the 
air, but is now partially enclosed, 
and an inhalation house (Kyulci- 
ktoan) has been erected for patients 
suffering from affections of the 
throat and lungs, the salt in which 
the steam of the geyser is rich 
being beneficial in such cases. The 
handsome house close behind the 
Kytiki-kwan, on the other side 
of the small creek which flows 
through the town, belongs to His 
Imperial Highness the Crown 
Prince. The chief productions of 
Atami are a beautifully delicate 
kind of paper, called gampishi, 
literally, '• wild-goose skin paper," 
— gampishi-ori, ^\•hich is a fabric 
made of this paper and used for 
clothing, and an excellent sweet- 
meat called ame. 

The walks to be recommendeti 
from Atami are : — ■ 

1. To the grove of Kinomiya, a 
iew min. distant from the hotel. 
At the far end of this grove, are 
some of the finest camphor-trees 
{Icv.sunoki) remaining in Japan. 

2. To XJomi, the hut visible 
high Tip on the cliff that shuts in 
Atami Bay to the S. It is a cUmb 
of some 20 min.. ^vith a good view. 

The name L'">iii, lit. "fish-outlook." 
refers to the use to which this post of 
observation is put. When a school of 


Route 7. — Peninsula of Izu. 

bonitos is expected,— and ther frequently 
visit the bay in enormous numbers, — a 
man stands on this eminence, whence 
he can see ciearly down to a great depth 
in the water, and makes signs to the 
fishermen below, indicating to them the 
direction in which it will be best to 

A walk of 25 niin. further, vqi the 
crest of the hill and then down to 
the I., leads to some small cascades 
{Pudo no taki). A boat may also 
be taken, and some caTes \-isited 
at a point of the coast called 

3. To the hot springs of Izu-san, 
i 7-t. The houses are situated on 
the rock below the highway, in a 
manner resembling swallows' nests. 

4. To the Bai-ea, or plum gar- 
den. This is a level walk of about 
1 mile. 

5. To Tosawa, i hr. cUmb half- 
way up Higane-san to a beautiful 
groTe of trees. There one may tui-n 
to the r., and come back by way of 
the Till, of Izu-san. (This vill. is 
not below the highway, as are the 
hot spiings of Izu-san, mentioned 
in No. 3.) 

6. Past the Bai-en, and up to the 
top of the Fujimi-tog-e, aifording 
a magnificent view similar to that 
from the Ten Province Stone, — 
IJ hr. there, 1 hr. back. 

7. To the little port of Ajiro, 
2^ ri (6 m.), a steep but pretty 
walk over the hills, returning, if 
prefen-ed, by boat. The walk takes 
about 2J lii-s., the return by sea 
less. It will be found best to lunch 
at the S'rdmizu-ya Inn, situated at 
the point where the Shimoda road 
branches off r. over the Taka-toge, 
and having pleasant rooms over- 
looking the bay. The vill. itself, 
which faces N., offers no attrac- 

The foIlo\s-ing are iDleasant all 
day expeditions : — 

8. To the islet of Hatsushima, 
noted for its jonquils (suisen), 
thence to Ajiro, and back by the 
caves of NishiM-m-a. 

9. Up Higane-san, and down a 
steep narrow gorge r. from the 

temple there to the secluded spa of 
Yugawara {Inn, ltd) ; thence back 
via Mongawa on the Odawara road. 
10. By boat to Ito (Inn, Yamada- 
ya at Shishido baths), 5 ri 28 cTio 
by road, but shorter by water. 

The cluster of hamlets, of which Wada 
and Mntsubara are the biggest, are col- 
lectively known as Ito, and noted for their 
hot mineral waters. The other hamlets 
of the group are Yukawa. Take-no-uchi, 
and Arai. 

A day_is required for the excur- 
sion to Omuro-zan, an extinct vol- 
cano resembling Fuji in shape, and 
therefore often called by the 
country-folk Fuji no Imoto, " Fuji's 
Younger Sister," or Sengen-yama 
(Sengen is an alternative name of 
the Goddess of Fuji). The crater 
is about 250 yds. in diameter, and 
some 80 ft. deep, the bottom being 
covered with scattered blocks of 
lava. To the E. of this volcano 
stands a smaller called Eomuro-zan. 

2. — To THE Hot Speings op Shu- 



Train from lilishima Jiinction on 
the Tokaidd in 1 hr. to Shuzenji, 
whence by road as follows : 
SHUZENJI to :— Hi C%d M. 

Yugashima 3 18 8* 

Nashimoto 5 6 12^ 

Mitsukuri 2 11 5| 

SHIMODA 2 5 5} 

Total 13 6 32 

For travellers from Yokohama 
or up the Tokaido this is a 2 or 3 
days' trip, which should be arranged 
in such fashion as to sleep the first 
night at Shuzenji, and the second 
at Y'^ugano (see next page), whence 
one can easily reach Shimoda by 
noon on the third day ; or if neces- 
sary, by pushing on to Yugashima 
the first night, Shimoda could be 
reached on the second. It is pos- 
sible to take jinriMshas as far as 
Yugashima, and again along the 
excellently giaded road from the 

Shuzevji. Way to Shimoda. 


foot of the Konabe-toge into 
Hhinioda ; but they are not always 
to be depended upon in that direc- 
tion. Take it altogether, the way 
beyond Shnzenji is vei-y hilly, and 
scarcely to be recommended except 
to pedestrians, who will find it 
replete with natural beauty, and be 
able to sleep at a hot spring every 
night. A jinrikisha road, with 
tunnel through the Amagi-toge, is 
expected to be finished by the end 
of 1901 . The railway, too, now at 
a standstill for want of funds, will 
be pushed on to ShimodiX within 
the next few years. 

Passing from Mishima Junction 
through Mishima-machi, a town 
which boasts a large Shinto temple 
to Oyama-tsumi, the god of moun- 
tains, the line rans along a nan'ow, 
well-cultivated plain, or rather 
valley, bounded on the W. l)y green 
hills of abrupt and fantastic shapes, 
and on the E. by the long hog's- 
back which shuts out Odawara 
Bay. Through this valley flows 
the Kano-gawa, on an affluent of 
which, the Katsiu'a-gawa, stands 
Shuzenji. The rocky sides of Jo- 
yami, (" castle hill ") present a 
striking object as seen on the r. of 
Ohito station. At Ohito, basha may 
be engaged for the 1 ri 8 cho of flat 
road to 

Shuzenji {Inns, Arai-ya, Kiku- 
ya, and many others). Pleasantly 
situated among low hills, this place 
is much resorted to on account of 
its mineral waters, some of which 
contain carbonate of soda, others 
traces of sulphur. In the middle 
of the torrent which flows down 
throxigh the village, a hot spring 
rises up in a basin of rock. The 
spot has been caged in, and con- 
nected with the bank by a tiny 
bridge, so that bathers may either 
luxuriate in the high temperature of 
the spring, or moderate it by means 
of the cold water of the river. The 
sexes bathe promiscuously. Numer- 
ous other hot springs supply baths 
lining the river bank, — some public. 

some the private property of the 
chief inns. These latter are very 
pleasant and suitable for Euro- 

[Those who do not wish to go 
beyond Shuzenji may make a 
charming little round by walk- 
ing thence to Mlto on the coast, 
3 ri, and then sailing or rowing 
to Shim-tira, and on foot or 
by jinrikisha to Xuimizu, the 
whole occupying 5 or 6 hours.] 
Behind the vill. of Odaira, and 
visible fi-om the road, is Asahi no 
taki, a cascade said to be 100 ft. in 
height, and forming a series of four 
or five falls. .\11 this neighbourhood 
abounds in hot sjirings, those of 
Seko no taki being the most notable 
(8 cho off the main rotwl from 
Yugashima), and picturesquely sit- 

Yugashima {Inn, Ochiai-ro, at 
the hot springs, about 10 min. to 
the r. off the main road) is a ham- 
let at the foot of the Amagi-toge. 
The ascent of this pass (3 ri) is 
easy, leading over open grassy hills 
and the forest-clad sloj)e of one of 
the spurs to the r. of Amagi-san. 

Amagi-san, it should be mentioned, is 
the general name given to the whole 
mountain mass stretching across the pe- 
ninsula of Izu from E. to W., the loftiest 
summit of which is called Banjiro. 
The splendid timber on this range, has 
.suffered much from deforestation durin" 
the last twenty-five years. 

The traveller shoiild turn aside to 
visit the cascade of Joren no taki, 
formed by the waters of the Kano- 
gawa. It is close to the main 
The favourite hot springs of 
Yugano {Inns, Shioda.-ya, Edo- 
ya) are prettily situated on the 
banks of the Kawazu-gawa, some 
6 cho only from the hanilet of 
Jfashimoto, at the foot of the pass 
on the other side. Here a road 
branches off to the hot springs of 
Kawazu-no-hama on the coast (1^ 
ri), which affords a different route 
for those wishing to reach the coast 
without entering Shimoda. 


Route 7. — Peninsula of Izu. 

Beyond Nashimoto the road 
crosses the Konabe-toge, a climb of 
18 cho, and after passing Mitsakuri, 
descends a well-cultivated valley 
indgated by the waters of the 
Nozugawa, a stream flowing into 
the harboui- of Shimoda. The 
country round is beautifully diver- 
sified, every hUl laid out in a 
series of ten-aces planted with rice 
and barley. The conspicuous cone- 
shaped hill which seems, fi'om the 
vill. of Koch i, to block up the mouth 
of the valley, is called Shimoda 
Fuji. Three cho from Kochi stands 
the hamlet of Ilendaijl (Inn, Yoshi- 
mura), noted for its hot springs, 
which make it preferable to Shimo- 
da as a stopping-place, the distance 
between the two occupying only 
J hr. by jiniikisha. Beyond Een- 
daiji, the valley widens till it forms 
an extensive ojien plain before 

Shimoda (Inns, Matsumoto-ya, 
Awaman-ro,) a town compactly 
biult and regularly laid out. The 
situation of Shimoda is such 
as to command a healthy climate, 
owing to the dryness of the soil 
and the fi-esh sea-breezes. The 
harbour, though small, is safe and 
convenient. There is also an inner 
anchorage for small junks and 
boats, which is connected with the 
Nozugawa, being artificially con- 
structed by means of dykes and a 
breakwater. From Shimoda is ex- 
ported most of the stone employed 
for the new constructions in Toky5. 
It comes from extensive quarries at 
Sawada, near Kawazu-no-hama, 
about 3^ 7-i distant. 

Shimoda was first visited in 1S54 by 
Commodore Perry and the ships of the 
United St;ites squadron. By the treaty 
which he concluded, it was constituted an 
open port for American shipping ; and 
here Mr. Townsend Harris, the American 
minister, resided until the substitution of 
Kanagawa as a trading port in 1859. This 
change was motived by an earthquake 
and huge tidal wave which rendered the 
harbour useless for large ships and 
overwhelmed the town. The limit of the 
tidal wave is marked by the spot on which 
the Normal School now stands. The graves 

of some Americans buried here during the 
fifties are still shown at Gyokuseuji, a 
temple 40 miu. walk from the town. 

The easiest way to quit Shimoda 
is by small steamer to Atami, call- 
ing at two or three intermediate 
places. The itinerary of the coast 
road both to Atami and to Numazu 
will be found at the end of the 
next section. 

3. — The Bay or Enouea. Round 
THE Coast of Izu. 

The Bay of Enoura affords good 
sea-bathing. The accommodation, 
too, in Japanese style, is excellent 
at Ushibuse (Inn, Mishima-kwan), 
25 min. by jiniikisha from Numa- 
zu, and at Shizu-ura (Inn, Hoyo- 
kwan), a little fiu-ther on in an 
ancient pine-gfove by the shore. 
This whole stretch of coast as far 
as Mito is singularly beautiful. 

It is possible to walk round 
the entire peninsula of Izu by fol- 
lowing the i^ath that skirts the 
coast, — a journey which, though 
fatiguing, is extremely pretty in a 
characteristically .Taiwanese way, 
and quite off the beaten track. It 
is a good plan to reUeve the mono- 
tony of such a lengthy walking 
tour by taking boat over certain 
portions of the way, especially that 
between Inatoii and ltd, where the 
rugged coast-hne is seen to better 
advantage from the sea. Indeed, 
steamers may be availed of the 
whole way ; but in making plans, 
it should never be forgotten that 
this apparently more rapid method 
of conveyance affords no punctu- 
ality and but little comfort. The 
path continually winds up and 
down the cliffs along the sea-shore, 
passing a succession of picttu'esque 
nooks, bays, and islets with rocky 
caves and pinnacles. Of these the 
most noted is Doijashima, to ■sisit 
which hire a boat at Matsttzaki. 

[From the latter place there also 
runs a hiUy road to Yuga- 
shima, in the centre of the 
l)eninsida, 8 ri.'] 

Boute 8. — Vries Maud. 


The deep bay to the S. must be 
crossed by ferry fi'om Ko-ura to 
Mera. All along the coast from 
Shimoda to Atami, the volcano of 
Oshima and the smaller isles of 
Izu are constantly in sight. The 
usual country accommodation, 
with excellent fish, is everywhere 
obtainable. If the trip be made in 
winter, — the month of December is 
recommended, — it may be advan- 
tageous to do it in the reverse 
direction, in order to have the 
prevailing winds in one's favom*. 

The following is the 


NUMAZUto:— Pd Cho 31. 

Enoura 1 31 4^- 

Mito 2 5 5^ 

Tachibo 1 24 4 

Heda 2 20 6^ 

Toi 3 — 7i 

Tago 5 2 12^ 

MATSUZAKI... 2 18 6 

Nagatsuro 5 — 12 J 

SHEVIODA 4 18 11 


hama 3 20 8| 

Inatori 1 29 4.^ 

Naramoto (near 

Atagawa) 1 27 44- 

Yawatano 2 27 6| 

ITO{Wada) 3 10 8 

TJsami 1 10 3 

Ajiro 2 ■ — 5 

ATAMI 2 18 G 

Total 47 7 115^ 

The best places to stop at are 
Heda, MatsuzaM, Shimoda, Atagawa 
(Inn Tsuchi-ya, 8 rho from \ili.), 
Ito, and Atami, there being hot 
springs at most of these places. 

From Atami one may reach Kozu 
on the Tokaido Railway by the 
itinerary (reversed) given at the 
beginning of this roxite (p. 161). 

4. — Feom Yugashima to Atami. 

This is a pleasant day and a 
half's walk from the centre of the 
peninsula to the sea at Ito (Inn, 
Yamada-ya), where spend the first 

night, and thence along the coast 
to Atami. Two passes have to be 
crossed, the first — the Nagano-toge 
— a climb of 40 min. immediately 
on leaving Yugashima, and the 
other — the Hiekawa-toge — some- 
what shorter, just before descend- 
ing to Ito. The coast road is also 
hilly, affording charming views. 
The Itinerary is as follows : 

YUGASHIMA to:— Pd Cho M. 

Nagano 20 ' 1^ 

Harabd 2 — 5 

Hiekawa 1 19 3| 

Ito(Wada) 2—5 

ATAMI 28 14 

Total 11 31 29 


Veies Island. 

"Vries Island, called Izu no 0- 
shima by the Japanese, is the largest 
and most accessible of the Izu no 
Shichi-to, or Seven Isles of Izu, which 
stretch away for over 100 m. in 
a southerly dii'ection from near the 
entrance of Tokyo Bay to 33° lat. N, 
Its gi-eatest length is 10 m. ; its 
breadth in the broadest part, 5^ m. 
It is situated 15 m. from the nearest 
point of Izu, and 28 J m. from Misaki 
and Sagami. The ever-smoking vol- 
cano on Vries Island is sighted by 
all ships bound for Y'okohama. The 
names of the other six islands axe 
Toshima, Niishima, Kdzushima, 
Miyake, Mikura, and Hachijo. 

In ancient days Eastern Japan, then 
aemi-barbarous, was used as a place of 
banishment for criminals expelled from 
the central part of the empire, that is to say 
Nara, Kyoto, and theii- enyirous, where 
the Mikado held his Court. When the 
mainland of E. Japan became civilised, the 
islands alone continued to be used as con- 
vict settlements, and they retained this 
character till quite recent times. There 
were exiles living on Vries as late as the 


Route 8. — Vries Island. 

end of the 18th eenturj-. On English 
charts, Hachijo (misspelt Fatsisio), the 
southernmost of the group, is sometimes 
stated to be "a place of exile for the 
grandees of Japan." But it is a mistake 
to suppose that Hachijo was peculiar in 
this respect, or that grandees were the 
only class of persons transported thither. 
The most noted of the many exiles to 
Vries was the famous archer Tametomo, 
who was banished there in 1156, and 
whose jirowesa forms a favourite subject 
with Japanese romance writers and artists. 
The current English name of Vries Island 
is derived from that of Captain Martin 
Gerritsz Vries, a Dutch navigator who 
discovered it in 1643. Vries Island was 
noted until recent years for its peculiar 
dialect, and for the retention of curious 
old customs. Few remnants of these 
now survive, excepting the co/J^wre of the 
women and their habit of carrying loads 
on the head. 

Small steamers ply to Vries Island 
six times monthly from Teppozu, 
in Tokyo. 

The best season for the trip is 
early spring, the next best being 

There are six "sillages on the 
island, all situated on the coast, 
and named respectively Motomura 
(more correctly Niijima), Nomashi, 
Sashikiji, Habu, Senzu, and Okada. 
Of these Motomiu'a is the best to 
stop at, whilst Habu has the ad- 
vantage of possessing a picturesque 
little harbour — the submerged 
crater of an ancient volcano — and 
is therefore the easiest to take ship 
from when departing. There are 
no inns on Vries Island, excepting 
a poor one at Motomura ; but ac- 
commodation can be obtained at 
the house of the Headman {Kocho) 
of each village. There are no 
vehicles of any kind, and but few 
pack-horses. The distances along 
the road or path connecting the 
rillages are approximately as fol- 
lows (the estimate is that given by 
the local officials, and seems to be 
a rather liberal one) : — • 

Ri Cho M. 

Senzu to Okada 1 — 2^ 

Okada to Motomura 2 ■ — 5 

Motomura to Nomashi... 1 — 2 J 

Nomashi to Sashikiji 3 — 7\ 

Sashikiji to Habu 19 H 

For the most part, the road runs 
at some distance from the coast, 
which it only rejoins on nearing 
the villages ; and there are also a 
number of paths in all directions, 
used by the inhabitants for bring- 
ing down tire-wood fiom the hill- 
sides. Usually the way lies through 
a low wood of camellia, skimmia, 
and other evergreens, and some- 
times, as for instance between 
Motomixra and Nomashi, along a 
fern-clad dell. Pheasants and 

woodcock are abundant. 

There is no road round the E. 
coast from Habu to Senzu ; but the 
distance is approximately 5 ri, and 
the way leads over the desolate 
slope of the volcano by which the 
whole centre of the island is occu- 

The name of this volcano is 
Mihara, 2,500 ft. high. From its 
summit smoke perpetually issues, 
and it is subject to frequent erup- 
tions. The nearest point on the 
coast to the summit of the moun- 
tain is Nomashi, biit the ascent 
may be undertaken equally well 
from Motomura. The climb re- 
quires from 2| to 3 hrs., and the 
whole expedition, including stoj)- 
l^ages, can easily be made during 
a forenoon. Passing through the 
\illage, the ascent, as made from 
Motomura, leads for the first hour 
through a wood, and then emerges 
on to volcanic scorite, where no- 
thing grows but small tufts of 
grass and dwarf alder. The emi- 
nence seen ahead to the 1. and 
called Kagami-bata, is not the sum- 
mit of the mountain, but only a 
portion of the wall of an immense 
ancient crater, in the midst of 
which stands the present cone, 
with its much smaller though stiQ 
considerable tlimensions. From 
this point it is a 5 min. Avalk to the 
lip of the ancient crater, which here 
forms a flat oval waste of minute 
scoria?, with stones scattered about 
the sm-face. Its greatest length on 
this side is estimated at nearly 1 
m., and it is surrounded by low 

BoiUe 1). — Fuji and Neighbourhood. 


broken hillocks of lava, against 
■whose sides the sand is piled up. 
Half an hour's walk across this 
desolate waste, where not even a 
blade of grass is to be seen, brings 
Tis to the little torii marking the 
Nomashi approach to the moun- 
tain, and forming the limit beyond 
which women are not allowed to 
proceed. From this x^oint there is 
a fine view. In front, and most 
conspicuous of all, are the other 
islands and islets of the Izu group, 
the curious i^yramidal Toshima, 
with Shikine and Kozu behind ; to 
the 1. of Toshima the longer and 
lower oiitlinc of Niijima, with little 
Udoma in front. To the 1. again, 
but considerably more distant, are 
the larger islands of Miyake and 
Mikura, while on exceptionally clear 
days the outline of Hachijo— so at 
least it is asserted — can be descried. 
To the W. are seen Amagi-san and 
other jjortions of the peninsula of 
Izu, the towering cone of Fuji, with 
the lesser Hakone and Oyama 
ranges ; to the N. Misaki in Sagami, 
and to the N.E. the outline of the 
peninsula of Kazusa-Boshu, which 
shuts in Tokyo Bay from the open 
Pacific. The climb hence to the 
top of the mountain takes \ hr. 
The width of the present crater at 
the summit has been estiiuated at 
f m. 

Mihara may also be ascended 
from Habu or from Senzu, the climb 
on that side of the island being, 
however, much longer and more 

Excepting the ascent of the vol- 
cano, there are few walks in the 
island deserving of mention. The 
collector of ferns will, however, find 
numerous and beautiful species, not 
only between Motomura and No- 
mashi, but also at a place called 
Bdzu-(jn-Uora, i.e., the Priest's Dell, 
about 1 m. out of Habu in the 
direction of Senzu. A spare day at 
Habu may also be devoted to walk- 
ing along the coast towards Senzu ; 
but the vapom- spring situated on 

the mountain-side between the two 
places, of which the visitor will be 
told by the natives, is at a distance 
— 5 ri — which makes it difficult of 
access in one day, on account of the 
arduoxis nature of the gi'ound ; and 
there is not even a shed in which to 
take shelter. This spring is resort- 
ed to in cases of wounds and 
bruises, the friends of the sick 
person erecting some temporary 
cover. Futago-yama, the double- 
crested mountain whose red hue, 
caused b}"^ the presence of brittle 
lava of that colour, is so conspic- 
uous from Habu, is a mere spur 
of the volcano offering no special 


Fuji and Neighbourhood. 

1. genekal infoemation. 2. as- 
cent fkom gotemba station. 3. 
ascent fkom mukayama. 4. as- 
cent fkom subashiei. 5. ascent 
feom toshida. 6. ascent fkom 
hito-ana. 7. ascent fkom suya- 
ma. 8. summit of fuji. 9. cik- 
cuit of fuji half-way up. 

1. — Genekal Information. 

Time. — Mere hurried ascent of 
Fuji and back to Yokohama, 1 day 
and night ; move comfortably in 2 
days and 1 night, which latter is 
spent at one of the huts on the 
mountain side. 

The pleasantcst plan is to com- 
l)ine the ascent of Fuji with a visit 
to the Miyanoshita-Hakone district, 
devoting at least a week to the en- 
tire trip, and climbing the moun- 
tain during whichever portion of 
that time seems to promise the most 
settled weather. The ascent is 
usually made between the loth 


Route 9. — Fuji and Neighbourhood. 

Jialy and lOth September, the huts 
to accommodate pilgrims being 
closed during the rest of the year, 
and the coolie giiides (goriki) fear- 
ing to go up so long as any snow 
remains on the path. The charge 
at the huts is 1 yen per night. The 
best time is from the 25th July to 
the 10th August. 

The shortest way of reaching Fuji 
from Yokohama is to take rail as 
far as Gotemba station, 3 hrs., 
where guides, horses, foreign sad- 
dles, as also rough quilts and char- 
coal to ward off the cold air at 
night in the huts on the mountain 
top, can be procured. The traveller 
miast bring his own food. Instead 
of staying at Gotemba and making 
the ascent thence, many prefer to 
push on 6J- m. by tramway to 
Subashiri at the E. base of the 
mountain, whence the climb is 
rather easier. Travellers from the 
Kobe direction might ahght either 
at Iwabuchi or at Suziikawa, and 
ascend from Murayama, it being 3 
ri from each of those stations to 
Omiya [Inn, Omiya-tei). One goes 
from Iwabuchi to Omiya by jiniiM- 
sha ; fi-om Suzukawa to Omiya by 
tram in IJ hr., passing through the 
town of Yoshiwara. There is a 
short cut from Y'^oshiwara for pedes- 
trians. Those coming fi-om Kofu 
will naturally ascend from Yoshida. 
It is also possible to ascend from 
Suyama, S.E., and Hito-ana, S.W.; 
but these last two have nothing 
special to recommend them. Details 
of the ascent from Gotemba station, 
etc., are given below. Numbers of 
travellers choose rather to reach 
Fuji from Miyanoshita or Hakone, 
by walking to Gotemba over the 
Otome-t5ge (see p. 151). In this 
case, they can provide themselves 
beforehand with all necessaries at 
the hotel. It is always ad\'isable 
to take plenty of warm clothing, 
as the temperatm-e falls below 
freezing-point at night on the 
summit of the mountain even 
during the hottest period of sum- 

mer. It is also piTident to take 
an extra supply of food, as parties 
have occasionally been detained on 
the mountain side by stress of wea- 
ther, unable either to reach the sum- 
mit or to descend to the base. It 
is possible, by sleeping at Gotemba 
station or at Murayama, and start- 
ing at dawn, to reach the summit 
and descend again in a single day 
(in local Japanese parlance hi- 
yama, that is, "day-mountain"). 
Counting the working day as 
having 15 hrs. (4 a.m. to 7 p.m.), 
this would allow 10 hrs. for the 
ascent, including short stoppages, 
2 hrs. at the top, and 3 hrs. for the 
descent. The shortest time in 
which the ascent and descent have 
been known to be made from 
Gotemba station, including stop- 
pages, is 9 hrs. 8 min., of which 6 
hrs. 50 min. were occupied in the 
ascent. But persons less desirous 
of "breaking the record" than of 
really seeing what they have come 
so far to see, are strongly lurged to 
pursue the following course : — 
leave Gotemba station or Mura- 
yama before daylight, — say at 2 
A.M., — thus including the glory of 
sunrise on the way up. After 
sunrise, do the remainder of the 
ascent slowly, reaching the summit 
about midday. Having established 
himself in one of the huts on 
the summit, the traveller should 
go down into the crater, make the 
roimd of the crater, and spend the 
night at the top. This will afford 
the chance of a sunset and of a 
second sunrise, after which the 
descent can be at once begun. 
The descent will take most people- 
from 4^ to 5 hrs. The gi-eat ad- 
vantage of this plan is that it 
multiplies the chances of a good 
view from the summit, — such views 
being much more often obtained at 
sunrise and sunset than in the 
middle of the day, and being by no 
means certain at any time. 

Apropos of views, may be mentioned 
the Japanese term Fuji-mi Jii-san-shu, that 
is, the Thirteen Provinces from which- 

General Information. 


Fuji is visible. These areMusashi, BosLu, 
Kazusa, Shimosa, Hitachi, Shimotsuke, 
Kotsuke, Shinshu, Koshu, Totomi, Suru- 
ga, Izu, and Sagami. "As a matter of 
fact." sayn Kev. Walter Weston, in his 
book on the Japanese Alps, "though it 
is not generally known, Fuji can be seen, 
from mountain tops, in several other pro- 
vinces still further distant, e. t/., Yari-ga- 
take and Tate-yama in Hida, Ena-san in 
Mino, Asama-yama (not the great volcano) 
in Ise, and others." 

Fuji is miich more easily ascend- 
ed than many mountains far in- 
ferior in height, as it pi'esents no 
obstacles in the shape of rocks or 
undergrowth. The first 6,0n0 ft. 
of the ascent can moreover be 
performed on horseback, after 
which the accomplishment of the 
remainder is merely a question of 
steady perseverance. The distance 
to the summit fi'om the point call- 
ed Uma-gaeshi, is unequally divided 
into ten parts called go, which are 
subdivided in some cases into 
halves called go-shaku. The hrst 
station is thus Irhi-go-me, the 
second Ni-gd-me, and so on, the 
last before the summit is reached 
being Ku-gu-me, or the ninth. 

The go is generally used as a measure of 
capacity. One explanation given by the 
Japanese of the application of this method 
of calculation to Fuji is that the mountain 
resembles in shape a heap of dry rice 
poured out of a measure, and that con- 
sequently its subdivisions must corres- 
pond to the fractions of the latter. How- 
ever this may be, the go is used as a tenth 
part of the li throughout the island of 
Kyushii, and traces of the same usage 
linger in Shikoku. 

At most of these stations, as also 
at the top, are huts where accom- 
modation for the night, boiled rice, 
and water can be obtained. 

The number of coolies required 
will of course depend on the 
amount of baggage to be carried. 
When ladies are making the ascent, 
it is ad\'isable to have a spare man 
or two to pull and push them 
i^p when tired. Stout gaiters may 
advantageously be worn during 
the descent, to prevent sand and 
ashes from getting inside the boots. 

Fuji, often called Fuji-san, that is 
Mount Fuji, and by the poets Fvji-nn- 

yama, that is the Mountain of Fuji, 
whence the form Fusiyama often used by 
Europeans, stands between the provinces 
of Suruga and Koshu, and is the highest, 
the most beautiful, and the most famous 
mountain in Japan. The height of Ken- 
ga-mine, the westernmost and highest 
point of the crater wall, is given by the 
Cieological Survey at 12,;395 ft. 

Though now quiescent, Fuji must still 
be accounted a volcano. Frequent men- 
tion is made in Japanese literature of the 
smoke of Fuji, which, if the expressions 
used by poets may be taken as indicating 
facts, must have formed a constant 
feature in the landscape at least as late as 
the lith century. An author who flou- 
rished about the end of the 9th century 
says : "There is a level space at the sum- 
mit, about 1 ri square, having a depres- 
sion in the centre shaped like a cauldron, 
at the bottom of which is a pond. This 
cauldron is usually filled with vapour 
of a pure green (or blue) colour, and the 
bottom appears like boiling water. The 
steam is visible at a great distance from 
the mountain." In 967 a small mountain 
was formed at the eastern base of Fuji. 
This was probably the small hump called 
Ko-Fuji, on the 1. of the second station 
on the Gotemba ascent. A traveller's 
journal of the year 1021 speaks of smoke 
rising from the slightly flattened summit, 
while at night fire was seen to issue from 
the crater. Eruptions also occurred in 
1082 and 1C19. The most recent one 
began on the 10th December, 1707, and 
lasted with intervals till the 22nd 
January, 1708. This being the peiiod 
known in Japanese chronology as llbd, 
the name of Honi-zan was given to the 
hump then formed on the upper slope of 
the S. side of the mountain. According 
to another account, a isrojectiou had 
always existed in this place, but was 
rendered more conspicuous by this latest 
eruption. Be this as it may, it is recorded 
that the ashes lay ft. deep on the 
Tokaido near Hara and loshiwara, and 
even fell in Yedo to a depth of C inches. 
Even at the present day, small quantities 
of steam continue to issue through the 
ashes on the E. or Subashiri side of the 
mountain, just outside the lij) of the 

Enormous must have been the torrents 
of lava that have flowed from Fuji on 
different occasions. Fifteen miles from 
the summit in a direct line, at the vill. 
of Matsuno on the r. bank of the Fuji- 
kawa, is the termination of one of these 
streams, while another may be studied 
on the N.E. side of the base, between 
Yoshida and Fuuatsu. But most of the 
lava has long since been covered up by 
the deep deposits of ashes and scoriae, 
and only becomes visible here and there 
where it is denuded by the streams 
which fuiTow the lower part of the 


Route 9. — Fuji and Neighbourhood, 

An effort was made by a bold meteoro- 
logist, Mr. Nonaka. to spend the winter of 
1895-6 on the top. His friends, fearing 
the result, sent up a relief party before 
Christmas, which found him and his 
courageous wife in such terrible plight 
that they had to be carried down, and 
their lives were despaired of for a time. 

Fuji ranks high among the many sacred 
mountains in Japan, and is crowded with 
pilgrims duriug the brief summer season, 
who repair to the summit to worship, and 
to purchase charms sold by the priests. 
Most of these pilgrims belong to the pea- 
sant class. In former years, women were 
debarred from ascending to the top of all 
these sacred peaks. On Fuji the eighth 
station was their furthest limit. This pro- 
hibition no longer applies here, though it 
has been re-introduced in some localities. 
The aspect of Fuji has so impressed the 
national mind that many other hills of 
like shape derive their uame from it. 
Thus we have the Bungo Fuji, Tsugaru 
Fuji, etc. The greatest distance at which 
Fuji has been seen at sea by the compilers 
is 108 miles. 

Fuji stands by itseli:, rising with 
one majestic sweep from a plain 
almost smTounclecl by mountains. 
The S. side slopes right down to 
the sea, its outline being broken 
only on the S. E. by the rugged 
peaks of Ashitaka-yama. On the N. 
and W. rise steep granite ranges, 
stretching away from the Misaka- 
toge nearly to the junction of the 
Shibakawa with the Fujikawa. 
Against these mountains the show- 
ers of ashes which were ejected 
from the crater have piled them- 
selves up, and confined in their 
separate basins the waters of 
Motosu, Shoji, and other lakes. 
The E. side is shut in by volcanic 
mountains of undetermined origin, 
beginning near Subashiri, and ex- 
tending southwards into the 
peninsula of Izu. Among them 
lies Lake Hakone, with the nu- 
merous hot springs of Miyanoshita, 
Ashinoyu, Atami, and their neigh- 
bourhood. The base of the 
mountain is cultivated up to a 
height of about 1,500 ft., above 
wliich spreads a wide gi-assy moor- 
land (suso-no) to 4,000 ft., where 
the forest commences. The upper 
limit of this varies considerably, 
being lowest on the E. side, name- 

ly, about 5,500 ft. on the ascent 
from Gotemba, and 7,900 ft. on the 
Murayama side. But on the W. 
face, between the Yoshida and 
Murayama ascents, and looking 
down over the plain round Hito- 
ana, it must extend as high as 
9,000 ft. or more. This difference 
is no doubt due in a great measure 
to the comparatively recent distur- 
bance on the S. E. side, which 
caused the present conformation 
of Hoei-zan, when the greater part 
of the ashes thrown out fell in the 
direction of Gotemba, destroying 
the forest, and leaving a desert 
waste which only a long lapse of 
years can again cover with vegeta- 
tion. To the same cause, namely, 
comparatively recent volcanic ac- 
tion, must be ascribed the almost 
entire absence of those Alpine 
plants which abound on the sum- 
mits of other high mountains in 
Japan, such as Ontake, Shirane in 
Koshti, and Yatsu-ga-take. Above 
the forest lies a narrow zone of 
bushes, chiefly dwarf larch. A few 
species of hardy plants are found 
up to a height of 10,000 ft. on some 
parts of the cone. 

2. — Ascent fkom Gotemba 

Gotemba Station {Inn, Fuji- 
ya) is 12 cho from the old vill. 
of Gotemba ; and there is no longer 
any necessity for going to the latter 
and thence on to Subashiri, as was 
the general practice in pre-railway 
times, there being now a threct and 
shorter way up the mountain from 
the station by what is called the 
Nakabata route, avoiding both 
those villages. If the traveller in- 
tends to spend the night at Gotem- 
ba station, he should try to arrive 
early, so as to avoid difficulty in 
obtaining accommodation at the 
inn. In order to economise one's 
strength, it is advisable to take 
horses for the first 2J hrs. of the 
ascent across an open and gently 
rising country. This takes one be- 

AsceiH froui Gotemba, Murcojama, and Subashiri. 171 

yond Uma-fiaeshi* where horses 
are supposed to be left, to Tarobo, 
where they are generally left. 
Indeed, there is no difficulty in 
riding as far as No. 2 station. The 
distances of this first part of the 
ascent are given as follows : — 

GOTEMBAto: Hi Chd M. 

Nakabata 1 8 3f 

Uma-gaeshi 2 — 5 

Tar6b5 28 2 

No. 2 station (45 min.) — — 

Total 4 — Klf 

The ordinary basha is also avail- 
able as far as a tea-shed called 
Ichi-ri-matsu, 2 ri from Gotemba, 
and, if required, will await one's 
return at Uma-gaeshi. 

At Tarobo (so called from a 
goblin who is there worshipped), 
staves are sold to help climbers on 
their way up. These staves are 
engi-aved with the name of the 
moimtain, and can have a further 
inscription added by the priests 
who dwell at the summit. 

Though Fuji, as already stated, 
is theoretically divided on all its 
sides into ten parts, some of the 
stations no longer exist in practice, 
— that is, have no rest-huts, — while 
others are subdivided. On the 
Gotemba ascent, Nos. 5, 6, 8, and 
top are the best. This should be 
borne in mind, in case of the 
necessity of calling a halt for the 
night midway. 

The heights of the chief stations 
are as follows : — 



7,085 ft 


7,937 „ 


8,659 „ 


9,317 ,. 


10,693 „ 

From No. 3 to 5 the path sldrts 
Hoei-zan, where the steep portion 
of the ascent begins. The first lava 

* Uma-gaeshi, lit. " horse send back." is 
the general name for that point on a 
mountain beyond which it is not custom- 
ary to ride. 

crops out after No. 5, affording 
better foothold. At No. 6, a path 
turns off to Hoei-zan. Above No. 
8 the climb becomes more fatiguing, 
being now over loose cinders. From 
here, too, patches of snow will be 
found in rifts in the lava rock ; but 
there are nowhere any actual snow- 
fields to be traversed. At No. 10— 
the top — there are three stone huts, 
fairly roomy and comfortable. 
Should they all be occupied by 
pUgrims, the traveller must walk 
round to the huts on the Subashiri 
side of the lip of the crater, about 
J m. distant. 

The descent as far as No. 7 is 
the same as the ascent. At No. 7, 
it diverges to the r. down a kind of 
glissade (Jap. hasldri) of loose sand, 
over which one may skim at sitch a 
rate as to reach No. 2^- in less than 
1 hr. From Tardbo onwards, the 
descent will occupy nearly as much 
time as was required for the as- 
cent. The entire journey down 
from the summit to Gotemba sta- 
tion can be accomjiLished in 5 hrs. 


From Murayama (Tnn, by Fuji- 
masa) to the Uma-gaeshi, or riding 
limit on this side of the mountain, 
is a distance of 3 ri 8 chd. Thence 
onward it is necessary to walk. Of 
the varioiTs stations. No. 5 is the 
most to be recommended, though 
all are fair, the ascent from Mura- 
yama having long been that most 
l^atronised by the native pilgrims, 
and therefore styled the Omote- 
guchi, or Front Entrance, to the 
mountain. This ascent has the 
advantage of offering more shade 
than the others. Some experienced 
climbers therefore recommend go- 
ing up this way, and returning on 
the steeper Gotemba side. 

4.— Ascent from Subashiri. 

At Subashiri, the inn to which 
foreigners are generally taken is 
Yoneyama ; there are others. 


Route 9. —Fuji and Neighbourhood. 

all indifferent. The road to the 
Uma-gaeshi on this side leads for 2 
ri up through the forest, whence it 
is another 2 ri to a place caUed 
Chujiki-ba, where a halt for refresh- 
ments is generally made. This is 
8 chd below station No. 1. The 
best stations are 2, 6, and especially 
No. 8 and the top. At No. 9 is a 
small shrine known as Mukai 
Sengen, that is, the Goddess of 
Fuji's Welcome, intimating to the 
weary wayfarer that he is approach- 
ing the goddess's sanctum. 

5. — Ascent fkom Yoshida. 

Yosliida is an lanusually long 
YUlage, divided into an upper por- 
tion (Kami-Yoshida) and a lower 
portion (Shimo-Yoshida). From 
Kami Yoshida {Lins, Osakabe, Ko- 
giku) the way to Uma-gaeshi, the 
2nd station, as far as which it is 
possible to ride, leads iip an avenue. 
The upper edge of the forest is not 
quitted till No. 5 is reached. Thus 
the view on the way up is less good 
by this route than on the Gotemba 
side, but there is more shade. 

6. — Ascent fbom Hito-ana. 

The ascent from Hito-ana (poor 
inn) is laborious, and the -siew 
much spoilt by the dense forest 
through which the track lies. It 
is therefore not recommended. 
Travellers wishing to visit the 
beautiful waterfalls of Kami-Ide 
(see Eoute 10) might, however, find 
it worth their while to descend on 
this side. If their luggage is light, 
they can take it with them over the 
mountain. If not, they must allow 
plenty of time for sending it round 
the base. 

7. — Ascent fkom Suyama. 

This is an alternative way for 
persons staying at Hakone, who 
can reach Suyama via the Lake 
and the Fiiliara Pass in 6 to 8 hrs. 
CooUes for the whole trip, includ- 
ing the ascent of Fuji, shoiald be 

engaged at Hakone, as the re- 
sources of Suyama are limited, 
though there is a tea-house (Wa- 
tanabe Hideo). But the ascent 
from Gotemba is to be preferred. 
The path iip Fuji from Suyama 
joins the path up from Gotemba at 
station No. 3. 

8. — Summit of Fuji. 

The Summit of the mountain 
consists of a series of peaks sur- 
rountling the crater, the diameter 
of which is not far short of 2,000 ft. 
The descent into it, down the loose 
talus of rock and cinders close to 
the huts at the top of the Mura- 
yama ascent, is qiiite easy ; still it 
is advisable to take a guide. The 
bottom is reached in 20 min. The 
floor, which is formed of cinders, 
inclines sUghtly from W. to E., and 
is intersected by small stream-beds, 
which at the E. end terminate 
among the loosely piled lava masses 
forming the core of the mountain. 
All round, except where the descent 
is made, rise precipitous rocky 
walls, fi'om which large pieces 
detach themselves from time to 
time with a loud cracking sound 
like musketry. On the W. side, 
immediately under Ken-ga-mine, 
there is iisually a large snow-slope. 
The depth of the crater has been 
variously calculated at 416 ft., 548 
ft., and 584 ft. The return to the 
edge will take about 25 min. 

Before dawn the pilgrims betake 
themselves to Kpn-ga-inine, to await 
the sun's rising. As it approaches 
the horizon and all the clouds 
aboiit it glow with the most bril- 
liant hues, the feeling of longing 
expectation seems almost to over- 
come them ; but as soon as the 
orb appears, they greet it devoutly 
with muttered prayers and the 
rubbing of rosaries. 

Ken-ga-mine commands a mar- 
vellously extensive view. To the 
S. stretches the Gulf of Suruga, 
shut in on the E. by the lofty 
peninsula of Izu, and confined on 

Summit of Fuji. 


the W. by Mio-no-Matsubara at the 
end of the long range dividing the 
valley of the Abekawa from that 
of the Fujikawa. S. W. is the 
broad pebbly bed of the Fujikawa, 
its course above the point where it 
crosses the Tokaido being hidden 
by the lower hills. Westwards are 
seen all the lofty peaks of the 
border range of Koshu and Shin- 
shu, beginning with the angular 
granite obelisk of Koma-ga-take 
and its lesser neighbours, Jiz5 and 
H5-o-zan, then the three summits 
of Shirane, known as Kaigane, Ai- 
no-take, and Nodori, the Koma-ga- 
take of Shinshu rising between the 
Tenryu-gawa and the Kisogawa, 
and so on to Ena-san in Mino and 
the top of Shichimen-zan near 
Minobu. Further to the r., ex- 
tending northwards, comes the 
great range dividing far-off Hida 
from Shinshu, amongst whose 
peaks may be distinguished Nori- 
kura, Yari-ga-take, and, further 
remote in Etchu, the volcanic 
summits of Tateyama. Gradually 
moving E. again, along the north- 
ern horizon, we distinguish the 
mountains near Nagano, — Ken-no- 
mine and the extinct volcano of 
Myoko-zan. Nearer in the fore- 
ground rise the numerous sum- 
mits of Yatsu-ga-take ; and then 
glancing further N., we perceive 
Asama-yama's smoking crater, the 
mountains about the Mikuni Pass, 
and next, all the Nikko mountains, 
— Shirane, Nantai-zan, and lesser 
peaks. E. of Yatsu-ga-take is seen 
Kimpu-zan, easily known by its 
rounded shoulder and the pillar of 
rock at the summit ; then Yakushi 
and Mitsumine in Chichibu, till 
the eye loses itself in a confusion of 
lower ridges. On the E. side of the 
crater, from almost any point that 
may be chosen, the eye rests on a 
prospect less extensive indeed, but 
surpassing this in beauty. Far 
away across the plain, is distinctly 
visible the double top of Tsukuba in 
Hitachi, while further S. we descry 
the outer edge of the T6ky5 plain, 

with T6ky5 lying far up the bay ; 
then in succession Capes Sagami 
and Svmosaki, Vries Island, the Gulf 
of Sagami, and nearer in the fore- 
ground beautiful Lake Hakone 
peacefully embosomed among green 

Few will be fortunate enough to 
obtain a perfectly clear view from 
the summit of Fuji ; but the best 
chances are just before and at sun- 
rise. "Nor," says an authority, 
" will the pilgrim be wholly fortu- 
nate unless he sees the superb cloud 
effects which the mountain affords. 
These are most likely to be enjoyed 
in ordinary summer weather, be- 
tween noon and 6 o'clock in the 
evening, and they are truly magni- 
ficent. The summit of the moun- 
tain remains clear, but its shoulders 
and waist are suiTounded by billowy 
masses of dense white vapour of 
indescribable splendour. Here and 
there a momentary break may per- 
mit a glimpse of the earth beneath ; 
but usually nothing can be seen 
landward but this vast ocean of 
cloud, amid which the peak stands 
as the only island in the world. 
Turning seaward, the ocean itself 
can be seen over the circumambient 
vapour, and affords a striking con- 
trast to the turmoil and restless 
change of form of the clouds them- 

A curious phenomenon may also 
sometimes be witnessed at sunrise 
or sunset. As the sun's rays ajjpear 
above the horizon, or vanish below 
it, the shadow of Fuji (kage-Fuji) 
is thrown in deep outline on 
the clouds and mist, which at that 
hour clothe the range of mountains 
to the west. The beautiful pheno- 
menon commonly known as " the 
Spectre of the Brocken," may be 
seen from the lip of the crater at 
sunrise or sunset under favourable 
conditions of mist. The spectator 
beholds his enormously magnified 
and transfigured self, — his head the 
centre of a circular bow or halo, 
with the prismatic colours in con- 
centric rings. 


Route 9. — Fuji and Neighbourhood. 

Descending again from Ken-ga- 
mine, the path passes vinder it, and 
just above the steep talus called 
Oya shirazu Ko shirazu (*' Heedless 
of Parent or Child"), from the 
notion that people in danger of 
falling over the edge of the crater 
would not heed even their nearest 
relatives if sharers of the peril. 
The name occurs in similarly peri- 
lous places in manj" parts of Japan. 
Continuing N., the path skirts the 
edge of the cone, passing a hiige 
and precipitous gorge which ap- 
pears to extend downwards to the 
very base of the _mountain. This 
gorge is called Osaim, the lower 
limit of which may be some (i,()00 ft. 
iibove the sea, or only half-way from 
the summit. Passing across the 
flank of the liai-uca, or Thunder 
Rock, the imth goes outside the cra- 
ter wall, ascends the Shalca no 
Wari-ishi (Shaka's Cleft Rock), and 
leaving Shaka-ga-take — the second 
loftiest peak^ — behind, descends to 
the Kimmei-sui ("Famous Golden 
Water "), a spring of ice-cold water 
situated on the Aat shelf between 
the N. edge of the crater and the 
outer wall. Ascending again, the 
path passes the row of huts at the 
top of the ascent from Yoshida 
and Subashiri, and reaches a 
iorii commanding the best view 
of the crater. It then turns again 
to the 1., and goes outside the wall 
of the crater, underneath Kwan- 
nou-(j(i-take. Here the interesting 
phenomenon may be observed of 
steam still issuing from the soil in 
several places, one of which is 
close to the path, while another 
lies near at hand on the 1., about 
5U ft. down the exterior of the 
cone, and a third is seen imme- 
diately underneath a wall of rock 
50 yds. ahead. A few inches l>elow 
the surface, the heat is great 
enough to boil an egg. Beyond this 
point, the path crosses a dej)ression 
known as Seishi-ga-kubo, ascends 
E. the Sai-no-kawara, dotted with 
stone cairns raised in honour of 
Jizo, descends to the Gim-mei-sid. 

(" Famous Silver Water "), at the top 
of the Gotemba ascent, and pass- 
ing under the low peak named 
Koma-ga-take, reaches the huts at 
the top of the path from Mura- 
yama. Between this last point and 
Ken-ga-mine, is a small crater 
named Konnshiro-ya-ike, accessible 
from the N. The total distance 
round the large crater is said by the 
Japanese to be 1 ri, or 2^ miles ; 
but this is doubtless an exaggera- 
tion. An interesting hour may be 
devoted to making the circuit, 
which will allow for pauses at all 
the best points of view. 

9. — The Chudo-Meguei, ok Cir- 
cuit OF Fuji half-way up. 

This wallv is a favourite with 
native lovers of the picturesque. 
It is easy, involves no danger, and 
commands a splendid panoramic 
view over the country in the im- 
mediate vicinity, which gradually 
unfolds itself before the eyes of the 
spectator as he moves along. The 
path encircles Fuji at heights vary- 
ing from 9,490 ft. on the Gotemba 
side (which it intersects at station 
No. 6) to 7,450 ft. on the Yoshida 
side. It is best to turn to the 1. on 
starting from the above-mentioned 
No. 6 station, because the path 
descends a rapid slope of loose sand 
from the ridge of Hoei-zan towards 
the W., which would be very fatigu- 
ing if taken in the ojjposite direc- 
tion. The path proceeds along the 
narrow ridge of Hoei-zan, turns 
down into the deep hollow formed 
by the eruption of 1707-8, crosses 
the ridge at its further side to a 
broad plateau strewn witli the 
cast-off sandals of pilgnms, and 
climbs steeply to hut No. 5 on the 
Murayama ascent. It then con- 
tinues W. over dykes_of lava until 
it reaches the great Osawa ravine, 
and, descending the mountain to 
the 1. of the huge mass of lava 
which here projects over the 
chasm, passes through a wood of 
larch and rhododendron to the S. 

Route 10. —Base of Fuji to Shoji and Kami-Ide. 175 

edge of the ravine, which is now 
crossed. The path onward lies 
alternately through the wood and 
over the bare northern side of the 
cone to the prettily situated temple 
of Ko-Mitake, where a tea-shed 
affords accommodation for the 
night. Shortly beyond this jioint 
the path divides, the r. branch, 
which should be taken, leading to 
No. 5^ on the Yoshida ascent, 
whence Lake Yamanaka is well 
seen almost due E. Turning off 
1. at No. 6, the path winds over 
the lava dykes to No. 5 on the 
Subashiri ascent, and then by a 
gentle gradient back to our start- 
ing-point. The time required for 
the entire circuit is from 7 to 8 lirs. 

ROUTE 10. 

KoTJNi) THE Ease of Fuji to Lake 

Shoji and the "VVatebfalls of 

Kami-Ide. Ashitaka-yama. 


GOTEMBAto:— Bi Cho 

Kubashiri 2 23 

Yamanaka (Nakano) 2 7 

Kami-Yoshida 2 8 

Funatsu 1 3 

Nagahama (1^ hr. 

by boat across 

Lake Kawaguchi) 

Nishi-no-umi 12 

Nemba (1 hr. by 

boat across Lake 

Nishi-no-umi, 2 

men necessary) 
SHOJI Hotel (I hr. 

by boat) or on 

foot round Lake 1 — 

Motosu 1 7 

Nebara 1 4 

Hito-ana 2 4 

Kami-Ide 1 8 





<^niiya :j g 7* 

Suzukawa 3 71 

Total 21 12 52} 

Plus 2.J> hrs. by boatT 

[An alternative way from Goteni- 
ba to Shoji, avoiding the Lakes, 
leads lia Narusaim. through 
the forest, 13 ri in all ; but it 
is less pretty, and more of it 
must be M^alked.] 

There is a tramway from Gotem- 
ba to Subashiri, which is to be 
extended on to Kami-Yo.shida (Inns, 
Osakabe, Kogilvu). One may partly 
avail oneself of it and partly walk, 
or else take horses the whole way! 
Yoshida can be reached the lirst 
night, even if the start be made 
from Miyanoshita. Shoji is an 
easy half-day from Yoshida of 
alternate walking and boating. 
From Shoji it is necessary eitber to 
ride or to walk as far as Omiya, 
whence a shabby but swift little 
tram-car takes one to Suzukaica, 
a station on the Tokaido Eailway! 
From Yoshida onwards coolies 
form the best means of transport, 
as they can be taken in the boat.' 
There is a modest in>i_at Kami-Ide, 
and a fair one (Omiya-tei) at 
Omiya. The whole trip is highly 
picturesque, leading, as it does, 
along the chain of lakes that half 
encircles Fuji's base. The Foreign 
Hotel on the little jseninsula of 
UnosaM at Shoji is beautifully 
situated on the S. side of the lake 
(3,160 ft. above sea-level), opposite 
the village. The i)lace offers plea- 
sant bathing, and an endless variety 
of walks amidst unrivalleii scenery. 
The most interesting half-day's 
expedition from Shoji is to a re- 
markable Ice Cave (Kori-no-ana), 
which long lay hidden in the dense 
forest growth on Fuji's slope at a 
height of 3,750 ft. The dimensions 
are as follows : — 

Length 568feet 

.\verage A\-idth ... 36 J „ 
Height 32 ., 

176 Boute 11. — CI I ich ibu and Temple of 3Iiisumine. 

The floor is solid ice of ixnknown 
thickness. At the far end are a 
nnraber of beautiful icicles, and an 
unexplored canity down which 
the wind constantly rushes. Two 
smaller ice eaves exist in the 
neighboiu'hood, besides another 
cave in which lived and died a 
succession of hermits in the olden 
time. In this connection it may be 
added that Lake Shoji freezes hard 
enough in winter for horses to 
cross it. 

[It is a good day's walk (about 
7h ri) from Shoji to Kofu over 
the Onna-toge and Kashiwa- 
zaka-toge. — More beautiful is 
that from Shoji to Yoka-ichiba 
(Inn, Wakao-ya), 6 or 8 ri, ac- 
cording as one takes the lower 
path down the valley of the 
Nekko-gawa, or the higher 
along the mountain ridge. In 
either case one drops down the 
Fujikawa a short way by ferry- 
boat from Tambara or Kamo- 
kari to Yoka-ichiba on the 
ojDposite bank.] 
Emerging from the forest, and 
skirting charming Lake Motosu, 
we come out on the open moor 
which occupies the whole western 
slope of Fuji. The cave of Hito-ana 
is hardly worth ttu'ning aside to 
see. Very different are the water- 
falls of Shira-ito no taki, a lovely 
sight at nil seasons ; for even Nikko 
has nothing Hke them, as they are 
precipitated over a wall of black 
lava amidst luxuriant vegetation. 
They lie 8 cho from the \'ill. of 
Kami-Ide. The two largest, some 
85 ft. in height, are called respec- 
tively 0-daki and Me-daki, or the 
Male and Female Cascades, and 
there are more than forty smaller 
falls, their children. A few yards 
off is another fine cascade, about 
100 ft. high and 30 ft. -nide, called 
Nen-nen-fuchi j and there are said 
to be others yet higher up the 
stream. _ 

On the tram journey from (.)miya 
to Suzukawa some large paper fac- 
tories, which employ British and 

American machinery, are passed at 
Iriyamase and Temma. 

Suzukawa (see Eoute 23). 

Many prefer to make a wider 
circuit by taking the beautifiol walk 
from Shoji to Yoka-ichiba above 
mentioned, whence down the rapids 
of the Fujikawa (5 yen for private 
boat to Iwabuchi), stopping over 
perhaps a day at the temples of 
Minobu (see Route 27). 

A pedestrian desirous of complet- 
ing the circiut of Fuji literally might 
ascend Ashitaka-yama from 
Hara on the Tokaido Railway ; but 
the inn there is poor. The inns at 
Numazu are good, and the expedi- 
tion thence not much longer, 
namely, a short day, — the first hour 
Tip as far as Sakashita by jinrikisha 
with 2 men, whence on foot to the 
summit, which affords a beautiful 
and extensive view. The descent 
to Suyama for Gotemba entails too 
much struggling through tall bam- 
boo gi'ass to be recommended. 

Ashitaka-yama, 3,950 ft., looks higher 
owing to its remarkable shape, — two peaks 
joined saddle-wise. Down to the 17th 
century wild horses herded on its grassy, 
partly forest-covered slope ; and the peas- 
antry still believe that bamboo grass 
gathered on its summit will cute all the 
diseases to which the horse is heir. A 
pilgrimage is made to the ruined Shinto 
shrine at the top on the 17th January. 
The 8th April is a second festival day. 

ROUTE 11. 

Chichibit and the Tempi,e of 


The district of Chichibu lies in 
the W. corner of the province of 
Musashi, separated by its moun- 
tains from Kotsuke on the N. W. 
and Koshii on the S. W. The prin- 
cipal town, Omiya (not to be con- 
founded with the railway station of 
the same name nearer Tokyo), is 
most easily reached fi'om Honjo 

Temple of Mitsumine. 


station on the Tokyo-Takasald Kail- 
way, basha traversing the distance — 
9 ri — in 4^ hrs. After leaving the 
plain, the road enters the lesser 
hills of the Chichibn range, and the 
scenery continues to improve. Nar- 
row valleys leading up to various 
low passes are entered, where moun- 
tain, rock, forest, and river give a 
charm to the scene. 

Omiya (In7i, Kado-ya) stands 
close to Buko-zan, 4,360 ft., the 
highest mountain in the district ; 
but there is little inducement to 
climb it, as the forest with which 
it is clothed shuts out almost all 
view. The town is noted for its 
fairs, which are largely attended 
during the season by dealers in raw 
sUk and cocoons. 

At the hamlet of Kageinori, 20 rho 
S. W. of Omiya, a jjath turns off 1., 
leading in ^ hr. to a temple of 
Kwannon called IlasJddate-dera, 
where is a cave considered the 
wonder of the country-side. It 
consists of two chief ramifications 
in the limestone rock. Inspection, 
which will occupy about J hr., is 
rendered easy by means of ladders 
and planks. The stalactites in the 
cave assiime a variety of fantastic 
shapes, to which names mostly con- 
nected with Buddhism are given, 
such as the Lotus-flower, the 
Dragon's Head and Tail, the Five 
Viscera, etc. A guide is provided 
at the temple. 

Interesting alike for its beautiful 
surroundings and its antiquity is 
the temple on Mitsuraine-san, a 
mountain 6 ri to the S.W. of Omiya. 
A good JLnrDdsha road takes one as 
far as the vill. of Niegawa, 3h ri ; the 
remainder must be walked. The 
cave described above may be visited 
on the way by making a slight 
detour (say | hr.), that is, by leaving 
the road at Kagomori, and rejoining 
it again a few cho further on, close 
to the bridge called Fuji-bashi over 
the Arakawa, up the course of which 
river most of the road lies. ^1^- 
gawa (fair accommodation) com- 
mands a fine view, with Biiko-zan 

standing sentinel-like at the mouth 
of the valley. Thence the scenery 
becomes grander ; the path keeps 
along the 1. bank, rising frequently 
to cross the spurs of the hills, and 
the river winds picturesquely 
among thickly wooded slopes rising 
on either hand to a height of about 
1,000 ft. A remarkable projecting 
rock has been cut through at a 
spot called Odahara, shortly after 
which the path diverges down to a 
narrow bridge spanning the liver. 
On the opposite side stands a torii 
at the entrance to the sacred moun- 
tain. An avenue of ancient crypto- 
merias marks the remainder of the 
way through the thick forest, — a 
steep climb of 52 cho, with rest- 
houses at intervals, but no distant 
view except one down the valley of 
the Arakawa. 

The temple buildings, which are 
numerous, stand in a gi'ove of lofty 
champecyparis trees, close by the 
upper torii at a height of 3,000 ft. 
above the sea. 

Tlie foundation of this temple ia refer- 
red to the legendary epoch. Yajnato-take 
(seep. 87, on his expedition to subdue 
Eastern Japan, is said to have passed this 
way, and to have caused a shriur to be 
built here for the worship of the Shinto 
gods Izanagi and Izanami. The name of 
Mitsumineno-miya is alleged to have 
been bestowed upon it by his father the 
Emperor Keiko a year later, from the 
three contiguous peaks, — Kuniotori, Shi- 
roiwa, and Myoho, on the latter of which 
the temple stands. It is a far cry down 
to the ninth year of 'r<>mpei (A.D. 7.37), 
when the reigning Empress placed an 
image of the Buddhist soddess Kwannon 
within the grounds. In IS;;:! Mitsumine 
became the seat of tlie Seigo-iu branch of 
the Tendai sect. Finally, the rehabilita- 
tion of Shinto in our own day has again 
brought it, after the lapse of many cen- 
turies, within the fold of the native re- 
ligion. Two festivals are held annually, 
on the 8th April and 2nd December. 

Some noble cryjitomerias guard 
the approach to the main temple, in 
front of which the huge wooden lan- 
tern r. and the building over the 
holy-water cistern 1. are a luass of 
carvings of Chinese figures, and 
bii'ds and beasts. No less meri- 
torious, though more weather- 


Route 12. — The Takasahi-Karuizan-a Kaihvay. 

beaten, are the carvings on the ex- 
terior of the temple itself. The in- 
terior has been deprived of its ela- 
borate Buddhist furniture, to make 
way for the simple requirements of 
Shinto, — di-un^s and mirrors. The 
shrine on the r. is dedicated to 
Yamato-take. that on the 1. to 
Kunitoko-tachi, while there are 
numerous subsidiary shrines to 
lesser deities. The quadrangular 
building further 1. serves for the 
accommodation of pilgrims. The 
foreign traveller who presents a 
suitable gift of money [kifu-kin) 
on arrival, will be made quite com- 
fortable and fed on the best vege- 
tarian food procurable in so remote 
a six)t. Beyond this again stand 
the temple-offices, the jiriests' 
dwellings, etc. One of these latter 
—the Daisho-in — deserves inspec- 
tion for the sake of its brightly 
painted fusuma of Chinese scenes 
on a gold ground by Bokkei. The 
temple treasiwes, presers'ed in a 
godown, include the old Buddhist 
turniture and images, lacquer and 
other utensils, kakemonos, mostly 
of Buddliist subjects, some of 
which are of great age, and a few 
screens by Matahei, Kan5 Sesshin, 
and other artists. The Okusha lies 
30 chn higher up the mountain, but 
affords Uttle \iew. 

On the return journey the Aisitor 
should take the Ura-michi, or Back 
Way, which is less steep and more 
open than the front approach. It 
leads j)ast the pumping station 
which supphes the temjole with 
water, and rejoins the main road to 
Omiya at a point some distance 
higher up the course of the Araka- 

Enthusiastic walkers may, in- 
stead of returning the way they 
came, proceed over the Karizaka- 
toge to Kofu. The distance is 
estimated at 20 ri from Mitsumine. 
The first day's walk should end at 
Odaki j the next will include the 
portion locally loiown as Hachi-ri 
Hatcho, which is a distance of 8 ri 

8 did without a sign of habitation 
till Kumaqawa is reached, where the 
second night is spent ; the third 
day will take one easily into Kofti. 
This trip is only feasible in summer. 
Hikawa, sitiiated in the valley of 
the Tamagawa (see Route 27), about 
11 ri from Omiya, may be reached 
from that town by a lonely moun- 
tain path over the Sengen-tdge and 
the Nipparn-toge. 

ROUTE 12. 

By R\iii FKOM Tokyo to Takasaki 




■2 ga 




TOKYO (Ueno) 

2 m. 

Tabata Jet. 



[Up trains 


Akabane Jet 

change for 







Omiya Jet 

\ For Nikko and 
) the North. 



















/Change for 



Some trains 
< change for 



Maebashi, 6 




Matsuida , 

rAlight for 
i Myogi-san. 







Takasaki. Maebashi. 


This line closely follows the first 
stages of the old Nakasendo (see 
Eoute 24), and is flat and unin- 
teresting as far as Takasaki ; but in 
clear weather fine distant views of 
the moutains are obtained all 
along the route. Fuji is visible 1. 
until shut out by the Chicbibu 
range ; to the near r. rises Tsukuba 
with its twin summits, then Nan- 
tai-zan and the other Nikk5 moun- 
tains to the extreme r. behind a 
lower range ; Akagi-san is distin- 
guished by its wide grassy base, 
crowned by numerous peaks. On 
approaching Takasaki, the great 
square mass of the Haruna group 
comes in sight ahead to the r., while 
on the 1., also ahead, the cliflis of 
Myogi stand out Hke the walls of a 
huge fortress. Smoking Asama is 
a prominent object ahead to the r. 
during the whole journey till the 
very foot of the pass at Yokogawa, 
which it overtops. 

XJrawa is the seat of govern- 
ment of the prefecture of Saitama, 
which includes the greater part of 
tlae_province of Musashi. 

Omiya [Inn, Takashima-ya, in 
the public garden, suppUes Europ. 
food). An avenue of 1 m. in length 
leads to Hikawa Jinja, the chief 
Shintd temple of Musashi, situated 
in gi'ounds that have been tui-ned 
into a pubhc garden. The temple 
is said to have been founded in 
honour of Susano-o by Yamato- 
take, on his return from subduing 
the barbaroiis tribes of Eastern 
Japan. After Omiya, the first 
place of importance reached is 

Kumagai (Inn, Shimizu-ya), 
which cai-ries on a large trade in 
sUk and cotton, and possesses his- 
torical interest in connection with 
the wanior Kumagai Naozane (see 
p. 78). At 

Honjo (Inn, Moroshichi), there 
are some important cross-country 
roads, one of which joins the Bei- 
heishi Kaido, the route formerly 
followed by the Mikado's annual 
envoy to the shrine of leyasu at 
Nikko. Another leading towards 

the Chichibu mountains is described 
in Koute 11. 

Shimmachi (Inn, Mitsumata) is 
a large silk-producing town. 

Takasaki (Inn, TakasaM-kwan, 
at station) was formerly the castle- 
town of a Daimyo, and is still an 
important industrial centre. A 
tramicay leads to Shibukawa for 

A miniature railway of 21 m. in 
length runs hence to Tomioka (Inn, 
Shinshu-ya), a thriving sUk mart, 
and to Shimonita (Inn, Sugita), a 
tidy httle town standing among 
the lower spurs of the mountains 
amidst dehghtful scenery. Iron 
ore is worked here. 

[The railway branches off here 
to Maebashi, 6 m., where it 
meets the Eyomo line from 
Oyama (see Koute 16). Mae- 
bashi (Inn, Abura-ya ; Europ. 
restt., Akagi-tei), formerly the 
seat of a great Daimyd named 
Matsudaira Yamato-no-kami, 
is now the capital of the pre- 
fecture of Gumma, and a great 
emporium of the silk trade, 
one of the best quahties of raw 
silk being named after this 
town. The extensive silk- 
reehng factories can be seen 
on apphcation. To the N. 
rises the extinct volcano of 
Akagi-san, and W. is the 
curious group of mountains 
collectively called Haruna, on 
the N. E. flank of which are 
situated the favourite baths 
of Ikao, described in Eoute 14. 
The brick enclosm-e seen r. just 
before entering Maebashi is 
one of the largest convict 
prisons in Japan, whose wall 
20 ft. high encloses 11 acres of 
land. The big river crossed is 
the Tonegawa.] 
lizuka is a station at the W. end 
of Takasaki, some distance from 
the business part of the town. The 
tramway to Shibukawa (for Ikao) 
here crosses the railway. 

Annaka was formerly a castle- 


Route 12. — Tne Takasaki-Karuizawa Railway. 

Isobe {Inns, Horai-kwan and 
others) is a watering-place lying in 
a wide yalley less than 1,000 ft. 
above the level of the sea. Exposed 
as it is on all sides, it is neither 
mild in winter nor cool in summer. 
The spring is brine. 

Matsuida is the station to 
alight at for a visit to the marvel- 
lous rocky peaks that crown Myogi- 
san. It hes about 1 ri by jinriMsha 
from the small vill. of 

Mydg-i {Inns, Shishi-ya, Kambe- 
ya), the best place to stay at to 
inspect the rocks. 

The shrine at Myogi is dedicated to the 
memory of the 13th abbot of Enryakuji, 
a temple on Hiei-zan near Kyoto, who, in 
the reign of the Emperor Daigo (A.D. 898- 
930), retired here to mourn over the 
sadden downfall and banishment of his 
pupil, the famous Sugawara-no-Michizane. 
After his death, he was deified under 
the title of Myogi Dai Gongen. Over two 
centuries ago, a fresh access of zeal on the 
part of his devotees was the cause of the 
shrine being rebuilt in the grand style of 
which traces still remain. It is now in 
charge of Shinto priests. 

The temple stands a short 
distance above the "tillage, in the 
midst of a gi'ove of magnificent 
cryptomerias. The Oku-no-in Hes 
25 cho further up the mountain, 
and above tins the chffs are nearly 
perpendicular. A rocky cave, form- 
ed by ;a huge block resting in a 
fissure, contains an image of the 
god. On the summit of one of 
the jutting peaks near the Oku-no- 
in, is the enormous Chinese cha- 
racter ^ {dai), "gi-eat," whose 
dimensions are stated at 30 ft. by 
20 ft. It is constructed of thin 
bamboos, tied together and cov- 
ered with strips of paper, the 
votive offerings of pilgrims, which 
give it the appearance from below of 
being painted white. The surround- 
ing scenery is weird and romantic. 
From the bosom of a gloomy 
grove rise innumerable rocky pin- 
nacles, which gradually increase 
in height around a lofty central 
peak, the whole vaguely recaUing 
the front of some colossal Gothic 

Dr. Naumann describes Myogi-san as a 
system of grand, acute-edged, deeply ser- 
rated dykes, apparently radiating from a 
common centre, whose highest summit is 
about 3,880 ft. in height. Probably it is 
the skeleton of a very old volcano. 

The highest peak of the jagged 
ridge {Haku-un-zan) rising directly 
above the 'sill, is called Myogi Jinja 
Chojo ; the S. wing is Kinkei-san, 
with Kinto-san lying between the 
two. The Fude-iwa or "Pen Eock," 
is a consi^icuous projection belong- 
ing to Kinkei-san and forming the 
N.W. termination of this dyke. Its 
ascent is diificult and dangerous. 

Three ilays may i)rofitably be 
devoted to the various expeditions 
around Mj'ogi-san. First day : — to 
Daikoku-san, the way there leading 
over the pass between Kinkei-san 
and Kinto-san, and taking 1^ hr. 
from the ■village. (The leeches with 
which the wood swarms are apt to 
be troublesome). A natural curios- 
ity passed on the way is Ichi no 
Sekimon, Lit., the First Stone Gate, 
which consists of a vertical slab 
of rock some 180 ft. high, 2iO ft. 
\\ide at the base, and 18 ft. thick, 
with an arched hole 90 ft. high and 
80 ft. wide. Ni no Sekimon, and so 
on down to Eoku no Sekimon, mak- 
ing six altogether, are similar 
curiosities. Through the last named 
it is necessary to crawl on hands 
and knees. The Hige-suri-iica, or 
" Beard-shaving Eock," is a slender 
column of volcanic breccia, the last 
10 ft. of the climb up which is 
achieved Avith the assistance of a 
chain and ladder. From this coign 
of vantage, the lofty peak of JSv.ka 
no take and many other ciuious 
rocks are visible. The ascent of 
Naka-no-take, which, though a 
rough scramble, is well worth 
making, takes about 1 hr. from the 
Hige-suri-iwa. The modern-looking 
edifice near the latter was built for 
the priests, after the burning of the 
two temples in 1872. 

Second day : — to Kinkei-san. 
The way hes along the plain for 1 
hr. to the viU. of Sugawara, whence 

Boute 13. — Karuizawa and Asama-yama. 


the climb to the top — steep but not 
dangerous — will take IJ hr. more. 

Third day : — to Myogi Jinja 
Chojo, the most difficult of the three 
expeditions. The only practicable 
path is that leading up to the Bai 
{iz), and behind the Takezuru Chojo 
7 cho below the Okii-no-in (the 
route up the steep and dangerous 
rock from the Oku-no-in should be 
absolutely avoided), thence up over 
the Haio-mune, or "Pidgeon's 
Breast," a rock some 20 ft. in 
height, to scale which it is neces- 
sary to take a roj)e. After this 
coroeo an arduous cHmb, which 
must be achieved by hauling one- 
self uj) from tree to tree, — 22^ hrs. 
to the summit. Steep and narrow 
cols and ridges connect the various 
peaks. The return is made the 
same way. 

The precipitous sides of Myogi 
are clothed in parts with rich vege- 
tation, and towards the end of 
October glow with the crimson 
tints of the maple and other trees. 

On leaving Myogi, the railway 
may be rejoined at Matsuida ; or 
else one may walk on for 2 ri to a 
point a little further along the 
Nakasendo highway, near 

Yokogawa (Inn, Ogino-ya, at 

After this station the line begins 
to chmb the Usui Pass. 

The construction of the 7 miles of rail- 
way leading to Karuizawa over the Usui 
Pass presented greater difficulties than 
any that had hitherto been contended 
with by engineers in Japan, and for this 
reason a hiatus remained in the middle of 
the line to the West Coast until 1893, 
when the Abt system, — cog-wheels work- 
ing on rack-rails, — was successfully intro- 
duced. The gradient is 1 in 15, and 
almost the whole way a succession of 
bridges and tunnels, the total tunnelling 
aggregating 2^ miles. There are 26 tun- 
nels altogether. No. C being the longest. 
The viaduct over the Usui-gawa has four 
arches, each of CO ft. opening ; and the 
height of the rails from the valley is 110 ft. 
There is a curious arrangement to pre- 
vent inconvenience from heat and smoke 
in the larger tunnels : — the engine is 
placed behind, and as soon as the train 
has entered, a curtain is drawn at the 

lower end, wliich prevents the smoke 
from being sucked up along the tunnel. 

The tiresomeness of the tunnels 
is relieved by momentary glimpses 
of gloriously wooded ravines and of 
the rugged peaks of Myogi-san. 

Shin-Karuizawa, the station, 
lies J hr. by jinriMsha from the 
summer resort called 

Kyu-Karuizawa (see next 

ROUTE 13. 

Kaetjizawa and Asama-tama. 
1. eaetjizawa and neighbouehood. 

2. ASCENT OF asama-tama. 3. 

(Conf. map facing p. 187.) 


-Kaeuizawa and Neigh- 

Karuizawa (Mampei Hotel, 
Karuizav\'a Hotel), easily accessible 
from Tokyo in 5 J hrs. by the railway 
described in the previous route, lies 
in the corner of a grassy moor on 
the W. side of the Usui-toge, 780 ft. 
below the summit. 

The village was in former times prin- 
cipally dependent upon travellers over 
the ancient highway, and appears to have 
just escaped ruin, after the construction 
of the railway, by a number of the 
foreign residents of Tokyo making it a 
retreat from the unhealthy heat of the 
city during the summer months. Karui- 
zawa's lofty situation (3,270 ft.) gives it a 
temperature .seldom excessive during the 
daytime, and invariably cool at night. 
The rainfall bears favourable comparison 
with Nikko and other mountain resorts, 
and owing to the porous nature of the soil 
in the vicinity, leaves fewer traces be- 
hind. The i^lace is nevertheless not free 
from mosquitoes, and the small sand-fly 
called huyu abounds, — an insect which 


Route 13. — Karuizawa and Asama-yama, 

inflicts a bite, painless at first, but after- 
wards extremely irritable and liable to 
swell during several succeeding days. 
Karuizawa is specially patronised by 
missionary visitors from all parts of Japan 
and even China. Tourists should under- 
stand that in itself the place possesses no 
attractions, no hot springs or historical 
associations such as the Japanese care for. 
It is but an ordinary village, and the cheap 
wooden houses of the foreign summer 
residents dot the neighbouring plain like 
the beginnings of a new settlement in the 
backwoods. But the country round about 
affords good rides and walks both on the 
grassy moor and among the hills. Besides 
those mentioned below, numerous paths 
have been recently cleared by the foreign- 
ers in various directions, affording nice 

The chief excursion from Karui- 
zawa is the ascent of Asama-yama 
(see next page), and the railway 
affords opportunities for visiting 
the romantically situated monastery 
of Shakusonji near Komoro, the 
famous Buddidst temple of Zenkoji 
at Nagano, and the mountains be- 
yond (see Koute 26). The shorter 
walks include : — 

1. To the top of the TJsui-toge, 

1^ m. Asama, the Shirane-san and 
Koma-ga-take of Koshii, Yatsu-ga- 
take, and Tateshina-yama are seen 
on the way wp. On the summit 
stand a few houses and a small 
temple, whose steps are the best 
place to obtain the view. 

In this spot is localised the follovring 
legend, preserved in the Kqjiki : — 

When Yamato-take (see p. 87) was cross- 
ing from Sagami to Kazusa, while on his 
expedition against the barbarous tribes 
who then inhabited that region, he ridi- 
culed the name of Hashiri-mUu ("Running 
Water") given to the strait, and exclaimed 
that it was no more than an easy jump 
across. The Sea-God, offended at this 
insult, so disturbed the waters that Ya- 
mato-take's ship was unable to advance. 
Upon this, his consort Oto-Tachibana- 
Hime said to him, " I will drown myself in 
thy stead," — and as she plunged into the 
sea, the waves became still. Seven days 
afterwards her comb floated ashore. The 
prince built a tomb, and deposited the 
comb therein. On returning to the capital 
after subduing the tribes, he stopped to 
rest at the top of the Usui Pass, and 
gazing over the plain, said thrice in a 
melancholy voice: "Azumawayd!" ("Alaa ! 
my wife "), whence the name of Azuma by 
which Eastern Japan is still known. 

2. Atago-yama. This isolated 
hill, J hr. walk from the vill., is 
ascended by two flights of stone 
steps, and has some curious perpen- 
dicular rocks half-way up. 

3. Hanare-yama, about 1 m. 
off. On its E. side, near the sum- 
mit, is a large cave tenanted by 

4. Iriyama-toge, 1 hr., by the 
base of the hills skirting the moor, 
and past the curious rock called 
Kamado-iwa by the Japanese, and 
Pulpit Rock by foreigners. The 
peak to the 1. beyond this rock 
commands a very extensive pros- 
pect. The summit of the Iriyama- 
toge affords probably the finest 
view obtainable of the valley lead- 
ing towards Myogi-san, and, look- 
ing backwards, of the wide stretch 
of moorland at the base of Asama- 

5. Wami-toge and Sosoku- 
iwa. From the foot of the 
Iriyama-toge, the path keeps to 
the r., and in f hr. more the 
highway over the Wami-toge is 
reached. The ascent is easy. 
After a short but steep descent 
on the opposite side, a path 1. 
leads to the hamlet of Ongawa, 
situated at the base of the Bd- 
soku-iioa, aptly re-named by for- 
eigners the Cathedral Eocks, 
and remarkable for the petrified 
wood found in the neighbourhood. 
These rocks are most easily ap- 
proached from Ongawa. Instead 
of returning the way one came, 
a pleasant round may be made 
by taking a tortuous hill path lead- 
ing down deep into the Iriyama 
valley, from which Karuizawa may 
be regained by the Iiiyama-toge, 
Or else, by pursuing a downward 
course from Ongawa, one may reach 
the hamlet of Aral, at the lower end 
of the Iriyama valley. From this 
potut it is a little over 1 ri to 
Yokogawa, whence train. In any 
case, the excursion will occupy the 
greater part of a day. 

6. Kiritsumi {Inn, Chosei-kwan). 
The thermal springs of this place 

Kiritsumi. Asama-yama. 


are reached after a 3 hrs. walk -via 
the Usui Pass. Not far from the 
summit a narrow path tui-ns 1., 
leading up and down a succession 
of wooded mountain gorges, till the 
final descent is made into the tiny 
valley in which Kiritsumi nestles at 
a height of 3,200 ft.— These baths 
may be more conveniently reached 
by a jinrikisha road from Yokogawa, 
3 ri. The way is very pretty, but 
the view shut out on all sides. The 
water of Kiritsumi is shghtly saline, 
with a temperature of 104° F. 
Higher up, in a neighbouring 
valley, is the old-fashioned water- 
ing-place of Iri-no-iju, with accom- 
modation only for peasant guests. 
The baths are sulphurous and have 
a high temperature. 

7. Yunosawa, ^ hr. along the 
Kusatsu road. A bath may be had 
in the small house here, to which 
mineral water is brought from 
the hUl beyond. Continuing along 
the same road, which soon leads 
over more elevated ground and 
passes through beautiful stretches 
of forest, we reach the baths of 

8. Kose in about 1 hr. This is 
a tiny hamlet in a fold of the hiUs, 
but possesses a commodious inn. 
Just before reaching Kose there is 
a narrow track, which, after travers- 
ing the forest, emerges on grassy 
mountain slopes, and ascends Hana- 
magari-yama (5,500 ft.), command- 
ing fine views. It then descends 
steeply into Kiritsumi, to which 
village this is a longer but more 
picturesque route than the one 
given above. 

2. — AsAMA-YAMA. 

Asama-yama (8,280 ft.) is not 
only the largest active volcano in 
Japan, but also the most accessible. 
The excursion to the top and back 
may be made from Karuizawa in 
one day. 

The last great eruption occurred in the 
summer of 1783, when a vast stream of 
lava destroyed a primeval forest of con- 
siderable extent, together with several 

villages on the N. side. Most eruptionB 
have produced mere showers of ashes, 
but stones also were ejected in 1894 and 
in 1900. At the foot of the steep cone the 
subterranean disturbance can be distinct- 
ly heard, and the sulphurous exhalations 
near the summit often make this part of 
the ascent rather oppressive. 

The ascent by the WaJcasare iw 
chaya — a rest-house on the old road 
to Kusatsu — is the one usually 
prefeiTed, and is certainly the 
least fatiguing. The best plan is 
to hire horses at Karuizawa, where 
foreign saddles may be procured, 
ride via the vUl. of Kuisukake to 
Ko-Asama, — the excrescence on 
the mountain side, — 2.^ hrs., and 
walk up by the path which diverges 
1. some 20 cho before reaching 
Wakasare-no-chaya. The climb is 
steep, but the path a fairly solid 
one of cinders. The time taken to 
the lip of the crater is about 2^ hrs. 
from the place where one dis- 

The crater is circular, some f 
m. in cu-cumference, with sides 
perpendicular, honeycombed, and 
burnt to a red hue, while sulphur- 
ous steam wells up from the bottom 
and from numerous cre-vices in the 
walls. On the S. side of the moun- 
tain rise two precipitous rocky ram- 
parts, separated by a considerable 
interval, the outer one being lower 
and nearly covered with vegeta- 
tion. They seem to be the remains 
of two successive concentric cra- 
ters, the existing cone being the 
third and most recent. The nearer 
is quite bare, and columnar in 
structure at the centre. The side 
of the cone is strewn with large 
rough fragments of loose lava, and 
unfathomable rifts extend for the 
greater part of the way down to 
its base. The \iew from the 
summit embraces a large tract of 
country : — to the N., the whole of 
the Kotsuke mountains, x\ith the 
Hamna group and Akagi-san ; the 
Nikko range and the E. range divid- 
ing Shinshu from Kotsuke ; the sea 
far away in the distance ; next the 
Koshu mountains on the S., with 


Route 13. — Karuizawa and Asama-yama. 

Fuji peering over them ; the conical 
Yatsu-ga-take and the adjacent 
summits of Koshu ; and then on 
the W., the huge range that forms 
the boundary between Shinshu and 
Hida. The descent to the Waka- 
sare-no-chaya takes \\ hr. 

Another way up, also occupying 
about 5^ hrs., is from Oiwake (Inn, 
Nakamura-ya), a yLU. on the Naka- 
sendo, 2 ri 14 cho from Karuizawa. 
On leaving Oiwake, the path as- 
cends gently through sloping moor- 
land covered with wild-flowers ; 
then the acclivity becomes greater, 
and gritty ash is reached. At an 
elevation of 1,145 ft. above Oiwake, 
is a cascade hidden among the 
trees that border a deep gorge. Its 
height is about 18 ft. ; the red 
colour of the water and of the 
underlying rock — volcanic brec- 
cia covered with a red crust — gives 
it a strange apjiearance. At a 
height of 3,225 ft. above Oiwake, all 
vegetation ceases. For 1,600 ft. 
more, the path proceeds up a steep 
ascent of loose ash to the edge of 
the outer ridge, which from the vill. 
below appears to be the summit, 
thoTigh not really so. The path 
then descends, and crosses over 
to the base of the present cone, 
which is more easily climbed. — 
The ascent can also be made from 
Komoro, a railway station ISJ ni. 
from Karuizawa. The path leads 
straight across the fields towards 
the highest visible point of Asama, 
and in IJ hr. fair walking brings 
one to the crest of a ridge, beyond 
which is a deep ravine with a 
yellow brook at the bottom, while 
the path from Oiwake is at 
the same level on the other side. 
The brook is crossed after 35 min. 
walking, when the path joins that 
from Oiwake, described above. 
The actual time taken by a good 
walker to make the ascent from 
Komoro was 5f hrs., exclusive of 
stoppages, the last ij hr. being an 
extremely rough and steep chmb. 

One of the most interesting ex- 

ciirsions from Karuizawa is to the 
liava Stream of 1783, refened to 
in the small type on p. 183. Some 
travellers pressed for time combine 
this with the ascent of the moun- 
tain, doing both in one day ; but 
this is too fatiguing. The way 
to the lava stream (Oshi-dashi- 
gawara) goes off immediately behind 
the Wakasare-no-chaya rest-house 
(where a guide can generally be 
engaged), thence 1. throiigh the 
pine-wood which borders the lava 
stream ; time 50 min. The huge 
blackish grey blocks rise abruptly 
to a height of from 20 to 25 ft. 
from the edge of the wood, in 
extraordinary confusion. Time has 
covered them with a coating of 
moss, and owing to surface dis- 
integration, they break away easUy 
in parts, so as to make scrambling 
over them difficult. Emerging, as 
one does suddenly, from the peace- 
ful shade of the forest, with its 
carpet of delightfully soft moss, on 
to this terrible evidence of sub- 
terranean force, the spectacle is 
strangely impressive. The view, 
too, from the top of the boulders, 
especially of Shiran e-san and of the 
range dividing the provinces of 
Shinshu and Kotsuke is very fine. 
On the way back, the gviide will 
point out a curious fissure in the 
ground extending for a long dis- 
tance, dotibtless due to some later 

3. — Shakusonji. 

The train takes f hr. from Karui- 
zawa to Komoro, whence it is about 
1 hr. walk to the monastery of 
Shakusonji, commonly known as 
Nxmobiki no Kioannon, which lies 
perched on the side of one of the 
high bluffs that overlook the Chiku- 
ma-gawa. It is a romantic spot, 
approached by a narrow gorge lead- 
ing from the liver bank. The 
priests have tunnelled through the 
rocks in several places, making 
passages which lead to the various 
shrines and form a continuous 

Bessho. From Karuizawa to Kusatsu. 


corkscrew path round the perpen- 
dicular cliff. The white-painted hut 
close by the bell-tower on the sum- 
mit commands a superb view of 
the Asama range and the valley of 
the Chikuma-gawa. The monastery 
belongs to the Tendai sect of 

4. — Bessho. 

Summer residents at Karuizawa, 
desirous of getting a peep of life 
at a typical bathing resort of the 
good old kind, might visit Bessho, 
a little vill. lying in a fold of the 
pine-clad hills, at the foot of 
Ogami-dake, 3 ri by jinrikisha to 
the W. of Ueda station (1^ hr. by 
train). The best inn, Kashiwa-ya, 
a three-storied building which ad- 
joins a small but x^^etty temple 
sacred to Kwannon, sprawls w^ and 
down the hillside, commanding a 
lovely view. Another temple, -n-ith 
a massive thatched roof, called An- 
raJcuji, boasts a pagoda of the un- 
usTial number of four storeys, 
which is 700 years old. A festival 
takes place at the summit of Ogami- 
dake every 15th July, when each 
house in the vill. has to send a 
representative bearing some gar- 
ment as an offering to the god. 
The neighbourhood of Bessho af- 
fords many pretty walks, among 
others one to the well-known Hd- 
fukuji-toge, 2^ hrs., on the highway 
between Ueda and Matsumoto. 

5. — Over the Wami-toge to 

This expedition can be made 
either on horseback or on foot as 
far as Shimonita, and the return 
by train via Takasaki ; 7^ hours 
will be a good allowance to make 
for catching the last train. The 
way leads over the Wami-toge (see 
p. 182), and down a narrow, pictur- 
esqi;e valley between lofty, precipi- 
tous crags to the vill. of Ilatsudoya. 
Jinrikishas with 2 men might be 
availed of from this place by order- 
ing them beforehand from Shimo- 

nita, or else from the next vill. 
of Motojuku, the first one which 
affords accommodation. The whole 
walk is lovely, the valley only 
beginning to open out a little about 
Motojuku, while Shimonita stands, 
so to say, at its moiith. For fur- 
ther notice of Shimonita, see p. 179. 
The distances are approximately 
as follows : — 

KAEUIZAWA to Bi Cho 31. 

Top of Wami-toge. 2 18 6 

Hatsudoya 28 2 

Motojuku 1 26 4J 

SHIMONITA 2 27 6| 

Total 7 27 19 


This is a day's joiirney of 10 ri 
approximately, barely practicable 
for jinrikishas ; three men may be 
necessary. Horses with foreign 
saddles are also obtainable at Karui- 
zawa. The path to Kusatsu di- 
verges to the r. before descending 
to Kose (see p. 183), and emerging 
from the forest, i^asses over the 
grassy slojaes of Hanamagari and 
the other mountains to the N. of 
the Usui-toge. Asama looms up 
majestically over the wide moor- 
land to the 1. At about 4} ri from 
Karuizawa, the old road to" Kusatsu 
(12 ri) ■via the Wakasare-no-chaya 
joins in, whence on to the poor vill. 
of Okuwa, 1 J ri, the way Ues through 
dehghtful park-like country, part 
of which is utihsed for a horse- 
breeding farm owned by the Im- 
perial Household. The next stage 
takes one in about 1 hr. down to 
the bed of the Agatsuma-gawa, 
which is crossed on a curious 
suspension bridge of about 180 ft. 
span made of telegraph wire. On 
the far side stands the viU. of 
Haneo. The remainder of the way 
is mostly a gi-adual ascent through 
woods and fields, commanding at 
intervals splendid \iews of the sur- 
rounding mountains. For Kusa- 
tsu, see next Route. 


Route 14. — Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neighbourhood. 

ROUTE 14. 

Ikao, KtrsATSU, and 

1. ikao. 2. walks and excuesions 
feom rkao : haktjna, etc. 3. ku- 
satsu. 4. "walks in the neigh- 
bourhood of kusatsu. 5. feom 
kusatsu to nagano 0\'ee the 
shibu-toge, ascent of shieane- 


1. — Ikao. 

Ikao is a short day's jotimey 
from Tokyo (Ueno station). 

The first stage is by rail to Mae- 
bashi in 3f hrs., whence tram to 
Shibukawa, about IJ hr. The tram- 
cars usually start from the far end 
of Maebashi, 1 J m. from the sta- 
tion, but jinrikishas (15 min. to 
tram) can be availed of ; or if ordered 
beforehand from the Basha Tetsudd 
Kwaisha, tramcars will meet travel- 
lers at the railway station. The last 
stage from Shibukawa up to Ikao 
{2 ri 15 cho, or 6 m.) is done by 
jiniikisha with two men in 2 hrs.; 
return in 1 hr. — Shibukawa can also 
be reached from Takasaki station 
by tram direct ; but the cars are 
smaller and the distance is longer. 
In summer time a private car is 
almost a necessity. 

Hotel. — Kindayu, European style. 
There are also the Budayu, Chigira, 
and other good inns in Japanese 

Ikao, one of the best summer 
resorts in Japan, is built on ter- 
races along the N. E. slope of 
Haruna-san, at an elevation varying 
from 2,500 to 2,700 ft. The pictur- 
esque main street, which divides the 
viU. into an eastern and a western 
part, consists of one nearly con- 
tinuous steep fUght of steps. The 
houses W. of the steps border on a 
deep ravine called the Yusawa, 
through which rushes a foaming 
torrent. Ikao enjoys the advantage 
■of cool nights, few mosquitoes, 
and an unusually beautiful situa- 

tion, which ofEers from nearly every 
house a grand view of the valleys 
of the Agatsuma-gawa and Tone- 
gawa, and of the high mountain- 
ranges on the border of the gi'eat 
plain in which T6ky5 is situated. 
From few places can the Nikko 
mountains be seen to such advan- 
tage, while conspicuous in the 
foregi'ound lise the three peaks of 

No summer resort in Japan can 
show such a wealth of wild-flowers. 
During July and August, the hhum 
auratum, the tiger-lily and several 
other lilies, the iris in many col- 
ours, three species of clematis, 
three species of spirea, the hy- 
drangea, the funkia, asters, cam- 
panulas, and numerous others car- 
pet the ground. EarUer, especially 
in May, this whole country-side 
resounds with the song of birds, — 
nightingales and cuckoos in the 
woods, larks on the open moorland. 
Ikao is famous for its mineral 
springs, which have a temperature 
of 45° C. (113° r.), and which 
contain a small amount of iron 
and sulphate of soda. They have 
been known since prehistoric times, 
and the bath-houses pouring out 
clouds of steam form a striking 
feature of the precipitous village 
street. According to the Japanese 
style of bathing, the hot baths are 
made use of several times a day, 
and indiscriminately by visitors of 
every description. Lately the water 
has been used for diinking purposes, 
but it has little more effect than 
pure hot water. 

2. — Walks and Excuesions 
FEOM Ikao. 

1. Along the Yusawa ravine to 
Yumoto, about J m., nearly level. 
Yu-moto means ht., " the Source of 
the Hot Water." Seats are erected 
for the accommodation of visitors, 
who resort there to drink of the 
mineral spring (Nomi-yu). The 
water, which at its source is quite 
clear, has a sUghtly inky taste. On 

Scale 1*00000 
_? ) 1 S 1_ 


J.I j^tvr^u 





WaUcs and Excursion.^ from Jkao. 


being exposed to the air the carbon- 
ic acid evaporates, and part of the 
iron which the water contains is 
precipitated as a yellowish mass. 
This covers the bed of the river 
and the bottom of the aqueduct, 
and gives to the water in the baths 
a thick, discoloured appearance. 
The people, who have great faith in 
the strengthening efEects of this 
precipitated iron salt, place large 
strips of cotton cloth in the stream. 
When the cloth has assumed a deep 
yellow colour, it is taken out, dried, 
and used as a belt for the body. 
Gowns thus dyed (yu-aka-zome) 
are offered for sale in the village, 
and to wear one of these for twelve 
hours is declared to be equal to a 
whole course of baths. The mineral 
water is led down to the inns in 
bamboo pipes. 

2. Up Kompira-san, I hr. climb 
under shade. Though of no great 
height, the top commands an ex- 
tensive view, stretching from 
Shirane-san near Kusatsu to 
Tsukuba-san in Hitachi, and 
including the Milcuni and Nikko 
ranges, Akagi-san, and the valley of 
the Tonegawa. 

3. Up to Mushi-yu, (Ht. "Va- 
pour Bath"), so called from the 
sulphurous gases which here ema- 
nate from holes in the ground, over 
which huts have been erected for 
the treatment of rheumatic pa- 
tients. The naked people some- 
times standing about at Mushi-yu 
make this place unsightly. Time f 
hr. Among the rocks by the side of 
the path just below Mushi-yu are a 
number of holes from which cold 
air issues, seeming to testify to the 
presence of ice within. 

4. To Nanne-no-taki {" the Seven- 
fold Cascade"), \ hr. down through 
a wood ; thence for | hr., also 
mostly up and down through the 
wood, to Benten-daki, a very 
pretty fall of the stream that flows 
from Lake Hanina. About half-way 
one passes a picturesque aA'enue 
of cryptomerias leading to a small 
deserted shrine. This walk mav be 

varied by returning via the hamlet 
of Inak'igo close to the avenue, but 
there is then less shade. — Those who 
do not mind scrambhng and wet- 
ting their feet a Uttle, may climb to 
a point a short way above the upper 
of the two falls, where the stream 
can easily be crossed, and make 
their way through long grass to a 
path, whence, turning 1. and down 
the valley, Ikao can be reached by 
way of the Yoromya-hashi, a bridge 
spanning a deep and picturesque 
ravine at Aznma-mura. 

5. A long but delightful walk 
may be taken via the N. end of 
Lake Haruna to Benten-daki, by 
following the stream which forms 
the fall (about IJ hr. from the Lake 
to the fall). In spring there is a 
wealth of flowering trees, ground 
orchids, and wild wistaria ; in 
summer the excessive height of the 
grass renders this walk impracti- 

6. Mizusawa no Kwannon, 

a Buddhist temple in which, though 
dedicated to Kwannon, the chief 
object of interest is offered by 
six bronze images of Jizo, life-size, 
on a revolving case. The way 
there leads for a few cho down the 
Shibukawa road, then diverging r. 
over the breezy moor at the foot of 
Sengen-yama ; time to the temple, 
50 min. One can proceed on from 
Mizusawa, a further distance of 50 
min. to the high Waterfall of Funao 
(or Funyu), in a qiaaintly pictur- 
esque rocky fold of a mountain of 
the same name. The final scramble 
up to the actual foot of the fall is 
hardly worth making. One may 
return another way, taking a path 
over the hills that leads between 
Sengen-yama r. and Futatsu-dake 
1., — li hr. This wovdd be a good 
occasion for ascending Sengen-yama, 
the steep path up which is well- 

7. Haruna, — 5i m., of which 
4^ m. to the lake. Though the first 
part of it is rough, this is by far 
the prettiest walldng expedition 


Route 14. — Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neighbourhood. 

at Ikao. " Chairs " may, however, 
be taken. 

Lake Haruna, which ai^parently 
occupies the site of an extinct 
crater, has been stocked vdth sal- 
mon and other lish. On its border 
is a tea-house where one may lunch 
or spend the night. The mass of 
rocks resembhng a tower at the 
N. E. end is called Suztiri-iwa, and 
can be easily chmbed from the 
back. From the lake it is a short 
and easy ascent to the top of a pass 
called Tenjin-toge, 1,000 ft. above 
Ikao, commanding a fine view. 
Prom the Tenjin-t5ge the path 
descends a luxuriantly wooded glen 
to the ancient Temple of Haruna, 
situated amongst precipitous and 
overhanging volcanic rocks, in a 
gi-ove of lofty cryptomerias. Over 
the principal building, which is 
decorated -wdth excellent wood- 
carvings (especially two dragons 
t'U'ined roimd the side beams of the 
porch), hangs a huge rock sux^ported 
on a slender base, which seems 
every moment to threaten the 
temple with destruction. The 
whole site is one of the most 
fantastically beautiful that can be 

The date of the original fouadation o£ 
the temple of Harana isunlinown. The 
earliest records date back only five cen- 
turies, when the Yamabushi (a sect of 
Buddhist exorcisers and fortune-tellers), 
who then had ijossession of the place, 
were involved in the ruin of Nitta Yoshi- 
sada (see p. 81), with whom they had sided 
in the civil wars of the time. More 
latterly it came under the jurisdiction of 
the Imperial Prince-abbot of Ueuo. The 
present main shrine was erected about 
A.D. 1725, and since the revolution of 
1868, it has been re-dedicated to the 
Shinto deities Ho-musubi the God of Fire, 
and Haniyasu-Hime the Goddess of Earth. 

A short way below the temple 
is a remarkable formation of rock 
like a iiying buttress, called Kura- 
kake-iwa. A few minutes further 
on stands the village where reside 
the wives and children of the 
priests ; for even in old times, a 
local exemption existed from the 
Buddliist rale of ceUbacy. 

8. Fu t at su-d ak e, Soma- 
yama, and Haruna Fuji. These 
three hills all he on the way to 
Lake Haruna. The way up Fidatsu^ 
dake diverges 1. J hr. out of Ikao, 
where a post marks 5J cho to the 
summit. From this post, 25 min. 
more take one to the spot where 
the way to Soma-yama branches off 
1. from the Haruna road, close to the 
second tea-house. From here it is 
20 min. along the base, and 25 
min. more uj) an arete to the top, 
chains being fixed in the rock at 
the two steeliest places to assist 
climbers, though there is no real 
danger. The Haruna Fuji hes to 
the r. of the road, close to the lake, 
where there is a grazing-ground for 
cattle (Bokujo) ; its steej) and stony 
ascent occupies f hr. from the place 
where the path diverges. The view 
from these various heights is very 
beautiful and extensive, particularly 
that from the shrine on the summit 
of Soma, 4,850 ft. above sea-level, 
and 2,150 ft. above Ikao. The 
summit of Fuji appears over the 
Chichibu mountains nearly due S. 
To the W. of it are seen the Koshu 
Shirane, the Koma-ga-take's of 
Koshu and Shinshii seemingly in 
close jjroximity, then Yatsu-ga-take, 
Ontake about W. S. W., Asama- 
yama a httle to the S. of W., 
Yahazu-yama W. N. W., then the 
Shirane of Kusatsu, and a part of 
the Hida-Shinshu range. Eastwards 
rise Tsulaiba-san and the Shirane 
of Nikkd, ^\ith Kurobi-yama — the 
highest peak of Aliagi-san — half-way. 
between them. The town of Mae- 
bashi is visible to the E. S. E., vrith. 
the Tonegawa half encirchng it 
before pursuing its course through 
the plain. 

S5ma may also be ascended from 
Mushi-yu ; but on that side the 
cUmb is more precipitous, nine 
chains in rapid succession helping 
the cHmber on the steep portion 
just below the summit. Pilgiims 
often prefer it for that very reason, 
as gaining for them greater reU- 
gioiis merit. — Another way up from 

Akagi'San. Shima. 


the direction ot Takasaki joins the 
Miishi-yu ascent shortly before the 
final climb. It has seven chains 
and an iron ladder about 30 ft. 
long. The ascent of S5ma from 
the Haruna side, with descent on 
the Mnshi-yu side, occupies altoge- 
ther 4 hrs. from Ikao. 

As a variety in the day's work, 
good walkers might advantageously 
combine one of these hills with 
Excursion No. 7 (Haruna). 

9. Sengen-yama. This moun- 
tain, which assumes so many forms 
when seen fi-om different parts of 
the plain, can be ascended from 
Ikao via Mushi-yu in 1^ hr. The 
path is steep, and the sides slope 
away precipitously from the top, 
which is a long knife-hke ridge. 

10. Akagi-san is the collective 
name of a circular range of peaks, 
surrounding the basin of an old 
crater, now a lake, about 2f m. in 
circiimference. The mountain may 
be ascended from various jpoints, 
but is recommended as a 2 days' 
expetlition for those spending the 
summer at Ikao. The first stage 
takes one by jinrikisha to Shibu- 
kawa, where the Tonegawa is cross- 
ed by ferry to Hassaki. Horses, 
ordered beforehand, should here be 
in waiting for the next stage of 3 
hrs., chieiiy over monotonous and 
shadeless moorland, which leads, 
however, to a picturesque ridge 
surrounded by pretty peaks. A 
short distance further, at a cairn 
marking the junction of several 
paths, begins the only stiff portion 
of the ascent, the Ubago-ioge, fi-om 
the top of which, in about 1 hr., 
the path descends into the sylvan, 
park-like _country on the S. side of 
the lake ( Onuma), ^ hr. more. The 
lake is enclosed by small hiUs, 
v/hose lower slopes are covered with 
woods consisting principally of 
birch, oak, and alder. From its E. 
end rise the highest of the peaks, — 
Kurohi-san 6,300 ft., and Jizo-san, 
5,600 ft., easy climbs of 30 cho and 
12 cho respectively, offering magni- 
ficent panoramic views : — Fuji 

S.S.W., Kaigane-san (part of the 
Koshii Shirane) S.W., the numerous 
peaks of Yatsu-ga-take -with Tate- 
shina nearly W. S. W., Asama-yama 
due W., and the Kusatsu Shirane 
about W. N. W. Nearly due N. 
rises Hodaka-san, one of the loftiest 
peaks in Kotsuke, easily recognised 
by its double to^x A large hut close 
by the temple (Daido), on the 
margin of the lake, affords rough 
shelter for the night for man and 
beast. The god of Akagi is wor- 
shipped under the form of a two- 
edged sword. Twenty min. walk 
beyond the temple lies a tarn (Ko- 
numa), insignificant compared with 
the larger sheet of water below. 

For those wishing to take 
Akagi-san on the way from Nikko to 
Ikao or Maebashi, the path leading 
up the Torii-toge from Mizunuma 
on the Watarase-gawa (see Rte. 
19), and the descent by the path 
described above, is recommended. 

11. The hot-springs of Shima lie 
nearly 8 ri from Ikao, so that a trip 
there involves staying the night. 
Shima may most conveniently be 
taken on the way to Kusatsu, the 
road being the same as far as 20 
cho past Nalcanojo. Jinrikishas 
can be availed of. but must occa- 
sionally be ahghted from. Shima 
includes two hamlets, called respec- 
tively Yamaguchl Onsen and Arai- 
yu, 8 cho distant fiom each other ; 
the latter {Inns, Sekizen, and Ta- 
mm-a Mosaljuro) is the better. The 
hamlet is pictiiresquely situated 
close to the river, on whose bank 
the springs which siipply the baths 
gush forth. Travellers not return- 
ing to Ikao, but going on to Kusa- 
tsu, need not pass again through 
Nakanojo, as there is a short cut 
from a place called Eimino. It is, 
however, scarcely passable for jin- 

12. To Myogi-san. It is a 
splendid day's walk \m Haruna- 
san to Matsuida on the Takasaki- 
Karuizawa Kailway, about 9 ri, 
whence 1 ri more to the vill. of 
Myogi (see p. 180). 


Boufe 14. — Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neighbourhood. 


The faYOurite way from Ikao to 
this place leads clown oyer open 
coTintry to the Hakojima ferry, 
where it crosses to Murakami, and 
thence along the main road through 
Nakanojd, Sawatari, and Namasu, 
after which it climbs the Kuresaka- 
toge to the uplands of Kusatsu. 


IKAO to :— Ri Chd M. 

Murakami 2 31 7 

Sawatari 4 26 llj 

KUSATSU 5 9 12| 

Total 12 30 31i 

JinriMshas with two or three men 
are now practicable the whole way. 
Most persons will prefer to walk the 
steeper and more pictitresque 
stages at either end, but may 
advantageously take basha along 
the flat from Murakami to Naka- 
nojo. The whole trip makes an 
extremely long day. Should a 
break be found necessary, good 
accommodation may be had at 
Nakanojd (Inn, Nabe-ya), or else at 
the small bathing vill. of Sawatari 
(Inns, Shin-Kan5-ya, Fukuda). 

An alternative way from Ikao to 
Kusatsu branches off at Nakanojo, 
and follows up the Agatsuma-gawa 
through Haramachi and Nagano- 
hara. Total distance nearly 14 ri, 
much of it through beautiful 
scenery. Instead of going ^ia Mura- 
kami and Nakanojo, one may take 
the Haruna Lake route, andby 
turning to the 1. at the vill. of Odo, 
join the Haramachi route a little 
beyond Kawara-yu (Inn, by Hagi- 
wara), where there are hot springs 
high up on the river bank. 

Kusatsu can also easUy be reach- 
ed from Tokyo by taking rail to 
Karuizawa (see p. 185). 

Kusatsu (Inns, Yamamoto- 
Irwan, Ichii, each with a besso, or 
" separat-e house," and private 
baths for foreigners, outside the 
vill., open only during the summer 

season), 3,800 ft. above sea-level, 
whose trim, cleanly appearance 
strongly recalls that of a village in 
the Tyrol, is the coolest of Japan's 
summer resorts. The fine three- 
storied and gabled inns forming 
the village square give an unusual 
aspect to the place. The carving 
of the brackets which support the 
overhanging galleries combines 
similarity of outline with clever 
diversity of pattern, — fans with 
various crests, birds, fishes, rats, 
gourds, etc., being introduced. The 
centre of the square is occupied by 
springs of boiling sulphur water, 
led in troughs to collect the sulphur. 
Baths, public and private, are very 
numerous. Visitors who, attracted 
by these considerations, may think 
of spending any time here, should 
however bear in mind that the 
mineral waters are specially effi- 
cacious — not only in rheumatism, 
and, as discovered by Dr. E. Baelz, 
in gout^ — but in syphilis, leprosy, 
and other loathsome diseases, and 
that the first effect of the free 
sulphuric acid in the water is to 
bring out sores on the tender parts 
of the body. The chief constitu- 
ents of the Kusatsu springs are 
mineral acids, sulphur, iron, alum, 
and arsenic. The temperature of 
the springs is extremely high, rang- 
ing from 100° to 160° Fahrenheit, 
while the baths are generally 113° 
to 128°. The chief public bath, 
called Netsu-no-yu, has three divi- 
sions of increasing degrees of tem- 
perature. Even the Japanese, in- 
ured as they are to scalding water, 
find their courage fail them ; and 
the native invalids are therefore 
taken to bathe in squads under a 
semi-military discipline, to which 
they voluntarily submit. This 
system is known as Jikan-yu, or 
" time bath," because the hours 
are fixed. Soon after daylight a 
horn is blown and the bathers as- 
semble, dressed in white cotton 
tunics and drawers, as many as can 
find room taking their first daily 
bath. After stripping, they begin 

Kusatsu. Ascent of Shirane-san. 


by beating the water with boards 
in order to cool it, — a curious 
scene ; and then most disrobe, 
while the greatest sufEerers swathe 
themselves in white cotton. 
Each bather is provided with a 
wooden dipper, and the "bath- 
master" directs the patients to 
poiir 250 dippers of water over 
their heads to prevent congestion. 
Attendants are on the watch, as 
fainting fits sometimes occur. To 
keep lip their coiu-age, a kind of 
chant takes place between the 
bathers and their leader on entering 
and while sitting in the bath, — a 
trial which, though lasting only 
from 35 to 4 minutes, seems an 
eternity to their festering bodies. 
After the lapse of about one 
minute, the bath-master cries out, 
and the others all answer with a 
hoarse shout. After a little he cries 
out, " Three minutes more ! " After 
another half-minute or so, " Two 
minutes more ! " then " One minute 
more ! " the chorus answering each 
time. At last the leader cries 
" Finished ! " whereupon the whole 
mass of bodies rise from the water 
with an alacrity which he who 
has witnessed their slow, painful 
entry into the place of tortm-e 
would scarcely credit. Two more 
baths are taken during the fore- 
noon and two in the afternoon, 
making five altogether, at each of 
which the same routine is observed. 
The usual Kusatsu course includes 
120 baths, spread over four or five 
weeks. Most patients then proceed 
for the " after-cure " to Sawatari, 
5 7-i 9 cho (12f m.) distant, where 
the waters have a softening effect 
on the sMn, and quickly alleviate 
the terrible irritation. Some go to 
Shibu (see next page) instead. The 
lepers' bath {Ooza-no-yu) has no 
fixed hours. Fearful sights may be 
seen there at all hours. It stands 
in the lower part of the village, 
which forms a separate leper 

Kusatsu seems to have been first heard 
of as one of the villages belonging to the 

great chieftain, Takeda Shingen, in the 
16th century ; but its importance dates 
only from the Genroku period (1688-1704), 
when the springs were enclosed under 
straw huts. The inhabitants mostly bathe 
twice a day, in a temperature of 110°, but 
in winter three or foiir times to keep 
warm, and experience no bad effects. 
Skin diseases are said to be unknown 
among them. 

4.— Walks in the Neighboue- 
HOOD OF Kusatsu. 

1. To Sai-no-Kawara, 8 cho. 
The meaning of the name Sai-no- 
Kawara is " the Eiver-bed of SouLs." 
On its numerous rocks and 
boulders, small stones have been 
piled up by visitors as offerings to 
dead children (see p. 49). Among 
these rocks are some called yurugi- 
ishi, which, notwithstanding their 
being huge boulders, are so nicely 
balanced that they can be moved 
by the hand. Hot yellow streams 
of sulphur, and green streams of 
copper flow into the river bed. 12 
cho further on over the moor is 
Kori-dani, so called from the 
frozen snow to be found there even 
in the dog-days. 

2. To the solfatara of Sessh.0- 
gawara, on the slope of Moto- 
Shirane, about 1 ri. 

3. Via Suwa-no-jinja, Higane, 
Kiyozuka, and HiMnuma, to 
Hanashiki near Iriyama, with 
hot springs spurting up near a 
cold stream. x\bout 2 J ri. 

4. Shirane-san, 

Shira-nr signifies " White Peak," which 
accounts for there being several moun- 
tains of this name in Japan. 

a frequently active volcano, 7,500 
ft. high, forms a short day's ex- 
pedition via Sessho-gawara, the 
path leading through a remarkable 
skeleton forest, blasted by the 
fumes exhaled during the eruption 
of 1882. The crater is oval in 
shape, its longer diameter being 
about 500 yds., and its breadth 150 
to 200 yds. The wall can be climb- 
ed in a few min. on the N. side, 
from the ruins of some sulphur 
works destroyed in the eruption of 


Route 14. — Jkao, Kusatsu, and Neighbourhood. 

1897. A boiling lake, which was 
destroyed at the same time, has 
begun to re-form since the eruption 
of January, 1900 ; but the liquid 
mud ejected on that occasion ren- 
dered approach impossible when 
the mountain was last visited. Pro- 
bably, when all settles down again, 
this lake vnB. be found to consist, 
as formerly, of hydrochloric acid, 
with iron and alum, only needing 
to be diluted and sweetened in 
order to constitute an excellent 

Shirane-san may be conveniently 
taken on the way to Shibu ; but 2^ 
hrs. extra should be allowed for 
that object, as it lies ofE the main 
road. Horses go to the foot of the 
crater wall above-mentioned. Be- 
ware of the water of the stream 
crossed on the way up, which is 

5. — Kusatsu to Nagano ovek the 
Shibu-toge. The Tokh-Toge. 


KUSATSU to :— Ri Cho M. 

Top of Shibu-toge. 2 32 7 

SHIBU 4 — 9| 

Toyono (Station) ..5 — 12^ 


.11 32 29 

On foot or on saddle-horse as far 
as Shibu (2,250 ft. above the sea) ; 
thence basha or jinrildsha to Toyo- 
no ; thence train to Nagano in J hr. 

This route affords splendid 
scenery. The best plan is to sleep 
at Shibu {Inns, Tsubata-ya and 
others), catching the train at 
Toyono next day, the good road in 
from Shibu being traversed by basha 
in 2J hrs. Travellers who have 
not time to visit the temple of Zen- 
koji at Nagano, can continue on by 
rail to Karuizawa and Tokyo. The 
route is one specially recommended 
to those who have been taking the 
sulphur baths at Kusatsu. Instead 
of going for the " after-cure " to 
Sawatari, — the usual Japanese plan, 
— they can stay at Shibu, where 

there are thermal springs suitable 
to their needs, and be far more 
comfortable. Quince jelly is a 
specialty of the place. 

The picturesqueness of the road 
from Kusatsu to Shibu is purchas- 
ed at the expense of a long and 
steep climb. The descent from 
the top of the pass (7,150 ft.) to 
the vill. of Shibu is also very long. 
The roclcy gorge (Tsubame-iwa, or 
the " Swallow's Rock ")1^ ri before 
Shibu is very impressive. Half a 
ri further, where a placard points 
out the trail 1., it is worth descend- 
ing for a few min. to view the fine 
Kamman waterfall. The road can 
be rejoined below. The panorama 
before entering Shibu is most ex- 
tensive, including the mountains 
known by the names of Myok5- 
zan, Togakushi, and Izuna, and 
towering behind them again the 
northern part of the great 
gi'anite range on the borders of 
Etchu, described in Eoute 31. The 
river twisting through the plain is 
the Chikuma-gawa, of which the 
Hoshi-kawa flowing through Shibu 
is an affluent. A little over i ri 
from Shibu is a small but con- 
stantly active geyser (Ojigoku) in 
the river-bed. 

An alternative way to Nagano 
from Kusatsu is over the Yamada- 
toge, which is comparatively short, 
and where the baths of Yamada 
may be visited. Another is over 
the Torii-toge, 6,520 ft. above the 
sea. Both of these descend to the 
vill. of Suzaka. The itinerary of 
the Torii-toge route is as foUows : — 

KUSATSU to :— Ri Cho M. 

Mihara 2 6 5^ 

Ozawa 2 30 7 

Tashiro 1 18 3g 

Torii-toge 30 2 

Nire 4 24 llj 

Suzaka 1 29 4^ 

NAGANO 3 11 8 

Total 17 4 41* 

Route 15. — TJie Shimizu-goe and Mikuni-toge. 193 

This so-called pass is but a gentle 
ascent of 50 cho. The prettiest 
part of the route is on the far side 
of it, where, after leaving the \'il]. 
of Nire, the monotony of gi-assy 
hills shutting out all distant pros- 
pect is exchanged for charming 
views of the mountains on the 
borders of Echigo. JinriMshas can 
be obtained at Suzaka for the re- 
mainder of the journey, during 
which the volcanic cone of Madarao 
is visible, besides other mountains 
mentioned above. 

EOUTE 15. 

The Shimizu-goe and 


Acquaintance with a represen- 
tative portion of Japan's central 
mountain range may be made from 
Ikao by going due N. over the 
Shimizu-goe, and returning by its 
neighbour, the Mikuni-toge. Snow 
lies on the higher sections of the 
route till early in July. The time 
should be divided as follows : — 
first day, jinriMsha to Yubiso ; 
second day (very long) on foot to 
Nagasaki, whence jinrikisha to Mui- 
ka-machi ; third day, jinrikisha to 
Yuzawa at the foot of the Mikuni- 
toge, and walk to Futai ; fourth 
day, on foot to Saru-ga-kyo, or to 
Yu-no-shuku a little short of Fuse ; 
fifth day, walk to Ikao. Accommo- 
dation is also to be obtained at 
l''ubara, Shimizu, Nagasaki, Asakai, 
and Nakayama. 

Itinerary of the Shimizu-goe. 

IKAO to :— Ei aid 31. 

Shibukawa 2 15 6 

NUMATA 5 13 13 

Yubara 5 16 13^ 

Yubiso 1 11 3^- 

Bun5 2 27 6| 

Top of Pass 26 12 

Shimizu 2 18 6 

Nagasaki 1 27 41 

MUIKA-MACHI... 2 15 

Total 24 10 591- 

After descending to Shibul^awa, 
the highway leads up the valley of 
the Tonegawa, with the great mass 
of Akagi-san to the r., and the cen- 
tral range ahead and to the 1. Just 
beyond the hamlet of Tanashita, 
where the river runs in a deep 
gorge between perpendicular rocky 
chfEs, the scenery becomes very 
picturesque. Time is gained by 
leaving Numata (see Route 18) to the 
r., and diverging 1. at the hamlet of 
Togam at the junction of the Kata- 
shina-gawa with the Tonegawa. 
The main road from Numata, which 
is soon regained, is excellent, and 
the scenery even more charming. 
Hills rise on all sides, repeating 
themselves in an endless succession 
of green cones. Yubara (1,350 ft.) 
is prettUy perched on either side of 
the sti-eam which flows far below, 
with rocks washed white by some 
hot springs. But the crowning 
beauty of this day is at the end. 
where the mountains are all forest- 
clad, and each valley is dominated 
by a lofty peak which the snow 
streaks till past midsummer. 
Shortly before reaching Yxibiso, 
we turn sharp 1., and at last leave 
the Tonegawa to follow a tributary 
stream flo-^ing from the narrow 
and sombre valley that leads to the 
Shimizu-goe. The prominent peak 
rising due E. of the jimction of the 
two streams is Hodaka-yama, where 
the Tonegawa, has its source. 

Tubiso {Inn by Abe Gijuro, 
with hot springs) lies 1,650 ft. 
above the level of the sea. About 
2 m. further on, we leave the good 
road hitherto followed for a track 
through a gloidous forest of beech 
and chestnut-trees to Bund, which 
consists of three or foirr poverty- 
stricken inns at the foot of the 
Shimizu-g-oe. Steep and stony 
is the climb hence, but it affords 


Route 15. — The Shimizu-goe and Mikuni-toge. 

picturesque glimpses. At 4,000 ft. 
a rest-house is reached, from which 
point the road winds round the 
mountain side for about 1 m. more 
to a small shrine at the actual 
summit of the pass, 500 ft. higher, 
which marks the boundary of the 
provinces of Kotsuke and Echigo. 
In front mountain ridges, rising 
one behind the other, stretch away 
toward the horizon, the most 
prominent being Naeba-san to the 
W. of the Mikuni-toge. On the 
descent to the vill. of Shimizu, 
short-cuts may be availed of 
through the grass and trees. The 
remainder of the way is an almost 
mathematically straight Hne down 
an easy gradient between parallel 
ranges of hills to Nagasaki and 

Muika-machi (Inn, Ebisu-ya). 
This is a typical Echigo town, "with 
its arcaded pathways to keep a 
clear passage amid the deep snows 
of winter. 

[Passenger-boats go down the 
liver hence (an affluent of the 
Shinano-gawa) to Nagaoka (see 
Eoute 26), in 7 to 10 hours. 
They are uncomfortable, shoals 
and rapids numerous, and the 
stoppages tediously frequent. 
The jinriMsha road, 14 ri, is 
preferable. Hakkai-zan stands 
out conspicuously on the r. 
during a great part of the way.] 

Itinerary of the Mikuni-toge. 

Ri Cho. M. 

MUIKA-MACHI 3 14 8^ 

Shiozawa 31 2 

Seki 1 32 4^ 

Yuzawa 1 17 3| 

Mitsumata 2 5 5 J 

Futai 2 18 6 

Asakai 2 5 5 J 

Nagai 3 14 8| 

Saru-ga-kyo 22 l| 

Fuse 1 31 4J 

Nakayama 2 31 7 

IKAO (approximately) 5 — 12^ 

Total 28 4 68i 

The jinrikisha road from Muika- 
machi leads up a very gradual in- 
cUne to Ynzaioa, where the as- 
cent of the Mikuni-toge begins. 
Properly speaking, four passes are 
included under this general name, 
the first being the Shibahara-ioge, 
2,135 ft. above the sea. Descending 
to the bank of the Kiyotsu-gawa. 
we arrive at the vill. of Mitsumata, 
and mount again to reach the 
top of the Xakano-ioge, 2,800 ft., 
amidst lovely views of river, forest, 
and mountain. We now go down 
a little, and mount again to a height 
of 3,200 ft., whence far below is 
descried the vill. of Futai. A short 
descent then leads to Asakai, 
which stands at a height of 2,820 ft. 
in the midst of gentle sloj)es crown- 
ed by densely wooded siimmits. 
Here comes the ascent of the Mi- 
kuni Fass properly so called, 4,100 
ft. above the sea, whence are seen 
Akagi-san, Futago-yama, and 
Kwannon-dake to the S., and on 
the N. the long ridge of Naeba-san. 
Nagai stands in a picturesque 
gorge. A spiir of the hUls is cross- 
ed on the way to Saru-ga-kyo, 
where there are hot springs. The 
scenery beyond Fuse is magnificent, 
the way leading through a precipi- 
tous gorge to the top of the Kiri- 
ga-kuho-toge, 2,700 ft., at whose far 
side nestles the hamlet of Naka- 
yama. The path now rises by a 
gentle gradient over the moorland 
stretching between Komochi-zan 1., 
and Onoko-yama r., to the Naka- 
yama-toge, 2,170 ft., and comes in 
full view of the Haruna mountains, 
with Ikao perched far up above the 

The regular path descends 1. 
through Yokobori to Shibukawa, 
while ours diverges r., crossing the 
Agatsuma-gawa by ferry, and as- 
cending over open country to Ikao.. 

Houte lG.~T/ie Oyama-3Iaebashi Railway. 




The Oyama-]Maebashi Rail way. 





Is^l of 




TOKYO (Ueno). 

fSee Northern 



] Railway, 
( Boute 65. 









fAlight for 



j caves of 
( Izuru, 









(Koad to Nik- 



] ko by Wata- 
( rase-gawa. 








This line of railway, branching 
off from the Northern hne at Oya- 
ma, which is reached in 2i hrs. 
from Tokyo, traverses the provinces 
of Kotsuke and Shimotsuke. It 
affords an alternative, though 
longer, railway rovite from Tdkyo 
to Maebashi, and is the easiest way 
of reaching the hot springs of Ikao 
in one day from Nikko. The 
scenery is pretty aU along the 

Tochigi {Inns, Kana-han, Sasa- 
ya) is one of the most important 
towns in Shimotsuke. Its chief 
product is hempen thread. 

Sano {Inn, Saito), also called 
Temmyo, is a pretty and prosperous 
place. Its pubhc park hes close to 
the station. There also exist the 
ruins of a castle built by Hidesato 
about 900 years ago. 

Fi-om Tomita an excursion may 

be made, IJ ri, to the curious Hme- 
stone Caverns of Izuru, where 
a temple detlicated to Kwannon was 
founded by Shodo Shonin in the 
8th century. In these caves the 
saint is fabled to have taken up his 
abode, and passed three years in 
prayer and meditation. Jinrildshas 
are practicable most of the way 
From the vill. of Izuru, it is a walk 
of 2 did up a ravine to the cave 
called Daishi no Iwaya, the mouth 
of which hes high up amongst the 
precipitous rocks, and is only to be 
reached by ladders. Further on is 
the cave sacred to Kwannon, reach- 
ed by climbing over steep rocks 
with the assistance of chains, and 
then by ladders up to a platform 
on which stand images of Daikokii 
and Shodo Shdnin. The guide 
lights candles and shows the way 
into the cave, which contains a 
large stalactite supposed to resem- 
ble a back view of the body of 
Kwannon. The cave is evidently 
much deeper, but pOgiims do not 
usually go further in. Close by is 
a hollow in the rock, with two 
issues. The guide climbs up a 
ladder to the upper hole, gets inside, 
and after a minute or two appears' 
head first, out of the lower. Half a 
cho further is another cave, named 
after the god Dainichi Nyorai, and 
having two branches, — one about 
50 yds. deep, the other penetrating 
for an unknown distance into the 

Ashikag-a {Inn, Senkyo-kwan, 
with branch at station) is a great 
centre of the trade in native cot- 
ton and silk goods, the former, how- 
ever, mostly woven from foreign 

Ashikaga was celebrated for its Aca- 
demy of Chinese Learning (Ashikaga Gak- 
ko), the foundatioa of which institntion 
is traditionally ascribed to the eminent 
scholar Ono-no-Takamura (A.D.801— 852) 
It reached the zenith of its prosperity 
in the time of the Shoguns of the 
Ashikaga dynasty, its last great benefactor 
being Uesugi Norizane who died in 1573. 
This academy possessed a magnificent 
library of Chinese works, and was the 


Route 17. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 

chief centre of Chinese erudition and of 
the worship of Confucius, until the 
establishment of the Seido at Yedo 
(p. 126). Most of the books are now 
dispersed, but the image of Confucius 
still attracts visitors. 

Kiryu (Inn, Kaneki-ya) lies about 
2 ri from its station. The chief pro- 
ducts are crape, gauze, and habutai, 
a silk fabric reseDibhng taffety. The 
large ruanufactory here, called the 
Nippon Orimono Kwaisha, merits 
inspection. It is fra-nished with 
French machinery for the manufac- 
ture of satins in European style. 
A canal has been cut to bring water 
fi'om the neighbouring hills ex- 
pressly for the use of this factory. 

Omama (Inns, Hayashi-ro, at 
station ; Toyoda-kwan, in town) is 
situated near the foot of Akagi-san. 
The picturesque road from here to 
the copper mines of Ashio by the 
valley of the Watarase-gawa is de- 
scribed in Route 19. Omama itself 
is a long straggling town, and, like 
the other places on this railway 
route, of httle general interest, be- 
ing entirely devoted to sericidture. 
Inconvenience is caused by the 
fact that the railway station hes 
over 1 ri from the town. Travellers 
coming do-wTi the Watarase-gawa 
must allow for this. 

Maebashi, see p. 175. 

ROUTE 17. 

Nikko and Chuzenji. 

1. genekaii infoemation. 2. chief 
objects of inteeest. 3. objects 
of minor inteeest. 4. walks 
in the neighbotjehood. 5. chit- 
zenji and neighbottrhood. 6. 
yumoto. ascent of shieane-san 
and other mountains. 

1. — GENEEAii Information. 

A popular Japanese proverb says, 
" Do not use the word magnificent 
till you have seen Nikkd : " 

Nikko wo minai uchi tea, 
"Kekko " to iu na ! 
Nikko's is a double glory, — a glory 
of natiure and a glory of art. 
Mountains, cascades, monumental 
forest trees, had always stood there. 
To these, in the 17th century, were 
added the mausolea of the illustri- 
ous Shogun leyasu, founder of the 
Tokugawa dynasty, and of his 
scarcely less famous grandson le- 
mitsu. Japanese wood-carding 
and painting on w^ood being then 
at their zenith, the result was the 
most perfect assemblage of shrines 
in the whole land. But though 
there is gorgeousness, there is no 
gaudiness. That sobriety, which is 
the key-note of Japanese taste, 
gives to all the elaborate designs 
and bright colours its own chaste 

Properly speaking, Nikko is the 
name, not of any single place, 
but of a whole mountainous dis- 
trict lying about 100 miles to the 
N. of Tokyo. Nevertheless, when 
people speak of going to Nikko, 
they generally mean going to one 
of the villages called Uachi-ishi and 
Irimachi, between which stand the 
mausolea. Lying 2,000 ft. above 
the sea, Nikk5 is a delightful sum- 
mer resort, for which reason many 
foreign residents of Tokyo have 
villas there, or else at Chiizenji 
(4,385 ft.), 7J m. further on. The 
only drawback to the chmate is the 
fi'equent rain. Within a radius of 
15 miles there are no less than 
twenty-five or thirty pretty cas- 
cades. Nikkd is noted, among other 
things, for the glorious tints of its 
fohage in late October. 

Nikko is reached in 5 hrs. from 
Tokyd by the Northern Railway, car- 
riages being changed at Utsunomiya, 
where the Niklvo line branches off. 
Travellers from Yokohama change 
carriages previously at Shinagawa 
and Akabane ; but as these connec- 
tions often fail, time and trouble will 
probably be saved by going on to 
Shimbashi, and driving thence 
across Tokyo to Ueno station. 


1 ' 


• Tantuiiu 



Ikuu a 


t aqngtUtt 









Wliaaama ITT SUNOMIlCiJ--' 



General Information. 


Ntkko Beanch Line. 




-2 p5' 



ft ^ 


/ SeeNorth- 

TOKYO (Ueno) 

) ern Kail- 



) way.Route 



74 -i 







NIKKO (Hachi- 


TTie railway diverges to the W. 
in order to tap the Beiheishi KaidO 
at the thriving town of Kanuma. 
Following that highway lined 
with ancient cryptomerias, it does 
not come in sight of the other and 
still more imposing avenue {Nikko 
Kaido), 20 m. in length, which leads 
from Utstinomiya to Nikko, until 
Imaichi is reached, where the two 
roads join. 

The Reiheishi Kaido was so called, be- 
cause in old daj-s the Reiheishi, or Envoy 
of the Mikado, used to travel along it, 
bearing gifts from his Imperial master to 
be offered at the mausoleum of leyasu. 
Both avenues, though anciently contin- 
uous, now show many breaks, mostly 
the result of fires in hamlets along their 

Fine views of the Nikk5 moun- 
tains are obtained on the r. be- 
tween Utsunomiya and Togami ; 
later, Nantai-zan alone is seen 
towering above a lower range in 
the foreground. Then the lofty 
cryptomerias of the Reiheishi 
Kaido, close to which the railway 
runs, shut out the prospect until a 
break occurs 10 min. beyond 
Fubasami, when the whole motxn- 
tain mass appears to the 1. ahead. 

The village of Ilachi-ishi being a 
long one, and the railway only 
touching its lower end, there 
remains a stretch of 1^ m. to be 
done by jinriMsha from the station 
to the hotels. 

When leaving Nikko, travellers 

are recommended to take jinrikishas 
for the 4 m. leading to Imaichi 
station, as a means of seeing the 
great avenue, the servant or guide 
being meanwhile sent fi'om Nikko 
station with the luggage. 

Hotels. — *Kanaya Hotel, *Nikk5 
Hotel (Arai), both in European 
style ; Konishi-ya, Kamiyama, Jap. 
style. — Foreign stores and fresh 
meat can be obtained at Masuju in 
the vill., close to the Red Bridge. 

English Church. — Near the public 

Means of Conveyance. — " Chairs," 
kafjos, or saddle-horses can be 
taken to such places as are not 
accessible by jinriMsha. There is 
a fixed scale of charges. The tram- 
way running up the valley is not 
for passengers, but only for the 
private use of the Ashio Copper 
Mine (see p. 216). 

Ckiicles are in attendance at the 
hotels, and will aiTange for the 
purchase of tickets of admittance 
to the mausolea. Membership of 
the Hoko-kwai, or Nikko Preser- 
vation Society (5 yen), confers the 
permanent privilege of admission 
to all the temples without further 
fees. The mausolea of the Shdguns 
are open daily from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Visitors must remove their boots at 
the entrance to the main shrines. 

Nikko is a mart for skins of the 
badger, deer, marten, wild-boar, 
etc., and various pretty articles 
made of a black fossU wood {jindai- 
boku) brought from Sendai in the 
north. There are some excellent 
curio shops. 

History. — The range of mountains 
known as Nikko-zan lies on the N. W. 
boundary of the province of Shimotauke. 
The original name was Futa-ara-yama, 
which, when written with Chinese ideo- 
graphs, may also be pronounced Xi-ko- 
zan. According to the popular account, 
the name was derived from periodical 
hurricanes in spring and autumn, which 
issued from a great cavern on Nantai-zan, 
the mountain to the N. E. of Chuzenji. 
In A. D. 820 Kobo Daishi visited the spot, 
made a road to the neighbourhood of the 
cavern and changed the name of the 
range to NLkko-zan, or " Mountains of the 
Sun's Brightness," from which moment 


Route 17. — NikTco and Chuzenji. 

the storms ceased to devastate the country. 
Another explanation of the name Futa- 
ara-yama, is that it means "The Two 
Baging ilountains," in allusion to the two 
volcanoes which form part of it, viz, 
Nantai-zan, and Shirane-san heyond Yu- 
moto. But though the latter breaks out 
at frequent intervals, no eruptions have 
taken place from Nantai-zan within 
memory of man. 

From the earliest ages of which any 
trustworthy record remains, a Shinto 
temple existed at Nikko, which was after- 
wards removed to Utsuuomiya. In the 
year 767, the first Buddhist temple was 
erected by the saint Shodo Shonin. Later 
on, in the beginning of the 9th century, 
Kobo Daishi, and in the middle of the 
same century the abbot Jigaku Daishi, 
added to the holy places. The following 
account of Shodo Shonin is summarised 
from a memoir written by his immediate 
disciples. He was born at Takaoka near 
the E. boundary of Shimotsuke, in the 
year 735. His parents had long desired 
to have a son, and at last their wish was 
granted by the Thousand-Handed Kwan- 
non of the Izuru Caves, to whom they 
had prayed for offspring. Various 
portents accompanied his birth : loud 
thunder was heard, a miraculous cloud 
hung over the cottage, flowers fell from 
heaven into the courtyard, and a strange 
perfume filled the air. From his earliest 
years the saint was devoted to the wor- 
ship of the gods, and amused himself by 
raising toy pagodas and shrines of earth 
and stones. In his twentieth year he 
secretly quitted his father's house, and 
took up his abode in the cave of the 
Thousand-Handed Kwannon at Izuru. 
After passing three years in prayer and 
meditation, he dreamt in mid-winter 
of a great mountain N. of Izuru, on the 
top of which lay a sword more than 3 
ft. in length. On awaking, he left the 
cave, and endeavoured to make his way 
in the direction indicated ; but the deep 
snow opposed ditficulties almost insur- 

mountable. Vowing to sacrifice his life 
rather than abandon the enterprise, he 
persevered, and at last reached a point 
from which he beheld the object of his 
search. Ascending to the top of the 
mountain, he gave himself up to austere 
discipline, living on fruits which were 
brought to him by a supernatural being. 
After thus jiassing three more years, he 
returned to Izuru, and in 762 visited the 
temple of Yakushi-ji, not far from Ishi- 
bashi on the Oshu Kaido, where, meeting 
some Chinese priests, he was admitted by 
them as a novice. He remained in the 
monastery for five years, and then 
returned to the mouatain now called 
Kobu-ga-hara. From its summit he be- 
held, on the range to the N., four 
miraculous clouds of different colours 
rising straight up into the sky, and he 
at once set off to reach them, carrying 
his holy books and images in a bundle on 
his back. On reaching the spot whence 
the clouds had seemed to ascend, he 
found his advance barred by a broad 
river, which poured its torrent over huge 
rocks and looked utterly impassable. 
The saint fell upon his knees and prayed, 
whereupon there appeared on the opposite 
bank a divine being of colossal size, 
dressed in blue and black robes, and 
having a string of skulls hung round his 
neck. This being cried out that he would 
help him to pass the stream, as he had 
once helped the Chinese pilgrim Hstian 
Chuang across the Eiver of Flowing Sand. 
With this promise, he flung across the 
river two green and blue snakes which 
he held in his right hand, and in an 
instant a long bridge was seen to span 
the waters, like a rainbow floating among 
the hills ; but when the saint had crossed 
it and reached the northern bank, both 
the god and the snake-bridge suddenly 
vanished. Having thus attained the ob- 
ject of his desires, Shodo Shonin built 
himself a hut wherein to practise his 
religious exercises. One night a man 
appeared to him in a vision, and told him 

Index to Plan of Nikk5 Temples. 

1. Mangwanji. 

2. Public Park. 

3. Pagoda. 

4. O Kari-den. 

5. Ni-5-morL. 

6. Sacred Store-houses. 

7. Sacred Stable. 

8. Holy-water Cistern. 

9. Kyozo. 

10. Bell-tower. 

11. Temple of Yakushi. 

12. Yomei-mon. 

13. Kagura Stage. 

14. Goma-do. 

15. ]VlLkoslu-do. 

16. Kara-mon. 

17. Honden. 

18. Tomb of leyasu. 

19. Futa-ara Jinja. 

20. Futatsu-do. 

21. Tomb of Jigen Daishi. 

22. Ryuko-ia. 

23. Ni-o-mon. 

24. Holy-water Cistern. 

25. Niten-mon. 

26. Yasha-mon. 

27. Honden. 

28. Tomb of lemitsu. 

iUot <-»»c V.511 

TloJcli; />;o/J TViQ rioT-t QliV.r.f 

SO lower aown me sireaui, is u. 

called Hotoke-iwa, and the mansoleum , n j « m t, • i 

was commeuced in December of the same so-called _ iemporary Undge 





^%iri[ff . - fills 



5. Ni-o-mon. 

I 19 Fiitn-arft .Tini 

History. Red Bridge. 


that the hill rising to the north was called 
the Mount of the Four Gods, and was 
inhabited liy the Aziire Dragon, the Ver- 
million Bird, tlic White Tiger, and the 
Sombre Warrior, who respectively occu- 
pied its E., S., W., and N. peaks. He 
climbed the hill, and found that he had 
arrived at the goal of hi.s journey ; for 
there were the four clouds which he had 
originally set out to seek, rising up around 
him. He proceeded accordingly to build 
a shrine, which he named the Monastery 
of the Four Dragons {Shi-him-ryu-ji). In 
the year 767 he resolved to ascend the 
highest peak of the group, and after duly 
preparing himself by religious exercises, 
he set out upon this new enterprise. After 
ascending for a distance of over 40 ri 
(probably the ancient ri, of which 1 = 1 
mile), he came to a great lake (Vhuzenji) 
on the flank of the mountain (Nant'ai- 
zan) : but in spite of his prayers found it 
impossible to proceed any further, on 
account of the deep snow and the terrific 
peals of thunder which roared about the 
mountain ti>p. He therefore retraced his 
steijs to Nikko, where he spent fourteen 
years in fitting himself, by the repetition 
of countless prayers and the performance 
of penances, for the task which he was 
unwilling to abandon. In 781 he renewed 
the attempt unsuccessfully, but in the 
following year he finally reached the sum- 
mit, accompanied by some of his dis- 
ciples. It seemed to him a region such 
as gods and other supernatural beings 
would naturally choose for their re8id(n(^e, 
and he therefore erected a Buddhist 
temple called Chiizenji, in which he 
placed a life-size image of the Thousand- 
handed Kwannon, and close by it a 
Shinto temple in honour of the Gongen of 
Nikko. He also built a shrine to the 
" Great King of the Deep Sand " {Jinja 
Dai-o) at the point where he had crossed 
the stream. .Sh(5do Shonin died in 817 in 
the odour of sanctity. Manr}ivaiiji or IHn- 
noji is the modern name of the monastery 
founded by him at Nikko. 

In A. D. IGIG. when Jigen Daishi was 
abbot, the second Shogun of the Toku- 
gawa dynasty, acting on the dying in- 
junctions of his father leyasu, sent two 
high officials to Nikko to choose a resting- 
place for his father's body, which had 
been temporarily interred at Kuno-zan, a 
beautiful spot near Shizuoka on the To- 
kaido. They selected a site on a hill 
called Hotoke-iwa, and the mausoleum 
was commenced in December of the same 
year. The mortuary shrine and some of 
the surrounding edifices were completed 
in the epriiig of the succeeding year, "ud 
on the "JOth April the procession bearing 
the corpse started from Kuno-zan reach- 
ing Nikko on the 8th May. The <-offin 
was deposited in the tomb, with impres- 
sive Buddhist services in which both the 
reigning Shogun and an .jnvoy from the 
Mikado took part. In the year 1C44 Jigon 

Daishi died. The next abbot was a court 
noble, the next to him was a son of the 
Emperor Go-Mizuno-o, since which time 
down to the revolution of 18G8 the abbot 
of Nikko was always a prince of the Im- 
perial blood. He usually resided at Ueno 
in Yedo, and visited Nikko three times 

The great annual festival is held 
on the 1st and 2nd June. The 
sacred palanquins (mikoshi) con- 
taining the divine symbols are then 
borne in procession, when ancient 
costumes, masks, and armour are 
donned by the villagers, old and 
young alike taking part in the dis- 
l^lay. Another, but less elaborate, 
ceremonial is observed on the 17th 

2. — Chief Objects of Intekest. 

On isstiing from the upper end of 
the village, one of the first objects 
to arrest attention is the Mi- 
hashi, a Eed Bridge spanning the 
Daiya-gawa, a stream about 40 ft. 
wide between the stone walls which 
here confine its course. The bridge 
is supported on stone piers of great 
sohdity, fixed into the rocks be- 
tween which the stream flows, and 
its colour forms a striking contrast 
to the deep gi'een of the cryi)to- 
merias on the opposite bank. 

It was formerly closed to all persons 
except the Shogun, save twice a year 
when it was oijened to iiilgrims. It stiiuds 
on the spot wliere, according to the legend 
above related Shodo Shonin crossed the 
river. His hut stood on the site overlook- 
ing it, now occupied by the Kanaya 

The present structure, which is 
84 ft. long and 18 ft. wide, was built 
in 1638 and last repaired in 1892. 
The gates at each end are kept con- 
stantly closed. Forty yanls or 
so lower down the stream, is the 
so-called "Temporary Bridge" 
(Kari-bashi), which is open to or- 
dinary mortals. Crossing this 
and tiuning to the 1., the Aisitor 
ascends o, paved slope through a 
grove of cryptomerias, and reaches 
the enclosure in which formerly 
stood the Ilombd, or Abbot's Palace. 
This is commonly spoken of as 


Route 17. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 

Mangwanji or Rinnoji, names 
■which, however, properly denote 
all the Nikko temple buildings 
collectively. The road to be taken 
skirts the S. v^^all of this en- 
closure, and then follows its W. 
side. On the 1. of the avenue is the 
Choyo-kwan, formerly used for the 
reception of grandees of the Toku- 
gawa family, but now the summer 
residence of the young Imperial 
Princesses, Tstine - no - Miya and 

Within the Mangwanji enclosure 
stands the Sambutsu-do, or Hall of 
the Three Buddhas, so called from 
gigantic gUt images of the 
Thousand-handed Kwannon r., 
Amida in the centre, and the 
Horse-headed Kwannon 1., which 
are enshrined behind the main 
altar. There are other images, and 
a beautiful silk mandara of Dai- 
nichi Nyorai and the 36 Buddhas. 

Turning towards the pretty Land- 
scape Garden, one sees at the back 
of the Sambutsu-d5 a row of 
small painted images, among which 
Fudo and his followers, coloured 
bhie, occupy the place of honour. 
Close by is a pillar called Sorinto, 
erected in 1G43 for the sake, it 
is said, of averting evil infliaences. 
It consists of a cylindrical 
copper column 42 ft. high, of a 
black colour, supported by hori- 
zontal bars crossing through its 
centre, which rest on shorter col- 
umns of the same material. The 
top is adorned mth a series of four 
cups shaped like lotus-flowers, fi'om 
the petals of which depend smaU 
bells. Just beneath the lowest of 
these cups are four small me- 
dallions, with the Tokugawa crest 
of three asaruni leaves (aoi no mon 
or mitsu-aoi). Notice the two fine 
bronze lanterns. On the opposite 
side of the road is the new Public 
Park, in Japanese style. 

Mausoleum of leyasu. As- 
cending some broad steps between 
two rows of cryptomerias, we come 
to the gi'anite torii presented by 
the Daimyo of Chikuzen from his 
own quarries in the year 1618. Its 
total height is 27 ft. 6 in., and the 
diameter of the columns is 3 ft. 6 
in. The inscription on the columns 
merely records the fact of their 
presentation and the name of the 
donor. On the 1. is a five-storied 
pagoda of graceful form, painted 
in harmonious colours. It rises to 
a height of 104 ft., and the roofs 
measure 18 ft. on each side. This 
monument was the offering in 1659 
of Sakai Wak;Tsa-no-Kami, one of 
the chief supporters of the Toku- 
gawa family. Eound the lower 
storey are life-like painted carvings 
of tie twelve signs of the zodiac. 
Opposite the pagoda, and standing 
amidst the trees to the r. of the 
steps, is the Kari-den, a building 
used to hold the image of leyasu 
whenever the main temple is under 
repair. From the torii, a pavement 
leads to the bottom of the steps 

Mausoleum of leyasu. 


crowned by the Ni-o-mon, or Gate of 
the Two Kings. The gigantic figures 
of these gods, which formerly 
occupied the niches on the outside 
of this gate, have been removed, 
and their places taken by gilt Awa- 
inu and Koma-inu. On the tops of 
the pillars, at the four external 
angles, are representations of a 
mythological animal called baku. 

One of the most ancient Chinese 
classical books says of this animal : "In 
shape it resembles a goat : it has nine 
tails, four ears, and its eyes are on its 
back." According to another authority. 
" It resembles a wolf, with the trunk of 
an elephant, the eyes of a rhinoceros, the 
tail of a bull, and the leg.s of a tiger." It 
is credited with the power to avert evil, 
and is therefore sometimes depicted in 
gold lacquer on the pillows used by the 
nobility, because it will be able to devour 
any bad dreams that may pass before 
their sleeping eyes. 

The heads on the central pillars of 
the two outer ends of the structure 
are hons ; in the niches r. and 1. of 
the Hon at one end are unicorns, 
and in the corresponding niches at 
the other end are fabuloiis beasts 
called takujil, which are supposed 
to be endowed with the power of 
speech, and only to appear in the 
world when a virtuous sovereign 
occupies the throne. The doorways 
are ornamented with elephants' 
heads ; the first portico has hons 
and peonies, and the second tigers. 
The interiors of the niches on the 
outside of the gateway are decorated 
with tapirs and peonies, those on 
the inside niches with bamboos. 
The carvings of tigers under the 
eaves on the interior side of the 
gateway are excellent. Notice also 
the fine old bronze flower-vases 
from Luchu. 

Passing through the gateway, the 
visitor finds himself in a com-tyard 
raised high above the approach, 
and enclosed by a timber wall 
painted bright red. The three 
handsome buildings arranged in a 
zigzag are storehouses, where 
various utensils employed in the 
religious ceremonies performed in 
honour of leyasu, pictures, furni- 

ture, and other articles used by him 
during his life-time, and many other 
treasures belonging to the temple, 
are deposited. The third is re- 
markable for two curious painted 
carvings of elephants in rehef in 
the gable of the nearest end, which 
are ascribed to Hidari Jingoro, the 
drawing having been made by the 
celebrated artist Tan-yu. It will be 
noticed that the joints of the hind- 
legs are represented bent in the 
wrong direction. 

On the 1. of the gate stands a 
conifer of the species called koya- 
maki, surrounded by a stone 

Some say that this is the identical tree 
which leyasu was in the habit of carrying 
about with him in his palanquin, when it 
was still small enough to be held in a 

Close to this tree is a stable for 
the sacred white pony kept for the 
use of the god. This gateway, like 
the others to be noticed fiirther on, 
is beautifully carved. 

Over the doors are some cleverly 
executed groujjs of monkeys, for 
whose signification see Koshin (p. 
50). A very interesting object is 
the On Chozu-ya, containing a holy- 
water cistern made of one sohd 
piece of granite, and sheltered by a 
roof supported on twelve square pil- 
lars of the same mateiial. It was 
erected in 1618. The pediment of 
the roof contains a pair of -winged 
dragons, carved in wood and paint- 
ed. The beautifully decorated 
building beyond the holy-water 
basin is called the Kyozo, and is 
the depository of a complete col- 
lection of the Budtlhist scriptures, 
contained in a fine revolving octa- 
gonal book-case with red lacquer 
panels and gilt pillars. In front are 
smihng figiares of Fu Daishi and his 
sons (see p. 47), whence the name 
of Warai-do popiilarly apphed to 
this edifice. Paintings of angels 
on a gilt ground occupy the clere- 
story of the interior, txx the centre 
of the court stands a fine bronze 
torii, with the Tokugawa crest in 


Route 17. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 

gold on the tops of the pillars and 
on the tie-beam. 

A flight of steps gives access to 
a second court, along the fi'ont of 
which runs a stone balustrade. 
Just inside are two stone hons in 
the act of leaping down, presented 
by lemitsu. On the r. stand a bell- 
tower, a bronze candelabrum pre- 
sented by the King of Luchu, 
and a bell given by the king of Ko- 
rea, called the " Moth-eaten Bell," 
because of there being a hole in the 
top, just under the ring by which it 
is suspended. On the 1. stand a 
bronze lantern fi'oni Korea, a can- 
delabrum from Holland, and a 
dritm-tower. no unworthy compan- 
ion to the bell-tower opposite. (Be 
it remarked that Holland, Korea, 
and Luchu were considered to be 
Japan's three vassal states.) The 
lantern is a line and sohd piece of 
workmanship ; but its style and 
construction indicate that it does 
not owe its origin to Korea. The 
two candelabra and the lantern, as 
well as the bronze candle-brackets 
fixed upon the interior wall of the 
couil, r. and 1. of the steps, probably 
came from Europe through Dutch 
or Portuguese traders. Tm-o iron 
standard lanterns on the r. of the 
steps, presented by Date Masa- 
mune, Daimyo of Sendai, and the 
same number on the 1. given by the 
Daimyo of Satsuma, merit atten- 
tion. They are dated 1641. The 
total number of lanterns contribut- 
ed by various Daimyos is one 
hundred and eighteen. 

At the 1. extremity of this same 
platform stands the Temple of 
Yakushi, dedicated to Horaiji Mine- 
no-Yakushi, the imtron saint of 
leyasu, for which reason its Bud- 
dhist emblems have been left intact, 
while Shintd influence has more or 
less modihed the other shiines 
during the present reign. A native 
guide-book tiiily remarks, " Though 
the exterior of this temple is but 
ordinary black and red, the orna- 
mentation of the interior has no 
parallel in Nikk5." It is a blaze of 

gold and harmonious coloirrs. On 
either side of the altar stand images 
of the Shi-Tenn5, flanked by Yaku- 
shi's twelve followers. The monster 
dragon in sepia occupying the whole 
ceiling is by Kano Yasunobu. 

Proceeding towards the steps that 
lead up to the platform on which 
stands the exquisitely beautiful gate 
called Yomei-mon, observe the fence 
on either side, with fine medaUions 
of mountain birds in the upper pan- 
els, and water-fowl in the lower. 
The columns supporting the gate 
are carved with a minute geometri- 
cal pattern, and painted white. The 
marking of the hair on the two 
tigers (moku-me no tora) in the 
central medallion of the 1. hand 
pillar, is obtained from the natural 
vein of the wood. The pillar next 
beyond has the i)attern carved 
upside down, which was done pur- 
posely, o-wing to a superstitious 
notion that the flawless perfection 
of the whole structure might bring 
misfortune on the House of Toku- 
gawa by exciting the jealousy of 
Heaven. It is called the Ma-yoke 
no Hasldra, or Evil-Averting 
Pillar. The side niches are lined 
with a pattern of graceful arabes- 
ques founded ujaon the peony; those 
on the outside contain the images 
called Sadaijin and Udaijin, armed 
with bows and caiTying quivers full 
of arrows on their backs ; the inner 
niches have Ama-inu and Koma- 
inu. The capitals of the columns 
are formed of iinicorns' heads. The 
architrave of the second storey 
is adorned -with white dragons' 
heads where the cross-beams inter- 
sect, and in the centre of each side 
and end is a magnificently involved 
dragon "with golden claws. Above 
the architrave of the lower storey, 
projects a balcony which runs all 
round the building. The railing is 
formed of children at play {Kara- 
ko-asohl) and other subjects. Below 
again are grouj)s of Chinese sages 
and immortals. The roof is sup- 
ported by gilt dragons' heads ^ith 
gaping ciimson throats, and from 

Mausoleum and Tomb cf leyasu. 


the top a demon looks down. The 
Indian ink drawings of dragons on 
the ceilings of the two porticoes are 
by Tan-yu. 

Passing through the Yomei-mon, 
we enter a third court in which 
the Buddhist priests used to recite 
their Hturgies at the two great 
annual festivals. Of the two build- 
ings on the r., one contains a stage 
for the performance of the sacred 
kaijura dances, and in the other, 
called Goma-do, was an altar for 
burning the fragrant cedar while 
prayers were recited. On the 1. is 
the Mikoshi-do, containing the 
palanquins borne in procession on 
the 1st June, when the deified 
spirits of leyasu, Hideyoshi, and 
Yoiitomo are supposed to occuiDy 
them. So heavy are they that each 
requires seventy- five men to carry 
it. By the side of the Mikoshi-do 
there is an exhibition of relics con- 
nected with leyasu. 

The next object of interest is the 
Kara-mon, or Chinese Gate. It 
gives admittance to the main 
shrine, the enclosure being sur- 
roiinded by the tamagaki, or fence, 
forming a quadrangle each side of 
which is 50 yds. long, and is con- 
structed of gilt trellis with borders 
of coloured geometrical designs. 
Above and beneath these again are 
carvings of birds in gi'oups, about 
8 in. high and 6 ft. long, ^^dth back- 
grounds of grass, carved in relief 
and gilt. The pillars of the Kara- 
mon are composed of Chinese 
woods inlaid with great skill and 
beauty, the subjects being the 
plum-tree, dragon, and bamboo. 
The two white figures under the 
roof are Chinese sages, while the 
lower row represents the Emperor 
Gyo (Yao), the founder of the 
Chinese monarchy, suiTounded by 
his court. The folding-doors of 
the llonden, or oratory, are lavishly 
decorated -with arabesques of peo- 
nies in gilt relief. Over the door and 
windows of the front, are nine com- 
]5artments tilled with birds carved 
in relief, four on each side of the 

building ; and there are four more 
at the back, on each side of the 
corridor leading to the chapel. The 
interior is a large matted room, 
42 ft. long by 27 ft. deej), with an 
ante-chamber at each end. That 
on the r., which was intended for 
the Shogun, contains pictures of 
lions on a gold ground, and four 
carved oak panels of phoenixes 
which at first sight seem to be in 
low rehef, but prove, on closer 
examination, to be figures formed of 
various woods glued on to the 
surface of the panel. The rear 
compartment of the ceihng is of 
carved wood, with the Tokugawa 
crest in the centre surrounded by 
phoenixes and chrysanthemums. 
The opposite ante-chamber has the 
same number of panels, the sub- 
jects of which are eagles executed 
with much spirit, and a carved and 
painted ceihng with an angel sur- 
rounded by chrysanthemums. The 
gold paper gohei at the back of the 
oratory, and a circular mirror are 
the only ornaments left, the Bud- 
dhist bells, gongs, sutras, and so 
forth, having been removed. Two 
wide steps at the back lead down 
into the Stone Chamber, so called 
because paved with stone under the 
matted wooden floor. The ceihng 
consists of square panels, with gold 
di'agons on a blue ground. Beyond 
are the gilt doors of the chapel, 
which is divided into four apart- 
ments not accessible to visitors. 
The first, called Meiden, where 
the offerings are presented, is a 
chastely decorated chamber having 
a coffered ceiling with phoenixes 
diversely designed, and carved 
beams and pillars of plain wood. 
In it stand gilt and sUken gohei, 
a gift of the present Emperor. 

To reach leyasu' s Tomb, w'e issue 
again from the Kara-mon, and pass 
between the Goma-do and Kagura- 
do to a door in the E. side of the 
gallery. Over this door is a carving 
called the JVemuri no Neko, or 
Sleeping Cat, one of Hidari Jin- 
goro's most famous works, though 


Route 17. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 

some visitors will be disappointed 
at its insigniiicanee amidst so much 
grandeur. From this a moss-grown 
stone gallery and several steep 
flights — of about two hundred steps 
altogether — lead to the tomb on the 
bin behind. After passing through 
the iorii at the top of the last 
flight, we reach another oratory 
used only when that below is undei-- 
going repair's. The tomb, shaped 
like a small pagoda, is a single 
bronze casting of a light colour, 
produced, it is said, by the admix- 
ture of gold. In front stands a low 
stone table, bearing an immense 
bronze stork ^vith a brass candle in 
its mouth, an incense-burner of 
bronze, and a vase with artificial 
lotus-flowers and leaves in brass. 
The whole is surrounded by a stone 
wall surmounted by a balustrade, 
the entrance being through a bronze 
gate not open to the pubUc, the roof 
of which, as well as the gate itself, 
is a sohd casting. Before it sit 
bronze Koma-lmi and Ama-inu. 

On leaving the mausoleum of 
leyasu, we turn to the r. at the bot- 
tom of the steps, and pass along 
the avenue iinder the wall to the 
open space through the to7'ii, where 
stands r. the Shinto temple of 
Futa-ara Jinja, dedicated to the god 

When Shodo Shonin, in A. D. 782, 
reached the top of Nantai-zan, the tute- 
lary deities of the region appeared to 
him, and promised to watch over the 
welfare of human beings and the progress 
of Buddhism. These were the god 
Onamuji, the goddess Tagori-hime his 
wife, and their son Ajisuki-taka-hikone. 
Japan is believed to have been saved on 
many occasions from the perils of civil 
war and invasion by the intervention of 
these divine beings, who are styled the 
"Three Original Gongen of Nikko ;"' and 
local tradition avers that it was owing to 
the efficacy of the prayers here oii'ered 
that the Mongol invaders in the second 
half of the 13th century were repulsed 
with such terrible loss. The chief festival 
of the temple is held on the 17th April. 

In the prettily decorated Honden 
behind, various antiqiie objects, 
such as swords, vestments, lacquer, 
magatama, etc. are exhibited. 

In one corner of the enclosure 
stands a bronze lantern called the 
Bakemono Toro, presented in 1292. 

This lantern owes its name to the tradi- 
tion that it anciently had the power of 
taking the form of a demon, and annoy- 
ing the iuhabitants of the locality on 
dark nights, until a courageous man 
attacked it, and with his sword gave it a 
wound which is still visible on the cap. 

Turning to the 1. and descend- 
ing, we perceive two red-lacquered 
bmldings {Futatsu-do), standing 
together and connected by a cover- 
ed gallery. The smaller is dedi- 
cated to Kishi Bojin and Fugen 
Bosatsu, the larger to Aniida. 
Bound the sides of the interior are 
ranged a number of Buddhist im- 
ages. It is also called Yoritomo- 
do, because here are preserved the 
bones of Yoritomo, which were 
discovered near the site of the Ni- 
o-mon gate of leyasu's mausoleum 
about the year 1617. 

How this statement is to be reconciled 
with the existence of Yoritomo's tomb at 
Kamakura (see p. 101), must be left to 
archseologists to determine. 

Passing under the gallery which 
connects these temples, and going 
up the avenue, we come to the 
resting-place of Jigen Baishi, other- 
wise called Tenkai Daisojo, abbot 
of Nikkd at the time of leyasu's 
interment. There is the usual 
mortuary shiine in front ; the tomb 
is a massive stone structure of stupa 
shape, guarded by life-size stone 
effigies of the Buddhist gods called 
collectively Roku-bu-Ten. To the 
1., up a small flight of steps, are the 
unpretending tombs of the prince- 
abbots of Nikko, thirteen in num- 

Mausoleum, of lemitsu. The 
building seen to the r., before we 
mount the great stone staircase, is 
Ryuko-in, the residence of the 
priests attached to this temple. The 
first gate leading towards the mau- 
soleum is a Ni-o-mon containing 
two pairs of INi-o, those in the 
niches of the inner side having been 
removed hither from the gate of 

Mausoleum of lemitsu. Minor Sights. 


leyasii's mausoleiini. Under a 
beautiful structure r., supported by 
granite pillars, is a massive granite 
water-basin. The dragon on the 
ceiling is by Kan5 Yasunobu. 
A flight of steps leads to the gate 
caUed Niten-mon. The niches on 
the outside contain a red statue of 
Komoku on the 1., and on the r. a 
green one of Jikoku, while the 
inside niches are tenanted by the 
Gods of Wind and Thunder. 
Three more flights conduct ns to 
the Vasha-mon, or Demon Gate, 
whose niches contain the Shi-Tennd. 
Turning round, we have before us 
an exquisite view of foliage. 

The oratory and chapel of this 
mausoleum are less magnificent 
than those of leyasu. The former 
is crowded with the insignia of 
Buddhism. Two large horn lanterns 
pointed out as Korean are evidently 
Dutch. The Tomb is reached by 
flights of steps up the side of the 
hill on the r. of the chapel. It is of 
bronze, and in the same style as 
that of leyasu, but of a darker hue. 
The gates in front, likewise of 
bronze, are covered with large San- 
skrit characters in shining brass. 

3. — Objects of Minok Inteeest. 

Besides the mausolea of the 
Shoguns, there are various objects 
at Nikkd possessing a lesser degree 
of interest. All are within a short 
distance of the great temples, and 
may be combined within the limits 
of a forenoon. One of these is the 
Hongu, a temple dedicated to the 
Shinto god Ajisuld-taka-hikone, 
whose name imphes that he was 
mighty mth the spade. This temple 
was built by Shodo Shonin in A.D. 
808, close to the Buddhist monas- 
tery which he had founded. It is 
reached by ascending the stone 
steps that face the end of the 
bridge, and then turning to the 
right. The small temple, near the 
three-storied pagoda in the same 
enclosure, is dedicated to the Horse- 
headed Kwannon. 

About 4" hr. walk from the Hon- 
gu, up the Inari-kawa valley to the 
r. of leyasu's mausoleum, stands 
the 8an-no-miya, a small red 
shrine surrounded by a stone 
balustrade. Women here offer up 
pieces of wood, similar in shape 
to those used in the Japanese 
game of chess, in the belief that 
this will enable them to pass safe- 
ly through the perils of childbirth. 
Beside it is the Kaisan-do, a red- 
lacquered building 36 ft. square, 
dedicated to Shodo Shonin, the 
•' pioneer of the mountain," as the 
name implies. Peeping through 
the grating which forms the window 
on the E. side, we see an image of 
Jizo occupying a lofty position, with 
the efdgy of the saint below, and 
those of ten disciples ranged r. and 
1. Behind are the tombs of the 
saint and three of his disciples. 
At the base of the rugged and pre- 
cipitous rock at the back of the 
Kaisan-do are some rude Buddhist 
images, from which the hill takes 
its name of Holoke-iwa. On the 
summit of this hill stands the tomb 
of leyasu. Proceeding along the 
stone-paved avenue, we pass a small 
shrine sacred to Tenjin. A large 
stone close to the path on the r., 
just beyond this, is called the Te- 
kake-ishi, or Hand-touched Stone, 
said to have been sanctified by the 
imposition of Kobd Daishi's hands. 
Fragments of it are valued as a 
protection against noxious in- 
fluences. Further on is a stone 
bearing a half-efliaced inscription, 
erected over the spot where lies the 
horse which carried leyasu at the 
decisive battle of Seki-ga-hara, in 
the year 1600. After the death of 
the master whom he had borne ta 
victory, the horse was set free in 
the mountains of Nikko, and died 
in 1630. The next object to be 
noticed is an immense cryptomeria, 
7 ft. in diameter a little above the 
base, called the li-mori no sugi, 
from the supposed resemblance to a 
heap of boiled rice which its 
pendent branches present. The 


Route 17. — Nikko and Ghuzevji. 

tree is said to have been planted by 
a deputation representing 800 
BiiddMst nuns of the proYince of 
Wakasa. Close to the path on the 
1. is the Somen-ga-taki, or Vermicelli 
Cascade, so called fi-om a fancied 
likeness to a bowl of that food. 
Another and prettier name given to 
it is Shira-ito, " White Thread." 

A short way beyond stands the 
temple of Takino-o, founded at the 
beginning of the 9 th century, 
and dedicated to Tagori-Hime. 
The curiosities of this spot — a fa- 
vourite one for short picnics — are 
the Sam-hon Sufji, three sacred 
cryptomeria trees enclosed by a 
palisade ; the pool called Sake no 
Izumi, fi'om a tradition that pure 
sake once welled up fi'om it, as 
water does at the present day ; and 
a large stone, the KG-dane-isfd, to 
which prayers for offspring are 
offered up by the childless. 

A pleasant way back to the 
hotels leads by the path (seen 
on the 1. just below Romen-ga-taM, 
as we came up the avenue) over 
the ravine to Futa-ara Jinja. At 
the top of the ravine stands a 
small shidne called the Gijoja-dd, 
where iron sandals ^ndth strings of 
twisted iron are hung up by pilgrims 
who pray for the muscular develop- 
ment of their lower Kmbs. The 
path leading up behind the Gyoja-do 
is that taken for the ascent of 
Nyoho-zan described on p. 208. 

4. — WAiiKS rs" THE Xkighboue- 


1. The Public Garden [Koen- 
chi) and other fine landscape gar- 
dens in Japanese style, — all ^vithin 
a few minutes of the hotels. 

2. Gamraan-ga-fuclii. About 
20 min. walk from the bridge, along 
the coui'se of the Daiya-gawa, is a 
deep pool called G-amman-ga-f uchi. 
A hut has been erected here close 
to the boiling eddies, opposite to a 
precipitous rock on which is en- 
gi'aved the Sanskrit word Maimnam. 
It seems impossible that any one 

should have been able to get across 
to perform the work, and so it is 
ascribed to Kobo Daishi, who ac- 
complished the feat by throwing 
his pen at the rock. But there is 
authority for attributing it to a 
disciple of Jigen Daishi, only two 
centiuies ago. On the r. bank of 
the river stand a large number of 
images of Amida ranged in a long 
row, many of them, alas I mutilat- 
ed thirty years ago by native van- 

It is asserted that they always count 
up difleiently, however often the attempt 
be made, — a belief bearinsc a curious 
resemblance to the superstition which 
prevailed regarding the Druidical stones 
in various parts of Euglaud. The largest 
of these images was some years ago wash- 
ed down the river by a flood as far as 
Imaichi, arriving there in perfect safety. 
It now stands at the E. end of that town, 
with its face towards Niklio, wearing a 
pink bib and receiving much adoration 
from the country folk. 

3. Dainichi-do, just beyond 
Gamman-ga-fuchi, on the 1. bank 
of the liver, merits a visit for 
the sake of its prettily arranged 
garden. The water rising from a 
spring in one of the artificial ponds, 
is considered the purest in the 
neighbourhood of Nikko. 

4. Toyama. The nearest emi- 
nence fiom which an extensive ■siew 
of the plain can be obtained is To- 
yama, a hill rising up somewhat 
in the form of a huge animal cou- 
chant on the 1. bank of the Inari- 
gawa, which flows down by the 
side of the temples. Fi-om the 
bridge to the top is | hr. climb. 
The last bit of the ascent is steep. 
The large mountain seen on the 
extreme 1. is Keicho-zan, also called 
Takahara-yama ; right oiDposite is 
the long ridge of Haguro-yama. 
Tsukuba's double peak is unmis- 
takable. Turning round, we see 
the whole of the magnificent range 
formed by Nantai-zan, 0-3Ianago, 
Ko-ilanago, Nyoh5-zan, and Aka- 

5. Kirifuri-no-taki, or the 
llist-falling Cascade. By taking a 
wide sweep round the base of To- 

Walks near Nikko. 


yama and over tmdnlating country 
to the S., this cascade may be 
reached in 1\ hr. A tea-house on 
the hill above commands a pictiar- 
esqiie view of the fall ; and from 
the top of a knoll just beyond the 
tea-house, a grand view is obtained 
of the country towards the E., S., 
and W. A steep and rough path 
leads down to the foot, where 
the fall is seen to better advantage. 

6. Makkura-daki, or Pitch- 
dark Cascade. On leaving Kirifuri, 
we retrace the path for a few steps, 
and then follow another to the r. 
for about 2 m. This path crosses 
the stream above Kirifuri three 
times, and then passing over a hill, 
leads to another stream. 

[Just before the first crossing, a 
path down the stream leads in 
2 or 3 min. to a small fall called 
Here we leave the path and plunge 
into a thicket, keeping the stream 
on the r., a short rough climb bring- 
ing us to Makkura-daki, a fall of 
about 60 ft. in height. The best 
view is obtained from a point a few 
yards up the hill to the 1. The 
fall shows prettily through the 
trees as it is approached, and al- 
together well repays the toil of 
reaching it. As the path is easUy 
mistaken, it is advisable to procure 
a guide, who will also be able to 
lead one back to Nikko a different 

7. Jakko (the site of the temple 
of Jakko, and Nana-taki cascade). 
The way lies through the village of 
Irimachi, where the Crown Prince 
has a palace, and turns off at right 
angles just before descending to 
the bridge, from which it is 40 min. 
walk further to the temple of 
Jakko. The edifice that stood here 
was burnt down in 1876, and the 
splendid avenue of pines and cry- 
pto merias which formed the ap- 
proach has been ruthlessly destroy- 
ed. Behind the site of the temples 
is a cascade, or rather a series of falls 
about 100 ft. in height. It goes by 
various names, one being Nana- 

taki, and must not be confounded 
with the other falls of the same 
name mentioned on p. 208. 

8. The Deer Park {Go Ryodd). 
About half-way between Irimachi 
and Jakko, a path turns off r., lead- 
ing up a small valley in which the 
Deer Preserves are situated. The 
animals, which are larger than the 
native breed, were presented by the 
Emperor of Germany. Five min. 
walk takes one to the keeper's 
hol^se, where the presentation of a 
visiting card will ensure admission. 
At the top of the ravine (15 min. 
walk), two pretty cascades fall over 
rocky beds. The coolness of this 
spot makes it a favourite one for 

9. Urami-ga-taki, or Back 
View Cascade, 50 ft. high, derives 
its name from the possibility of 
passing behind and under the fall. 
The road, 1 hr. on foot or by jin- 
riMsha, turns to the r. shortly after 
crossing an affluent of the Daiya- 
gawa ; and from the tea-houses by 
the side of a stream, the remainder 
of the way is an easy climb of 5 
cho. Passing under the fall and up 
the ravine on the other side, one 
obtains a picturesque view of the 
rocky basin overhung with trees, of 
the cascade, and of the deep pool 
into which it tumbles. Another 
basin with a email cascade falUng 
into it lies some 5 min. behind the 
main fall. — One can get into the 
Jikwan road (next walk. No. 10) 
fi'om Urami by a path straight up 
the hill behind the tea-shed. 

Urami may also be conveniently 
visited on the way back from Chu- 
zenji, by taking the path which 
branches off 1. a little below Uma- 
gaeshi, and by tm'ning to the 1. 
again at Klyotaki, where a path 
leads through the woods for a 
distance of about 1 ri to the tea- 
houses above mentioned. 

10. Jikwan-no-taki (cascade). 
After crossing the stream by the 
side of the tea-houses below Urami, 
a path will be found r, a few steps 
beyond. It leads up the hill for a 


Route 17. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 

little over 1 mile, to a point where it 
divides, the r. leading to Jikwan, the 
1. to Xantai-zan. At Jikwan there is 
a pretty effect of water falling in a 
dozen streams over a ledge of rock. 
The view from the top of the fall 
down the valley is very fine. About 
1 m. below Jikwan, and visible 
from a small clearing at the edge 
of the bill on the way up, is another 
fall called Jikican Hatsune. 

11. Naka-iwa. This excursion, 
8 m. from Nikko, mostly on the flat 
and ujider shade, affords an oppor- 
tunity of seeing a portion of the 
great avenue, and can be done in 
jinriMsha. Naka-iwa, as the name 
implies, is a huge rock in the middle 
of the river Kinugawa, at one of its 
most pictiiresque parts, where the 
divided stream is spanned by two 
bridges. The way hes down the 
avenue as far as the town of Ima- 
ichi, whence it turns N. along the 
main road leading to the province 
of Aizii. On an eminence close to 
the bridges and overlooking the 
Naka-iwa, stands a tea-house suit- 
able for picnicking. One may also 
visit the curious massive boulders 
called Eago - ma {" palanquin 
rocks "), 1 hr. further down the 1. 
bank of the river, or 45 min. along 
the r. bank. The latter way some- 
times involves the fording of a 
stream. On the other hand it 
shortens the return journey, as the 
jinriMshas may be sent back to the 
hamlet of Kura-ga-saki, which 
can be rejoined in 45 min. by a 
pleasant path through the wood 
from the Kago-iwa direct . The rail- 
way from Imaichi may also be 
availed of on the return to Nikko. 

12. Ascent of Nyolio-zaii. 
This is the best of all the moun- 
tain climbs near Nikko. It is a 
whole day's excursion, and an early 
start should consequently be made. 
There are two ways up, either via 
Nana-taki — (" the Seven Cascades "), 
or via the Rtjimi-toge. By the 
former route, which commands the 
most extensive views, an average 
"walker will require oj hrs., includ- 

ing stoppages, for the ascent, and 
3 hrs. for the descent. There is no 
water on the mountain, except at 
a spring some 10 min. below the 
log-hut on the S. side. Snow may 
be found close to this hut as late 
as the first days of July. The way 
for pedestrians lies past the temple 
of Puia-ara Jinja and a shrine 
called the Gyoja-do. Here take a 
narrow track to the 1. through the 
wood, leading, after f hr. easy 
walking with a short climb at the 
end, to a large stone known as the 
Sessho-seki, which bears an inscrip- 
tion to notify that the slaughter of 
game is prohibited on these hills. 
(The best way for horses and kagos 
leads a short distance over the Jakko 
road to a zigzag path clearly visible 
on the hill to the r., and joins the 
path already mentioned at the 
Sesso-seki.) Eight ahead rises a 
peak called Akappori, conspicuous 
by its precipitous face of red vol- 
canic sti'ata. The path continues 
up the grassy spur in front. In 
IJ hr. from the Sessho-seki we 
arrive at a ruined hut called Happu, 
and 5 min. later come to the 
edge of a precipice overlooking a 
gigantic chasm, apparently the 
remains of an ancient crater that 
has been broken away by water on 
the S.E. side, where the Inari-gawa 
has its source. From Akanagi-san 
an almost unbroken crater wall 
extends westward to Akappori, 
This secondary crater appears not 
to have been very deep, as its pre- 
sent floor, out of which descends 
one of the seven cascades that 
supply the Inari-gawa, is high 
above the greater chasm immediate- 
ly in front of us. A projecting 
spur divides the upper from the 
lower crater, and above it on the 
1. rises a lesser peak named Shaku- 
jo-ga-take. The falls are seen 
from the edge of the precipice ; 
and though they are insignificant, 
the walk to this point is one of the 
most dehghtful in the neighbour- 
hood, affording entrancing views. 
(The excursion as far as Nana-taki 

Ascent of Nyoho-zan and Nantai-zan. 


and back occupies from 5 to 6 hrs.) 
The path hence mnds to the 1. not 
far from the edge of the chasm, at 
first very steeply, and then through 
the wood to a large hut in If hr. 
We are now at the foot of the final 
cUmb, which will occupy not more 
than I hr. more. The summit, on 
which stands_ a small shrine 
dedicated to Onamuji, is 8,100 ft. 
high. To the N. it commands a 
magnificent view over a sea of 
lower mountains, among which lie 
the secluded valleys of Kuriyama. 
To the N. E., Nasu-yama is ren- 
dered conspicuous by the smoke 
rising fi-om its crater, while fur- 
ther N. is seen Bandai-san. To 
the E. is Takahara-yama, which also 
has the appearance of a volcano. On 
the immecUate W. of the sjiectator 
is Akakura, merely a continuation 
of Nyoh5-zan, then Ko-manago, 
0-Manago, and Nantai-zan. Be- 
tween AJiakura and Ko-Manago we 
look across to Taro-zan. Senj5-ga- 
hara is partly \isible, and beyond 
it the bare volcanic summit of 
Shirane. Further to the S. W. are 
seen Asama-yama, Yatsu-ga-take, 
and numerous other peaks probably 
belonging to the Hida-Shinshu 
range. The upper half of Fuji 
rises S. over the long horizontal 
line of the Chichibu mountains. 
Away in the plain to the E. and S. 
are perceived the broad and deep 
Kinugawa, stretches of the Tone- 
gawa, the vUl. of Nikko with 
avenues marking the Nikkd Kaido 
and Reiheishi Kaido, and far away 
on the horizon, Tstikuba-san. 

The way by the Fujimi-toge is 
also beautiful, and offers the ad- 
vantage that a much further dis- 
tance may be ridden and less need 
be walked, as horses go up as far 
as the torii at the entrance to 
the mountain precincts. Leaving 
Nikko, the path turns r. beside the 
first house on the r. below Urami. 
For about 4 m. beyond Urami it is 
rough, — a portion to be avoided 
after dusk. Thence it leads for 
several mUes through pleasant 

sylvan scenery, until it enters a 
forest of weird beauty IJ m. from 
the foot of Nyoho-zan. The iorii is 
reached in 3 hrs., whence the climb 
by a winding path, mostly under 
the shade of fine trees, occupies 2J 
hrs. more. 

13. Ascent of Nantai-zan via 
Urami. This is the easiest and 
pleasantest M^ay of making the as- 
cent, though it is true that some 
prefer the shorter but steep and 
rugged path up from Chuzenji (see 
p. 212). Just beyond the tea- 
houses below Urami, the path de- 
scends to the 1., crosses the stream, 
and turns at once to the r., chmb- 
ing up through a wood, on emer- 
ging from which Nantai-zan, O- 
Manago, Nyoho-zan, and Akanagi 
are seen in front. After J hr. 
walking, we cross the dry bed of a 
river, whence up a grassy valley for 
another J hr., and reach a sign-post 
where a path to the r. diverges to 
Nyoho-zan, while the 1. branch 
ascends and gradually ^^inds to 
the r. Plunging among trees, it 
follows up a deep, thickly-wooded 
gully, and at last comes to a torii 
standing in the depression between 
Nantai-zan and 0-Manago. Here 
the path forks, the r. brandi passing 
the spot from which 0-Manago 
is ascended and continuing on 
towards Yumoto, while the 1. climbs 
up to the Shizu huts (5,550 ft.), where 
the back ascent of Nantai-zan com- 
mences. Horses may be taken 
from Nikko to this spot, time 4 
hrs. From Shizu to the summit is 
2,600 ft. further, occupying 2^ hrs. 
on foot. The way back by the same 
route is an easy 5 hrs. walk. Those 
intending to return to Nikko, in- 
stead of descenchng to Chuzenji, 
must make a very early start, as the 
path below Shizu is much broken 
up, and unsafe after dark. 

[Instead of ascending Nantai- 
zan, one may walk round its 
base to Chuzenji in about 3J 
hrs. The route for some dis- 
tance follows the path leading 


Route 17. — Nikko and Chuzenji. 

from Shizii to Yumoto, and 
about 1 ri after crossing the 
bed of a stream, diverges to 
the 1., shortly afterwards issu- 
ing on the open plain of Senjo- 

5. — Chuzenji and Neighboxjehood. 

Kegon-no-taki. Nantai-zan. 


One of the principal points of 
interest near Nikko is beautiful 
Lake Cliuzenji (*Lake Side Hotel ; 

Lake Chuzenji lies at the foot of 
Nantai-zan, being surrounded on the 
other sides by comparatively low hills 
covered with trees to their very summit. 
Its greatest length from E. to W. is es- 
timated at 3 ri, its breadth at 1 ri. Sound- 
ings show the extraordinary depth of 93 
fathoms, shallowing down towards Sen.iu 
and more rapidly towards Kegon. The 
lake, formerly devoid of life, now abounds 
with excellent salmon, salmon-trout, 
iivana, and other fish, with which it was 
stocked between the years 1873 and 1890 
by the Japanese (Tovernment. The sal- 
mon and salmon-trout can only be taken 
with rod and line, whilst the iirana, a 
species of white trout which never come 
to the fisherman's bait, are taken in the 
nets. The height of Lake Chiizenji above 
the sea is i,375 ft. Several small temples, 
which are visited by the pilgiims, add to 
the picturesqueness of its shores. 

The road is practicable for jin- 
riMshas with two men, not only to 
the Till, of Chuzenji, 3 ri 12 cho 
from Nikko, but for 2 ri 27 cho 
fiirther on to the hot springs of Yu- 
moto. But owing to the steepness 
of the hill which has to be passed 
on the way, ladies and persons un- 
able to walk often take " chairs " or 
horses. Persons pressed for time 
may easily go to Chiizenji and back 
in one day ; it is even possible for a 
sturdy pedestrian, by making an ear- 
ly start, to do the whole distance to 
Yiunoto and back within the hmits 
of a day. Charming at all times, the 
way from Nikko to Chuzenji is 
seen at its best late in May or early 
in June, when the azalea trees, 
some of which are from 10 ft. to 25 
ft. high, display their red, white, 
and piu-ple blossoms, and the wis- 

tarias too are coming into bloom. 
Another glorious time is mid- 
October, on account of the tints of 
the maple leaves. 

Leaving Nikko, we follow the 
Ashio road along the course of the 
Daiya-gawa as far as Futamiya (IJ 
ri), where the road to Chuzenji 
branches off r., still continuing by 
the river-side. This river, which 
issues fi'om Lake Chuzenji, is for 
most of the year a small and quiet 
stream ; but at times it becomes a 
dangerous toii'ent, carrying away 
roads and embankments. The 
ascent is gradual and easy up to the 
hamlet of Uma-gaeshi, where there is 
a fair inn. Just before reaching 
this hamlet, the old path from 
Nikko joins the new road. The 
road hence for some distance is cut 
out of the side of the overhanging 
clifE close by the brawhng stream, 
and o^ing to landsUps is difficult 
to keep in repair. Formerly the 
path climbed along the face of 
the cliff, and was impassable even 
for horses, whence the name of 
Uma-gaeshi (see p. 171). The 
scenery between Uma-gaeshi and 
the Misawa tea-house at the foot of 
the actiaal ascent, 20 min. walk, is 
wild and j)icturesque. Leaving the 
rugged gorge, a udnding path leads 
up to a naiTow ridge, where a rest- 
ing-hut commands a pretty view 
of two cascades called Hannya and 
Hodo, at the head of the ravine to 
the r. From this point the ascent 
to the top, which occuj)ies f hr., is 
arduous. Pedestrians may advan- 
tageously take the short cuts which 
the old road offers. At the charm- 
ingly situated tea-house called JVa- 
ka no Chaya half-way up, the cooUes 
usually make a short halt. A local 
cm:iosity is the gishaku-isld, or 
"lode-stone." On the siunmit, the 
road passes through a wood of oak, 
birch, and other trees, many of 
which are covered with the long 
trailing moss called sarugase 
(Lycopodium sieboldi). A path to 
the 1. leads to a platform command- 
ing a fine view of the cascade of 

Walks near Ghuzenji. 


Keg:on-no-taki. The height of 
this fall is aboxit 250 ft. In the 
earlier part of the year it occa- 
sionally runs almost dry ; but after 
the heavy summer rains, it shoots 
out over the edge of the over- 
hanging precipice in considerable 
volume, A good view is obtained 
by descending the side of the preci- 
pice to a look-out which has been 
erected just opposite the fall. It is 
possible to get to the foot, for which, 
however, a guide from the tea-house 
is necessary. The road onwards 
soon reaches the shore of the lake, 
and enters the vill. of 


This name, written f}i^^, which smacks 
of Buddhism, has been officially altered 
to Chu^ushi, iji'^jiol , which is Shinto ; but 
the old name is still currently used. 

which is thronged with pilgrims 
for a few days in July or August, 
the period for the ascent of Nantai- 
zan as a religious exercise varying 
from year to year according to the 
old lunar calendar. As many as 
ten thousand sleep at the vill. 
during those few days. At other 
times it is a quiet place, for which 
reason, and on account of its de- 
hghtful surroundings, several of 
the European diplomats have here 
built their villas. 

The prettiest walks involving 
little cUmbing are : — ■ 

1. Along the S. E. shore of the 
lake to Ase-ga-hama. (The summit 
of the Asegaia-toge, 15 min. climb 
through the wood, affords an 
interesting view, see No. 5). The 
islet close by is Kdzuke-shima, ■with 
a pretty shrine. Keturn by boat. 

2. To Hhbhu-no-hama, a little 
more than half-way along the N. 
shore of the lake, 45 min. Return 
by boat. 

3. To a pretty temple at Senjv, 
at the W. end of the lake, close to an 
icy brook, — 2| hrs. (Within J hr. 
walk fi'om Senju hes Nishi-no-uml, 
a tarn nestling beneath the wooded 
hills, which at this end recede fi'om 
Lake Chuzenji.) 

The f oUovidng are expeditions for 
cHmbers : — 

4. Up the hill opposite Kegon, 
leading to Kobu-ga-hara. On reach- 
ing the top, 1^ hr., a short walk on 
the level brings one to some hiige 
gi'anite boulders called Kago-ishi, 
which command a magniiicent view. 
This would make an alternative 
way of returning to Nikkd, by con- 
tinuing on to the summit of the 
Hoso-o Pass, ^- hr., where the road 
from Ashio to Nikko, is joined, 8 m. 

5. To the Copper - mines of 
Ashio (described in KoTite 19), 
which lie within the compass of a 
day's excursion from Chuzenji, 
but must be done on foot, the 
path being impracticable for con- 
veyances of any kind. A boat is 
taken across the lake to Ase-ga- 
hama, J hr., whence a chmb of 8 
cho leads through a wood to the 
crest of the Asegata-toge, com- 
manding a beautiful prospect. 
Tier upon tier lise the forest-clad 
ridges that close in the valley of 
the Watarase. The way down the 
pass, for about 1^ ri, lies through 
narrow valleys between steep and 
scantily wooded hills. A narrow 
path, in portions cut out of the 
cliff side, in others supported by 
planks, has to be traversed before 
entering the valley in which the 
mines are situated. From here it is 
20 min. fiirther to Akakura, the 
upper half of the village opposite 
which, on the r. bank of the stream, 
stand the various buildings con- 
nected with the mines. 

Those desirous of staying at 
Ashio (see p. 216) for the night 
can do the rest of the distance — 
about 2 m. — in jinrildsha. 

6. Ascent of Nantai-zan. This 
mountain is considered sacred, and 
the priests of the temple at its 
base insist on the immemorial rule 
whereby women are prohibited 
from maldng the ascent. Ladies 
can, however, generally go up, 
provided they do not pass through 
the main gate. The temple, which 


Route 17. — Nikko and GhuzenjL 

stands at the far end of the village, 
is said to have been founded by 
Shodo Shonin in A.D. 816. The 
space between the bronze iorii and 
the shrine is holy ground, and 
persons in jinrikishas or kagos had 
better go along the lower road if 
they object to being required to 
alight. The gate leading to the 
mountain is closed except during 
the pilgrim season, when entrance 
tickets can be purchased for a smaU 
fee. The ascent, occupying about 
3 hrs., is extremely steep, and 
consists partly of log steps which 
are very fatiguing; biit the lovely 
view from the summit (8,150 ft.) 
well repays the exertion. The best 
time to see it is at sunrise ; so a 
very early start should be made 
with lanterns. On the S. E. Ues 
the plain stretching towards Tokyo; 
on the W. rises the lofty cone of 
Shirane-san ; further S. is K5shin- 
zan; below we have the marshy basin 
of Senj5-ga-hara, with the stream 
meandering through it, Lake Chu- 
zenji, a glimpse of Lake Yumoto, 
and N. of_Shirane the peaks of 
Taro-zan, 0-Manago, Ko-Manago, 
and Nyoho-zan. Fuji too is visible 
in clear weather. The ascent can 
also be made from Yumoto in 4^ 
hrs. (see next page). 


Ascent of Shikane-san, and 


The road to Yumoto leads past 
Shobu-no-hania, to which point 
boats may be taken ; then it turns 
away fi'om the lake and soon crosses 
the Jigoku-no-kawa, a slender 
stream which hunies over smooth 
rocks. The Byilzu-ga-iaki, or Dra- 
gon's Head Cascade, the most 
curious of all the cascades in this 
neighboru'hood, lies 10 min. from 
the lake. Beyond it we emerge on 
Senjo-ga-hara, or the Moor of the 

So named on account of an engagement 
that took place here in A. D. 1389 between 

the partisans o£ the Ashikaga Shoguna 
and those of the Southern dynasty of 
Mikadoa (see p. 72). An alternative name 
is Akanuina-ga-lia I a, or Moor of the Red 
Swami), derived from the colour of the 
tall dying sedges in autumn. 

This wide solitude is bounded on 
all sides by forests, above which 
rise the peaks of Nantai-zan, O- 
Manago, Ko-Manago, and Taro- 
zan. (This last, wliich makes an 
easy day's excursion from either 
Chuzenji or Y'umoto, has an extinct 
crater at its summit.) Far away on 
the 1. is a wooded elevation, in the 
centre of which the cascade of Yu- 
no-faki ajipears like a silver thread. 
Above this rises the volcano of 
Shirane-san, the only bare peak in 
the vicinity. The road crosses the 
plain to a point not far from Y'u-no- 
taki, which giishes over a smooth 
black rock at an angle of GO'*, form- 
ing a stream that feeds Kyuzu- 
ga-taki, and finally falls into Lake 
Chuzenji. Its perpendicular height 
is 220 ft. A steep path by its side 
leads up to the toj), some 60 yds. 
from the shore of Lake Yumoto, 
which is so called from the hot 
springs at its further end. This 
lake, though smaller than Lake 
Chuzenji, is still more beaiitiful. 
The maples and other trees here, 
in October, display the most 
glorious tints that can be imagined. 
The irises also are a wonderful 
sight in July. The road -winds 
through the wood along the E. side 
of the lake to the small \ill. of 

Yumoto [Lilt, Namma-ya, semi- 
Europ., and numerous Jap. inns), 
5,000 ft. above the sea. Here the 
water is partially discolom-ed by the 
sulphur springs. There ai-e al- 
together ten springs, some under 
cover, others exposed to the open 
ail-, all accessible to the pubhc and 
frequented by both sexes promis- 

Shirane-san is a volcano 8,800 
ft. high, which was active as recently 
as 188!). The chmb is very rough 
ixnd steep, and should not be at- 
tempted ^\-ithout a guide. For the 

Route 18. — From C'huzeuji to Ikao over the Konsei-toge. 213 

ascent allow 4^ hrs., for the 
descent, 3 hrs. ; but considerable 
time is needed for a stirvey of the 
top, so that a whole day is none 
too much for the expedition. 
There is no water on the mountain 
side. The first part of the climb 
is the roughest of all, leading over 
Mae-Shirane (" fi-ont Shirane "), a 
ridge which looks as if it had been 
part of the wall of a crater, and that 
within comparatively recent times 
a new and higher cone had been 
formed inside its W. limb, which 
had nearly filled up the original 
crater, leaving only the interven- 
ing valley on its E. side, the bottom 
of which slopes off from the centre 
N. and S. The N. end contains a 
tarn of a remarkable green colour. 
Descending from Mae-Shirane, we 
cross the old crater floor, and then 
ascend Shirane proi^er (Oku-Shira- 
ne). The cone has a great rent 
down the side, which is kept on 
the r. in going up, and a deep 
crater at the tojj whose edges are 
very rotten. From the top, which 
is honeycombed with other small 
craters, the view is superb. 

The way leading to O-Manago 
takes one first along the Chtizenji 
road as far as some houses on the 
edge of Senj6-ga-hara. It then skirts 
the N. side of the moor, passing 
through a thick wood and bearing 
towards the depression between 
Nantai and 0-Manago, "2^ hrs. to a 
point where the path forks near a 
shrine containing a stone image of 
Sh5zuka-no-Baba, with a strange 
medley of ex-votos hanging outside. 
The 1. branch leads to 0-Manago, 
the r. branch to the Shizu huts and 
on to Nikko. From the junction 
of the paths, it takes i lii'- to reach 
the torii at the base of O-Manago. 
The distance to the summit is 1 ri 
8 cho, the real ascent beginning at 
a bronze image of Fudo. The last 
bit is over precipitotis rocks, where 
chains are fixed to assist the climb- 
er. On the top stands a wooden 
shrine, with a bronze image behind 

it, said to be Kunitoko-tachi, the 
Earth-god. The view is less ex- 
tensive than that from Nantai-zan. 
In order to ascend 

Nantai-zan from this, the 
Yumoto side, it is not necessary 
to go on to the Shizu huts, which 
lie 3- hr. iTom the shrine of Shozuka- 
no-Baba mentioned above. Ano- 
ther path leads up behind a hut 
called Ozaioa-no shuku, 3 cho nearer 
Yumoto ; and in this way Nantai- 
zan can be ascended ^\ith greater 
ease than from Chuzenji. The 
whole climb, part of which is stiff, 
will take a fair walker 4J hrs. from 

Japanese pUgiims of the old 
school make the round of the va- 
rious mountains in the vicinity of 
Nikko and Chuzenji by ascending 
first Nyoho-zan and then Ko- 
Manago, descending to a place 
called Sabusawa, and ascending O- 
Manago from the back. They sleep 
at the Shizu hut, climb Taro-zan 
in the forenoon, Nantai-zan in the 
afternoon, and descend to Chu- 

ROUTE 18. 

Fbom Chuzenji to Lkao over the 


CHUZENJI to :— Ri Cho M. 

Yumoto 2 27 6| 

Top of Konsei 

Pass 1 18 3| 

Higashi Ogawa... 4 18 11 

Sukagawa 1 18 3f 

Okkai 2 — 5 

Ohara 18 3 

Takahira 1 23 4 

NUMATA 2 13 5} 

Tanashita 2 15 6 

Shibukawa 2 34 7J 

IKAO 2 15 6 

Total 25 9 61J 

214 Route 18. — From Ghuzenji to Ikao over the Konsei-toge. 

On this route an idea is gained 
of the dense forest that covers 
so large a poition of the cen- 
tral mountain range ; and the val- 
leys of the Katashina-gawa and 
Tonegawa, down which most of the 
latter part of the way leads, are 
highly picturesque The first night 
is spent at Higashi Ogawa, and the 
second at Numata, Ikao being 
reached on the afternoon of the 
third day. The means of transport 
for baggage on this route are : — 
coolies over the Konsei-toge to 
Higashi Ogawa, horses not being 
taken across the pass ; horses to 
Numata, and thence jinrikishas. 
Travellers wishing to return to 
Tokyo "n-ithout visiting Ikao, can 
join the railway at Maebashi or at 
TakasakL by tram from Shibu- 
kawa (see p. 186). 

The way up the Konsei-t5ge is a 
continuous gentle ascent throiigh a 
forest with an undergrowth of 
bamboo grass, terminating in a 
steep climb. From the top of the 
pass, on looking round, are seen 
the thickly wooded slopes converg- 
ing towards the dark waters of 
Lalce Yumoto, behind which looms 
up in bold relief the massive form 
of Nantai-zan, flanked on the 1. by 
0-Manago. To the r. a ghmpse is 
caught of a portion of Lake Ghu- 
zenji, while Tsukuba-san rises 
in the distant plain beyond. On 
the Kdtsuke side the thick foliage 
intercepts all view, and there is an 
equal absence of distant prospect 
during the whole of the long down- 
ward walk, neither is there any 
sign of human habitation in the 
forest, except a solitary hunter's 
hut. Even this is deserted dming 
the summer, at which season alone 
the tourist will think of coming 
this way, since the road is 
practically impassable from the 
end of November to well on in 
March. The foliage is very fine, 
and in the higher part of the forest 
a peculiar efEect is produced by a 
drapery of moss, hanging in gray 
filaments fi"om the branches of the 

tall conifers. On nearing Ogawa 
no Yumoto, — a few huts with 
thermal springs about 1 ri from 
the viU. of Higashi Ogawa, — the 
path follows a stream flowing down 
from Shii'ane-san. 

Higashi Ogawa (Inn by Kurata 
Einzaburo) stands 2,300 ft. above 
the sea. The Ogawa, from which 
this vill. takes its name, is a small 
tributai-y of the Katashina-gawa, 
itself an affluent of the Tonegawa. 
Leaving Higashi Ogawa, and con- 
tinuing down the valley of the 
Ogawa, which is dotted with many 
hamlets, we cross over a hill before 

Sukagawa, in the valley of the 
Katashina-gawa. From a ridge at 
the foot of which lie two hamlets 
with curious names, — Uikage Cki- 
dori, or Shady Chidori. and Hinata 
Chidori, or Sunny Chidori,— there 
is a fine \'iew, on looking back, of 
this valley stretching far away to 
the N. The two hamlets are 
situated on opposite sides of the 
stream, and connected by a bridge. 
Observe the terrace-Uke formation 
of the hills at the back of Hilaige 
Chidori, and ixll the way on to 
below Numata. Three ten^aces at 
least 2 m. long are distinctly 
marked, each of the lower two being 
a few hundred yards ^ride, and the 
upper one, surmounted by the 
usual irregular ridge, being from 
J to I m. wide. The course of these 
ridges, which seem to mark the 
successive positions of a river bank 
at different periods, is S.W. by N.E. 
Wenest reach 

dKkai (Inn by Hoshino), near 
which the river dashes between 
perpendicular walls of porphyry. 
A hillock behind the inn affords a 
delightful view of high rocks, with 
trees perched among them and 
cascades. There is also a pretty 
islet in the river, called Uklshima. 

The path now leaves the valley of 
the Katashina-gawa, and crossing 
a well-cultivated upland, comes to 

Ohara (Inn, Kishi-ya), whence it 
winds over the hills and up the 

Route 19. — Valley of the Watara.-^i'. Ashio. 


Kazusaka-ioge. The view from this 
point is superb, including Haruna- 
san, the Koshu Koma-ga-take, 
Yatsu-ga-take, Asama-yama, Yaha- 
zu-yama, and the Shirane of Kusa- 
tsu. At 

Takahira, the road becomes 
level and practicable for jinrikishas. 

Numata (Inn, Odake-ya) stands 
on a high plateau overlooking the 
valleys of the Katashina and the 
Tonegawa. The view of the latter 
valley from the N. W. corner of the 
town is remarkable, — extensive rice- 
fields far below at one's feet, be- 
yond them the river, and beyond it 
again the moiintains of the Mikuni- 
toge. A spare day might be oc- 
cupied with a visit to the local 
Haruna-san, a sacred hill lying to 
the N. 

Trout-fishing is briskly carried 
on just below the junction of the 
two rivers, a portion of the water 
being enclosed with stones and 
fences running out from each bank 
towards the centre of the stream, 
where a bamboo i^latform, inclined 
at an angle of aboiit 15", is fixed 
upon baskets filled with stones. 
The water rushes up this platform, 
and leaves the fish at the top. 
They are then caught, and kept 
ahve in perforated boxes which are 
placed on the platform. The 
scenery onward continues very 
picturesque, the road passing high 
and rugged chffs that overhang 
the Tonegawa. Beyond Tanashita, 
the valley expands into a smiling 
fertile plain, and the river is lost 
sight of till near 

Shibukawa (Inn, Maru-man). 
This is a town of some size. 
Hence to Ikao is, for the most 
part, a gentle ascent over grassy 
mountain slopes. For a detailed 
account of Ik;io and Neighbour- 
hood, see Koute 14. 

ROUTE 19. 

Fkom Nikeo to Ikao by the Valley 
or THE Wataease-gawa. The 


Ascent of Koshin-zan. 

NIKKO to :— Ei Cho M. 

Top of Hoso-o Toge 3 10 8 

ASHIO 4 11 lOJ 

S5ri 2 21 6| 

Godo 2 12 5| 

Hanawa 1 — 2| 

OMAMA 3 17 ^ 

Total 16 35 41^ 

From Omama by train in f hr. 
to Maebashi, whence see Route 14. 

It is too much to try, even by 
an early start, to combine a visit to 
the mines and reach Ashio within 
the limits of one day from Nikkd. 
The works he in a side valley 30 
cho, or 2 m. from the vUl. of Ashio, 
where one must stay, and which 
should not be confounded with 
the vill. that has grown up around 
the mines. Travellers not follow- 
ing this route, but making the 
round to Chtizenji, take the mines 
on their second day (see p. 211). 
Apphcation for permission to in- 
spect the works should be made at 
the head office in Tokyo. 

The road from Nikko to Ashio 
over the Hoso-o Pass, whose siun- 
mit rises 4,100 ft. above sea-level, is 
very rough, but generally i^racti- 
cable for jinrikishas. Pedestrians 
may avail themselves of numerous 
short cuts on the way up. The va- 
rious rope- ways — besides the main 
one connecting Nikko with Ashio — 
seen on the far side of the pass, 
bring down charcoal for the use of 
the mines. At the vill. of Miko- 
uchi, pedestrians shoiild follow the 
tramway which here diverges 1., 
while the main road goes straight 
on ; the former is generally in 
better repair. The Watarase-gawa 
is reached before entering 


Route 19. — Ash 10. (Inns, Tsiini-ya, Izunii- 
ya). This place, famed for its cop- 
per mines, which are the most pro- 
ductive in Japan, and said to be the 
largest in the Far East, lies in a 
deep valley at an altitude of aboTit 
2,300 ft. The Mines, of which 
there are two in the neighbourhood, 
bear respectively the names of 
Ashio and Kotaki, the former and 
more important being situated on 
the eastern side of the moun- 
tain, the latter on the western. 
Jinrildshas are available as far as 
the Ashio mines (Dnzan), to visit 
which one's steps must be retraced 
to the end of the town, where one 
leaves the green valley of the 
"Watarase-gawa for a smoke-laden, 
foiU-smelling region, with the hills 
deniided of eveiy particle of wood. 
Gigantic iron pipes lead down fi-om 
neighbouring heights to work the 
turbines, tramways run in all 
directions, the bare red hillsides 
are scooped out here and there for 
the miserable huts of the miners. 
the air resounds v.-ith the clang of 
hammers, while the huge furnaces 
vomit forth clouds of poisonous 
vapour which, on a hot still day, 
hang like a pall over the valley. 
The electricity for the motors is 
generated by water-power at a 
station which is passed 1 m. before 
entering Ashio. Mato, the lower 
half, and Akakura, the upper, com- 
bine to form one large \all. on the 
1. bank of a stream running in a 
deep ravine. On the opposite side 
stands the forest of chimneys of 
the smelting-works, together with 
engine-rooms, workshops, and other 

The ore is found in a matrix of clay, 
calcite, and quartz, and is almost entirely 
the pyrite or copper sulphide, although a 
small quantity of oxide also occurs. The 
lodes vary from 6 to 20 ft. in width. The 
average yield is 19 per cent of metal, and 
the total annual product of linished 
metal from the two mines reaihes the 
remarkable figure of G.OOO tons. The 
adits from the Ashio side are being pushed 
forward to meet those working in the 
opposite direction from Kotaki, approxi- 
mately 1 n distant. A rope-way some 

3 m. in length has been constructed 
over the Hoso-o Pass for convenience of 
transport It consists of a continuous 
steel-rope, 6 m. long, carried on posts, 
and revolving on two drums, one at each 
end. Immense hooks are fastened to the 
rope by thin copper bands at a distance 
of about 80 or 100 yds. apart, the ascend- 
ing line carrying bags of coke or coal, 
the descending, bars of smelted ore 
weighifig .58 lbs. each. At some points 
the wire is several hundreds of feet above 
the ground. The tramway on the Nikko 
side is 5k m. in length, and there are 
about '20 m. altogether on the Ashio side. 
The undertaking is in Japanese hands, 
but the most modem European processes 
are in operation. Owing to damage done 
to the crops by the poisonous discharges 
from the mine, and to consequent agita- 
tion amongst the farmers living along the 
course of the Watarase-gawa into which 
the stream flows, an ingenious series of 
filters has been fitted up for the purifica- 
tion of the water after it has done its 
work. Even these, however, cannot restore 
to the water the purity necessary for 
rice cultivation The agitation is there- 
fore naturally jenewed from year to year, 
and threatens serious complications. 

[An extra day at Ashio may well 
be devoted to visiting the 
wondei'ful rocks of Kosliin- 
zan. (The Kotaki mines lie 
on the way to Koshin-zan : but 
it is diflticult to do the rocks 
and the mines in one diiy.) 
JinriMshas may be taken as 
far as the mines, about 3 m., 
whence to the point called 
Bessho, 4,500 ft., where the 
rock scenery begins, the dis- 
tance is estimated at 6 m. In 
order to -^-isit the rocks, it 
is necessary to engage the 
services of a guide who hves 
at the hiTt. The whole roimd 
■«-ill take about 2^ hrs., and is 
perfectly safe for all except 
those who are apt to be trou- 
bled with dizziness. 

Leaving the hut by the path 
on the S. side, we commence 
the round of the rocks, scram- 
bUng u^i and down the steejiest 
places imaginable, traversing 
ileep ra^^nes on rough log 
bridges, and crawUng round the 
face of precipices by the iiid of 
iron chains and of steps cut 
in the solid rock. For such 

Koshin-zan. The Watarase-gawa. 


hard work, waraji are of great 
convenience. A point called 
Mi-harashi commands a mag- 
nificent prospect of the dense 
forest-covered mountains be- 
low, and Tsukuba-san in the 
distant plain. Behind, the eye 
rests upon the gigantic rock- 
work, amidst which conifers 
have perched themselves in 
inaccessible nooks and cran- 
nies. To the varioiis features 
of the landscape, more or less 
fanciful names have been 
given. The most striking are 
the ISan-ju-san-gen, a mass of 
precipices dedicated to Kwan- 
non ; the Spring dedicated to 
Yakiishi, the waters of which 
are believed to be efficacious 
in cases of eye disease ; the 
Kinoko-seki, or Mushroom 
Rock, beyond which comes the 
Yagura-seki, supposed to re- 
semble the towers on the walls 
of a fortress ; next the Urand- 
ga-taki, or Back View Cascade, 
which falls from a ledge above 
in silvery threads. The huge 
precipice close by is called the 
Go-shiki no seki, or Kock of 
the Five Colours. The guide 
points out a rock, the Men-seki, 
m which a remote likeness to 
a human face may be traced. 
Above this is the Go-ju no To, 
or Five-storied Pagixla, and 
near it, a small natural arch 
called Ic.hi no mon. Crawl- 
ing through this, M'e couie to 
the Bonji-seki, or Sanski'it 
Character Rocks, next passing 
the Baiko-dani, a deep gully 
siipposed to have some occidt 
relation with the origin of 
thunder-storms ; the Tdro-iira, 
or Stone-lantern Rock ; the 
Fitji-mi-seki, whence the upper 
half of Fuji is seen ; the Shishi- 
seki, or Lion Rock ; the Ogi- 
itoaya, or Fan Cavern ; and 
the Z^seki, or Elephant Rock. 
Next we come to where a huge 
natural bridge, called the Ama 
no hashi. or Hridge of Heaven. 

used to span the ravine until 
destroyed by an earthquake in 
1824. On the other side is a 
hole about 6 ft. in diaiueter, 
called Ni no mon, or Second 
Gate, where the bridge termi- 
nated. From this point, ascend- 
ing a very narrow crevice by 
the aid of chains, the path 
reaches the Mi-harashi already 
mentioned. Then passing be- 
hind a precipitous detached 
rock, called Byobu-iica from its 
resemblance to a screen, we 
ascend a gorge, and finally 
reach the Oku-no-in (5,4.50 ft.), 
Avhere in three caverns are small 
shrines dedicated to the three 
Shinto deities Onamuji, Saruta- 
hiko, and Sukuna-biliona. It 
was the second of these whose 
worship was originally esta- 
blished on this mountain under 
the title of Koshin. On turn- 
ing the corner just beyond, we 
see the tops of Nantai-zan and 
O-Manago liearing about N., 
and descending the hillside, 
reach Bessho again in 25 min. 
fi'om the Oku-no-in. The des- 
cent to the hiats at the base of 
the mountain will take nearly 
2^- hrs.] 
The scenery the whole way along 
the banks of the Watarase-gawa 
is dehghtful, and especially between 
Ashio and (Jodo cpiite romantic. 
Sometimes the road, carried out on 
piles, actually overhangs the liver, 
which now flows on in a perfectly 
l^lacid course, while in other places 
it foams and dashes amidst tremen- 
dous boulders. Beyond 

Sori (Inn, Komats>;-ya), a glade 
of fine cryptomerias attests the 
priestly care formerly bestowed on 
the temple of Tenno. The road 
then winds up and down the thick- 
ly wooded side of the valley, high 
above the iiishing waters of the 
river to 

Godo [Inn, Tama-ya) and 
Sanawa ( Inn, AVakamatsu-ya). 
After the latter place it becomes 
less picturescpie. leading for most 


Route 20. — Shiobara and Nasu. 

of the way across a cultivated 
plateau. The vill. seen on the r. 
bank of the river beyond Hanawa 
is Miziinitma (Tnn, Midori-ya), from 
which it is possible to ascend Aka- 
gi-san by a shorter, though rougher, 
route than that given on p. 189. 
Large quantities of trout are taken 
both with the fly and the net in the 
Watarase-gawa, which is rejoined 
jusj above 

Omama (Inn, Tsuni-ya), see 
p. 196. 

ROUTE 20. 

Shiobaea and Nasu. 
fcexjmachi. ascent of keicho-zan. 


(Conf. map facing p. 197.) 

Nishi Nasuno (Inn, Yamato- 
ya) is reached by the Northern 
Railway from Tokyo in 4J hrs. (see 
Koute 65). This place is an out- 
come of railway enterprise ; so too 
is the reclamation of a large extent 
of the moorland which here 
stretches on all sides, the soil hav- 
ing been found well-adapted to the 
cultivation of fruit. Nishi Nasuno is 
the nearest station to the various 
favourite hot spring resorts of the 
district of Shiobara, which are 
much fi-equented by all classes of 
Japanese. The itinerary of the 
jiniikisha road from the station is 
as follows : 


Ei Cho M. 

Seldya 3 — 7J 

Owami 1 18 3| 

Fukuwata 24 1^ 

Shiogama 13 1 


Total 5 27 14 

As far as Sekiya, at the foot of 
the mountains, the road is level 
and runs in a straight line across 
the plain, which is covered with 
dwarf chestnut-trees, — a part of 
the journey apt to be trying 
in summer, owing to the total 
absence of shade. Shortly after 
Sekiya, we enter the highly 
picturesque valley of the Hokigawa, 
with lofty and densely wooded 
hills on either side. At various 
points glorious views are afforded 
of the river rushing over its boulder- 
strewn bed, while numerous cas- 
cades lend variety to the landscape. 
The Owami springs, with a hut or 
two, are seen from the roadway, at 
the bottom of an almost precipitous 
descent. They he in the bed of 
the river, and are used only by the 
lioorest class of patients. 

Fukuwata (Inns, *Shofuro and 
others) is, next to Furumachi, the 
most poptdar bathing resort in the 
district. A few min. from Fuku- 
wata, on the oppo?;ite side of the 
river, is a spot known as Fudo-ga- 
saica. With its crystal-clear water, 
its rocks and cascades, and a walk 
under the shade of variegated 
trees, it produces the impression of 
landscape gardening on a large 
scale. At the entrance to the hamlet 
of Shiogama, a stone has been erect- 
ed to the memory of the famous 
courtesan, Takao, who was born 
near this spot. 

She was mistress of Date Tsunamune, 
second Daimyo of Sendai (eonf. p. 126), 
who lived in the latter half of the 17th 
century. The family broils and crimes, 
of which this intrigue formed one link, 
are dramatised in a popular play called 
Sendai Hagi. 

Here a bridge crosses the river, 
leatling to the hot springs of Shio- 
no-yu, 16 cho, situated in the bed of 
an affluent of the Holdgawa, a place 
chiefly resorted to by poor folks. 

Furumachi (Inns, Ftisen-ro, 
Kome-ya) lies on the r. bank of the 
river, and is the principal viU. in 
the district. It is shut in by 
mountains which rise in beautiful- 

Furumachh Arayu. Aacent of Keicho-zan. 


ly wooded peaks, one above another, 
around it. Althongh situated at 
no great height (1,850 ft.), Furu- 
machi is cooler than many places 
at higher altitudes, and suffers less 
from mosquitoes and other insect 
pests. 'I'he whole vicinity is dotted 
with thermal springs. The water 
at Furumachi is moderate in tem- 
perature and mostly fx-ee from 
mineral deposit ; the other springs 
are somewhat sahne. A favoiirite 
midday resort for visitors at Furu- 
machi is Sumaki or Taki-no-yu (9 
cho), in a hollow of the hills. Here 
the M'ater is led in pipes from a 
spring just above the inn, and a hot 
douche may be taken. The temple 
of Myo-onji, a plain thatched struc- 
ture in the vill., is of little interest. 
The only relic in the possession of 
the priests — and it is an odd relic 
in a place of worsliip — is an article 
of the wardrobe of the frail beauty 
above mentioned. Amongst the 
prettiest cascades in the neighbour- 
hood are :_ Senshin-no-tald, Hoko- 
no-taki, Ohata-no-taki, and HeM- 

A pleasant excursion may be 
made to Arayu, lit. " the Violent 
Spring," 2 ri fi'om Furvimachi. 
The path leads directly behind the 
Kome-ya inn at the head of the 
vill., and over the hills in sharp 
zigzags. Distant views are obtained 
on the way, — an exception to the 
generally shut-in character of all 
this neighbourhood. 

[Near the top of the pass, on the 
]., is a tarn called Onuma. A 
smaller, called Konnma, situat- 
ed in a deeper hollow, is not 
visible from the road. A path 
follows the upper edge of these 
tarns down to the Shio-no-yu 
springs, and also miikes a 
good walk from Furumachi.] 

Arayu, a cluster of meiiioere 
inns, hes on the side of a hill ren- 
dered barren by the sulphurous 
water that biibbles forth in several 
spots, giving the phice a desolate 
aspect. It lies on a mountain road 

to Nikko frequently taken by 
pedestrians. The distances are ap- 
proximately as follows : — 

Arayu to : — Bi Cho J/. 

Fujiwara 5 — 12|- 

Okuwa 3 — 7J- 

Imaichi 1 15 3^ 

Total 9 15 23 

Thence train to Nikko in J^ hr. 
The inns on the way are poor. 

Arayu is the best starting-point 
for the ascent of Keicho-zan, 3 J 
ri, one of the peaks of Takahnra- 
yama (5,880 ft.), a sacred mountain, 
and one of the highest of the 
range separating the provinces 
of Shimotsulte and Iwashiro. The 
climb up it is somewhat rough and 
monotonous for about 1 hr., all 
view being shut out by woods and 
low ridges on both sides until the 
bed of the Akagawa is reached, 
where the ascent of the Tafcihara- 
toge begins. From the top of the 
jia?s to the small lake of Benfen-rja- 
ike is a liistance of 1 ri, and to 
the summit a steep pull of 20 cho 
more. The view from the summit 
is very extensive, embracing Fuji, 
Nantai-zan, Gwassan, Ede-san, 
Bandai-san, and numerous minor 
peaks. The shrine on Keicho-zan 
is dechcated to Saruta-hilto. Those 
wishing to make the ascent from 
Furumachi in one day must start 
early. An alternative is to take it 
on the way to Nikko. 

The active volcano of Nasu-yama 
(0,300 ft.) is best reached fi-om 
Kuroiso {Inn, Tabako-ya) on the 
Northern Railway, whence jin- 
rikisha ■«'ith two men — or pack- 
horse — for 4 ri 20 cho (11 m.) to 
Nasu (Inn, *Komatsii-ya), at the 
mountain's base, 2,750 ft. above 
sea-level. A good deal of sulphur 
is produced in the neighbourhood. 

The baths of Nasu are very ancient, 
havini; been established in the reign of 
Jomei Tenno (A. D 029.641). and have a 

220 Roate 21. — The Provinces of Shimosa, Kazusa, and Boshu. 

high local reputation for efficacy in skin 
diseases. The inns formerly stood a little 
higher up the river, at a spot called Yu- 
moto on the old maps, but were removed 
to their present site a few years ago. The 
Komatsu-ya has been in the same family 
for six centuries . 

Other noted bathing resorts on 
NasiT-yama, which is literally 
honeycombed with solfataras, are 
AsaM Onsen (3,700 ft.), Benten (4,200 
ft.), Omaru, a httle further np, and 
Sando-goya on the other side of the 
pass leading to the district of Aizii. 

Seven cho from Nasu, in a bleak 
spot near the river-bed, once stood 
the Sessho-sekl, or " Death-stone, " 
famous in a legend which has been 
dramatised as one of the No, or 
Lyric Dramas, of medisrval Japa- 
nese hterature. 

The story is that a Buddhist priest. Gen- 
no by name, while journeying across 
the desolate moor of Nasu, pauses to rest 
beneath this rock. A spirit forthwith 
appears and warns him that, by remain- 
ing iu this place, he is risking his life, for 
that not men only, but even birds and 
beasts perish if they do but touch it. The 
spirit and the chorus then recount to him 
in verse how once upon a time there lived 
a maiden, as learned and accomplished 
as she was surpassingly beautiful, whom 
the Emperor Toba no-In tuok to himself 
as his favourite concubine, and for her 
sake neglected all the affairs of state. At 
last one evening?, on the occasion of a 
banquet at the Palace, the light.s suddenly 
went out, and from the girl's body there 
darted forth a supernatural coruscation 
that illumined the whole scene, while 
the Mikado himself was struck down by 
disease. On the representations of the 
court magician, Abe-no-Yasunari, the vile 
witch — for the pretended beauty was 
evidently nothing better than a witch — 
was driven from the Imperial presence, 
and flew away through the air to the 
moor of Nasu, where she resumed her 
original shape, that of a fox. In the 
second act of the play, the spirit, appear- 
ing again, confesses to the good priest 
that itself is none other than the wraith 
of the witch whose story has just been 
told, and relates furthermore how, after 
escaping from the Palace, she was hunted 
by dogs over the moor of Nasu, — the 
origin, as the chorus obligingly stops to 
explain, of the .Japanese sport of inu ou 
mono, or " dog-hunting." The priest then 
exorcises the evil spirit by means of 
Buddhistic incantations. 

The stone itself no longer exists ; 
but the poisonous exhalations 

which still issue from the ground 
on which it stood are destructive, 
not only to insect life, but, as is 
asserted by the peasants, to ani- 
mals as well. 

The ascent of Nasu-yama Tvill 
occupy a little nnder 3 hrs. from 
Nasu, the last ^ hr. leading over a 
wild chaos of boulders, from 
amongst hundreds of which sul- 
phnrous vapour constantly rises. 
The view from the summit includes 
all the higher peaks of this central 
range, the Mkko mountains, Asa- 
ma, and Fuji. A huge cloud of 
steam and vapour, accompanied 
by incessant roaring, marks the 
present active crater formed by a 
destructive outbreak in 1881. It is 
situated on the W. side of the 
mountain, a little above the jmss 
which separates Nasu-yama from 
Asahi-dake, and by which the de- 
scent is made. This is a delightful 
walk of about 2^ hrs.. leading past 
several of the mineral springs men- 
tioned above. 

The baths of Shiobara may con- 
veniently be reached from Nasu by 
a path through the forest to Seldya 
(see p. 218), 6 ri. Horses abound 
in this district. 

ROUTE 21. 

The Provinces of Shimosa, 
K.4ZUSA, AND Boshu. 


These three provinces form a natural 
division of the country. The oinnion of 
geologists is that a great part of this 
district, whose sands seem to have been 
washed up by the sea, toj^ether with the 
wide Tokyo plain which is formed by 
alluvium washed down from the central 
mountain-ranges, was submerged iu quite 

Ghiba, Choshi, and the Lagoons. 


recent times, and that only the southern 
half of the peninsula of Kazusa-Boshu 
stood up out of the waves. This process 
of rising and drying is still going on. 
The large lagoons on the lower course of 
the Tonegawa gradually .shrink in size, 
and the same is true of Tokyo Bay. From 
these considerations, it will be inferred 
that the northern parts of this district are 
somewhat dreary travelling. The S. 
portion from Kano-zau downwards, with 
tuff ranges which, though not exceeding 
1,200 ft., seem higher because rising al- 
most directly from the sea, will best 
reward the tourist's trouble The coast of 
Boshu in particular affords lovely views, 
as well as a mild winter climate. 

The three provinces of Shimosa, Kazu- 
sa, and Boshii anciently formed one, 
under the name Fusa no Kuni, said to 
have been derived from the excellent 
quality of the hemp grown there. The 
district was subsequently divided into 
Upper and liO'j'er, or Kami tsu Fusa and 
Shimo tsu Fusa, now contracted into 
Kazusa and Sldmosa, and part of the for- 
mer was subsequently constituted into 
the province of Awa, bettei' known by 
Its alternative Chinese name of Boshu. 
" Upper " and " Lower " seem to have been 
employed to denote the relative proximity 
of these two provinces to the ancient 
capital. Kazusa, Boshu, and the greater 
part of Shimosa now form the prefec- 
ture of Chiba. 

1. Chiba, Choshi, and the 

the sobu railway. 



O ^ lO 

a Q i^. 







TOKYO (Honjo) 

















r C h a n g e for 

21 :i 


s Mubara and 




Sakura Jot 

( C h a n g e f or 

























The whole of this railway traver- 
ses flat country. Before reaching 
Ichikawa, we cross the Yedo-gawa, 
where there is often a j)retty view 
of boats sailing up the river. The 
high wooded bluff on the 1. banlc is 
Konodai, now the seat of a military 
academy. Five cho from Nakayatna 
stands Hokeky5ji, a temjile spe- 
cially devoted to the worship of 
Kishibojin (see p. 50), and enjoying 
considerable local popularity. 

Funabashi is a large town. At 
Inage, there is a well-known bathing 
establishment called KaiM-kwan. 

Ch.iba [Inns, Kano-ya, Ume- 
matsu-ya) is a prefectural town. 
This prefecture ranks next to Yezo 
in the abundance of its marine 
products, the district of Ku-jii-ku-ri 
to the S. of Cape Inuboe afforthng 
the richest field. At Imai, just out- 
side Chiba, and the succeeding vil- 
lages along the coast, a considerable 
manufacture of starch from the 
sweet potato is carried on. A good 
3 m. walk from Chiba is to the an- 
cient Temple of Daiganji, standing 
in a pine forest where thousands of 
cormorants roost and build their 

At Chiba the line leaves the coast, 
and strikes N. W. for 

Sakura [Inn, Kome-ya), a garri- 
son town, 10 cho distant from its 
station, and Narita (see p. 147). 

Sakura castle was formerly the seat of 
the Hotta family, which furnished many 
statesmen to the Gorojii, or chief council 
of the Tokugawa Shoguns. Its site is now 
occupied by barracks. 

From Yokoshiba onwards, the 

country is very sandy and yet 

green, OM-ing to cultivation and 
pine- woods. 

222 Route '1\. — The Provinces of Shimosa, Kazusa, and Bosh a. 

Choshi (Inn, Daishin, over 1 m. 
from the station) extends for 2^ m. 
along the r. bank of the Tonegawa, 
which here contracts, and rolls be- 
tween sharp rocks into the sea. 
The Temple of Kicannon, crowning 
an eminence which divides the 
town into two halves, commands 
an agreeable prospect. Choshi is 
noted for its soy, the manufacture 
of which may be seen at Tanaka 
Gemba's establishment, the oldest 
and largest, which supphes the 
Imperial Household. The chief 
occupation of the inhabitants is 
fishing. Immense quantities of 
iwashi, a fish resembling the pil- 
chard but smaller, are caught here 
and all along the coast. They are 
boiled in huge caul(h'ons to obtain 
the oil, which is used for lamps ; 
and the residue, dried in the sun, 
is sent inland for manure. The 
odour may be better imagined than 

Visitors to this portion of the 
coast ■will find it pleasanter to put 
Tip at Cape hmhoe, 1 ri 18 cho from 
Choshi station. There is a good 
inn, the Gyokei-kwan, situated in a 
email bay close by the lighthouse, 
and much frequented during the 
summer months. The whole coast 
called Ku-ja-ku-ri no hama, stretch- 
ing S. from Chdshi, is flat, sandy, 
•and uninteresting. 

Travellers desirous of seeing 
something of the large lagoons on 
the lower course of the Tonegawa, 
might vary the return to Tokyo by 
taking steamer up the river to O- 
funatsu on the Kita-ura lagoon, 
thence also by steamer to Tsuchi- 
ura on the Kasumi lagoon, and 
home by train in 2J hrs. There is 
daily communication. 

The lagoon called Kita-iira is 6 ri long 
from N. to S. and 1 ri wide. Kasumi-ga- 
ura is 36 ri in cii-cuit and of a very 
irregular shape. Its shores are flat and 
well-wooded, and it contains sixteen 
islands, of which Ukishima on the S. E. 
■side is the largest. Pearls are fished for 
in the vicinity. 

The poor viU. of Ofunatsu stands 
near the S. extremity of the Kita- 

: ura lagoon, 18 cho by jinrikisha 
' from the ancient temple of "Ka- 
I shima, a noted pilgrim resort. A 
broad avenue leads to the temple, 
which is surrounded by a grove of 
fine cryptomerias. The yearly fes- 
tival takes place on the 9th iilarch. 

The name Ka-shima means " Deer Is- 
land,'' but the district is an island no 
longer, and the deer are extinct. The 
principal deity here worshipped is Take- 
mika-zuchi. This god was one of those 
sent down from heaven to Japan, to pre- 
pare the advent of the line of earthly 
sovereigns known afterwards as Mikados. 
The temple is usually said to have been 
founded in the " Age of the Gods," and 
certainly dates from the prehistoric epoch. 

A small enclosure behind con- 
tains the Kaname-ishi, or " pivot 
stone," supposed to ,be a pillar 
whose foundation is at the centre 
of the earth. This, though cele- 
brated, is insignificant as a sight, 
as one sees nothing but a few 
inches of stone. 

One account is that under this spot lies 
confined the gigantic fish called nainazu, 
whose contortions are the cause of earth- 
quakes, and that the stone acts as some 
restraint on the creature's movements. 
Mitsukuni, the second Daimyo of Mito, is 
said to have dug round it for six days 
without finding the lower end. 

About 1 m. from the temple is a 
stretch of moorland called Takama- 
no-hara, literally, " the Plain of High 
Heaven," where the gods are sup- 
posed to have assembled in days of 
yore, and where stone an'ow-heads 
may still occasionally be found. 

A canal connects the _two big 
lagoons. The trip fi'om Ofunatsu 
to Tsuchiura occupies about 6 hrs. 
The mountain constantly seen a- 
head is Tsukuba. 

2. — Theottgh the PkninsxtIjA to 

Katsu-uea, and eound the S.&W. 

Coasts to Kominato, Nokogiri- 


This makes a good winter trip 
either on foot or by jiniUdsha, as 
the climate is mild and the ac- 
commodation comfortable. There 
being steam communication daily 
with T6ky5 from Katsu-ura, Ama- 

Tlirough the Peninsula to Kalnv-ura and A'omlnato. 223 

tsu, Hojo, and the various villages 
on the W. coast of the peninsiila, 
travellers wishing to curtail their 
journey can do so at almost any 

The first stage is by train to Chi- 
ba (see p. 221), whence by another 
line (that running to Ichinomiya on 
the E. coast) as far as Mobara. The 
itinerai-y onwards is as follows : — 

MOBAKAto:— Bi Cho M. 

Chdnan 2 — 5 

Odaki 2 20 Gj 

Katsu-iira 5 16 IS^^ 

Koiuinato 3 21 8| 

Amatsu 1 3 2J 

Kamogawa 1 27 4^ 

Euii 2 12 5| 

Wada 17 3 

Matsuda 1 18 3| 

Shirako 1 5 2| 

Asahina 33 2^ 

Shirahama 2 27 5| 

Mera 1 34 4| 

TATEYAMA 2 20 6^ 

Hojo 13 I 

Kachiyama 4 14 10| 

Hota 1 — 2J 

Kanaya 1 8 3 

Take-ga-oka 1 21 4 J 

Teujinyama (Minato) 34 2^- 

Kano-zan 3 — Ih 

KISAKAZU 4 23 \1\ 

Total.... 48 6 117J 

From Mobara southwards to the 
coast the road leads through 
numerous small valleys, cultivated 
and well-wooded. 

Chonan {Inn, K5ji-ya). The 
noted Temple of Kasamori, dedicat- 
ed to the Eleven-faced Kwan- 
non, 1 ri E. of this town by 
jinrikisha, is a curiosity worth turn- 
ing aside to see. It stands among 
patriarchal pines and cryptomerias, 
and is built on a platform resting on 
the point of an irregular conical 
rock some 50 ft. in height, the edges 
being sujiported by stout wooden 
scaflEolding. Three flights of stairs 
lead to the top. Of the numerous 
votive offerings brought by rustic 

worshippers, the most touching are 
suits of very tiny children's dresses 
set up in glass cases. There is a 
fair inn at the bottom of the hill 
on which the temple stands. The 
annual festival is celebrated on the 
17th August. 

The holy image here worshipped, .say 
the temple records, was carved out of 
camphor-wood by Dengyo Daishi ; and 
though the minor buildings have been 
burnt down at various times, the main 
shrine, which dates from the year 1028, 
subsists unhurt to this day, — an evident 
proof of the goddess's special grace. 

Retracing our steps to Chonan 
(nothing is gained by attempting a 
short cut), we next reach 

Odaki [Inn, Odald-ya), a fair- 
sized country town. On approach- 
ing the coast, the road becomes de- 
lightfully smooth and firm. It has 
been cut out of the low rounded 
hills formed of sea sand which 
characterise this region, while the 
intervening valleys laave been filled 
in and built up to the necessary 
level. The sea comes in sight just 
before reaching 

Katsu-ura [Inn, Kozen), a clean 
and thriving little seaport town. 
The temple-crowned hill above it 
commands an extensive view. The 
fishermen all along the coast of 
these provinces of Kazusa and 
Bdshii occasionally wear gorgeous 
gowns adorned with stamped 
coloiu-ed designs of the rising sun, 
birds, fishes, singing-girls, etc. 
These are rewards bestowed by their 
employers on the occasion of large 
catches, and are brought out on 
high days and holidays. Turning 
westwards, it is a very pretty walk 
hence along the coast, with Cape 
Nojima standing out clearly in the 
distance. Considerable tunnelling 
through the soft Umestone rock, 
and cuttings in the cliffs, save 
many ups and downs on the way. 
The long vill. of 

Kominato {Inn, Seikai-ro) is 
built round the shores of a small 
bay. The western part is Kominato 
proper, the eastern is called Uchi- 

224 Route 21. — The Frovinoes of Shimosa, Kazusa, and Boshu. 

ura, at the entrance to which stands 
a temjole famous thronghoTit Japan 
as the birthplace of the great 
Buddhist saint, Nichiren. 

According to some, the original site of 
the temple founded by Nichiren himself 
on the very spot which gave him birth, is 
now under a stretch of sea called Tai-no- 
ura, said to be the resort of numbers of 
tai fish, which are held sacred by the 
fishermen. Another tradition is that 
from the day of the saint's birth until he 
was seven days old, two of these fish five 
feet long used daily to appear in the pond 
in his father's garden, whence the spot, 
since covered by the waves, took its 
name of " Tax Bay." In any case, there 
is only just sufficient space between the 
sea and the steexj hills behind for the row 
of houses forming the double village of 
Kominato and Uchi-ura. 

The temple raised to the memory 
of Nichiren is called Tanjoji, or the 
Temple of the Bii-th. The main 
temple is an nnpainted wooden 
building, 72 ft. square inside, built 
in 1846. The porch has some ex- 
cellent carvings of tortoises and 
lions' heads. The birds in the 
brackets of the transverse beams 
and the new dragons above are 
also good. The interior is very 
simple, its only decoration being 
four large panels carved with 
dragons, and a coffered ceiling 
vsdth the Mikado's crest painted in 
each compartment. On the altar 
stands a handsome black and gold 
shrine containing a Kfe-like image 
of the saint, who is represented as 
reading fi-om a richly gilt scroll 
containing a portion of the Hoke- 
kyo. The doors of the shrine are 
kept closed except dming service, 
when they are thrown open in order 
that worshippers may gaze upon 
Nichiren's countenance. 

To the r., just inside the outer 
gate, is a small square building 
over the well which nominally 
suppUed the water {ianjo-sid) used 
to wash the infant saint, — nomi- 
nally only, because the original sijot 
was overwhelmed by a tidal wave 
in A. D. 1498.— The annual festi- 
val takes place on the 12th and 13th 
days of the 10th moon, old style. 

Atnatsu [Inn,, Abura-ya at the 
W. end) is another very long \il- 
lage, and a better place to stay at 
than Kominato. 

A little more than 1 ri due N. 
of Amatsu, and approachable by 
jinrikisha, stands the mountain vill. 
of Kiyosumi (Inn, Yamaguchi-ya), 
1,000 ft. above the sea, celebrated 
for its temple to Kokuzo Bosatsu. 
The way leads up through pine- 
woods, which cover the hills 
as far as the eye can reach. The 
handsome main shrine contains 
some good carvings of Buddhist 
deities. Its site too is remark- 
ably beautiful, giant cryptomerias 
sheltering the gi'oiTnds. The small 
eminences close by the temple 
command a glorious pros[)ect, both 
landward and seaward. The in- 
vigorating air and the absence 
of mosqiiitoes attract many Japa- 
nese visitors during the summer 

[From Kiyosumi a direct road 
through pine-woods cuts due 
W. across the peninsula to 
Hota, about 10 ri] 

Kamogawa (Inn, Yoshida-ya) 
is a fair-sized town. The chief 
object of interest on this part of 
the coast is Niernon-jima, a tiny 
islet off Cape Nabuto. The road 
passes within a few ehd of the 

During a reverse of fortune, Yoritomo 
was assisted by one Niemon, and shelter- 
ed in a cave on this islet. 'When he rose 
to supreme power, he granted the sole 
possession of the islet (no wide domain 
certainly) to his benefactor, whence its 
present name. 

From here on to Emi (Inn, 
Koike-ya) and beyond, daffodils 
and other flowers abound near the 
sea-shore, and fill the air with 
their fragrance at Christmas time. 

Matsuda (Inn, Kawanishi). 

[Here there is a short cut across 
the tiny province of Boshii at 
its narrowest part to Hojo, 3 
ri 25 cho.'] 

The mineral springs of Cliigura 

Tateyama . Nokogiri-i/ai uci. 


Onsen, in the township of Asahina, 
offer good accommodation ; but the 
bathing arrangements do not suit 
European ideas. 

[At Shirahama again a road cuts 
across to H5j5, about 3 »•*.] 

On the low headland of Nbjima, 
stands a fine lighthouse, whose 
light is visible for 20 miles. During 
tins part of the way Vries Island 
remains constantly in view, with its 
pillar of smoke by day and tire by 
night. The climate here is so mild 
that the village children may be 
seen playing .ibout almost naked 
even in winter. 

Travellers not })ressed for time 
might find it pleasant to stay over 
a night at the *Yuji-kwan, an 
isolated inn perched on the hill- 
side close to a pretty beach just 
under the Mera lighthouse, and 
10 cho from the vill. of Mera. 
Fishing-boats ptit out in large 
numbers during the season to catch 
bonitos around Vries Island and 
others of the chain extenchng 
southward towards Hachijo. Su- 
nosaki, lit. " sand cape," deserves 
its name, and the way round it is 
not recommended. Our inland 
route leads over a gentle hill by a 
finely giaded road to 

Tateyama and Hojo {In7is, 
*Kimui'a-ya, *Yoshino-kwan). These 
two towns are practically continu- 
ous, being only se^Darated by a 
small stream. Hojo commands an 
incomparable view of Fuji across 
the sea. Nowhere else does 
the mountain seem to rise to so 
great a height, completely dom- 
inating the Oyama and 'Amagi 
ranges which extend r. and 1., 
while on either hand the shores 
of the bay stretch round to form 
a fitting frame for this lovely 
picture. The little bay of Tate- 
yama is known in Japanese as 
Karjami no ura, or " Mirror Reach," 
and is a favourite spot for sea- 
bathing, owing to its pleasant 
beach and generally smooth water. 
A steamer leaves Hojo daily for 

Tokyd at about 10 A.M., calhng at 
several places along the coast of 
Bdshu and Kazusa, and reaches 
Tokyo in 7 hrs. under favourable 
circumstances. Another leaves 
about noon, calling at Uraga. 

A good jinriMsha road leads 
along the coast through the towns 
of Kachiyama [Inn, Naka-jin), 
Hoia, and Motona, the two latter 
being continuous. The cUmb up 
Nokogiri-yama is made from 
Motona, the descent to Kanaya 
(poor accommodation), to which 
place the jinriMshas should be sent 
on. The detoitr is a slight one, 
occupying only about 1-} hr. 

This mountain takes its name, 
which means " Saw Mountain," 
from the serrated ridge of peaks 
that follow each other in regiolar 
gradation from the highest on the 
E. down to the sea-shore. Hound 
the promontory thus formed, passes 
the highway to Kanaya. Scat- 
tered over the south side of the 
mountain are the remains of a set 
of stone images of the Five Hun- 
dred Eakan, many of them now 
headless or otherwise mutilated. 
Besides these, there is a shrine 
hewn out of the Hving rock, in the 
centre of which is a stone effigy 
of the person to whose initiative 
the carving of the other five 
hundred images was due. The 
view fi'om the point called Mi- 
luirashi, 850 ft. above the sea, is 
lovely. Westward rises the peiiect 
form of Fuji above the low coast 
of Sagami, while to the S. a suc- 
cession of bays and promontories 
marks the W. coast of BoshCi. 
First comes the vill. of Yoshihama, 
bent at an obtuse angle along the 
sea-shore, and beyond it the cape 
under which nestles the httle town 
of Kachiyama. To the E. are the 
higher peaks of Nokogui-yama, and 
in fi'ont a mass of lesser hills 
intervening between the ridge and 
the valley of the Minato-gawa. 
The lighthouse on Kwannon-saki 
is a prominent landmark bearing 
N.W. by N. — ^Extensive quarries on 

226 Route 21. — TJ^e Pro\:inces of Shimosa, Kazusa, and BokKu. 

the N. side are passed on the way 

Tunnelling characteiises this sec- 
tion of the road onwards for several 
miles. At Hagyu the local wonder 
is a small cavern containing a well, 
called Eoijane-ido, or the Golden 
"WeU, on account of a yellow scum 
that rises on its surface. This 
effect is due to the fluorescent 
property of the water ; but the 
simple country-folk hang the usual 
emblems of worship about the 

Tenjin-yama or Minato [Inn, 
*Siury6-kwan). This prettily situat- 
ed place contains a few sake 
breweries and soy manufactories, 
the produce of which is shipped in 
junks to Tokyo; but the population 
consists chiefly of fishermen. A 
smooth sandy beach with a W. as- 
pect stretches 1| m. along the 
shore to the N., affording excellent 
bathing. About 1 m. off rises 
Myoken-yama, which commands a 
fine view. 

The way nov>- ascends the valley 
of the ilinato-gawa to Sakurai (not 
to be confounded ^vith the other 
Till, of the same name near Ki- 
sarazu mentioned below), and 
thence up the slopes of Kano-zan, 
which have been afforested with 
pine trees in recent years. 

Kano-zan (Inn, Marashichi), a 
village of about lUO houses, stands 
on the top of the mountain of the 
same name, which, rising to a height 
of 1,260 ft. on the borders of Kazusa 
and Boshti, forms a conspicu- 
ous object in the view across Tokyo 
Bay. The inn faces W., and com- 
mands a superb prospect : — below, 
the blue waters of Tokyo Bay, 
beyond which rises Fuji ; to the 1. 
the Hakone range ; to the r. the 
Oyama and Tanzawa ranges : and 
fuilher N. the Nikko mountains, 
Akagi-san, and Tsukuba. Even 
more comprehensive is the view 
from the hill just below ihe inn, 
used as one of the principal trigon- 
ometrical survey stations of Japan. 

Among the prettiest walks at Kano- 
zan is one to a waterfall, 1 m. from 
the vill. The volume of water, 35 ft. 
in height, is small ; but the basin 
into which it f;xlls is curious, 
having rocks on either side coming 
together like the bows of an 

A 10 min. walk, affording a view 
unique in its way, is as follows : — 
Passing through the lower street 
of Kan5-zan towards the N., we 
reach 1. a flight of 218 stone 
steps, at the top of which stands 
a small Shinto shrine. This is 
the highest point of the mountain ; 
but being overgi'own with tall 
trees, the summit offers no 
view. Opposite the steps on the 
r., a short path leads to the brow 
of the hill, whence there is a fine 
prospect towards the E. and N. 
The side of the mountain here 
slopes away very abruptly ; and 
below, as far as the eye can reach, 
he low but sharp ridges covered 
with brushwood, intersecting and 
meeting so as to form a multitiide 
of tiny valleys, in most of which rice 
is cultivated. The ■sdew from this 
point has therefore received the 
name of Ku-ju-ku Tani, or the 
Ninety-nine Valleys. 

The descent to the foot of Kano- 
zan is about J hr. walk, whence 
through pretty rural scenery to 
Sakurai [Inn, Kadomatsu-ya), a 
small vill. 23 cho from the flomish- 
ing port of 

Kisarazu [Inns, Fushimi, Tori- 
kai). From here there is daily steam 
communication with Tokyo (see 
p. 112). 

Boufe 22. — The Ead Goad Bailway. 


ROUTE 22. 

The East Coast E,att,way. 

fbom tokyo to mito, and along 
the coast to taiba and sendal. 



O „ lO 

a S ^ 






TOKYO (Ueno) 


Tabata Jet. 


Minami Senju 


Kita Senju 



9 -J 


















(Alight for 



jTsuknba, see 
(p. 150, 











r For branch 


Tomobe Jet 

\ to Oyama on 
(Northern By. 















99 i' 














( Road to Shira- 

127 ij 


< kawa on 
( "Northern Ry. 







138 2 


141 j 


























207 J- 






This line, traversing the prov- 
inces of Shinaosa, Hitachi, and 
Iwaki, joins the Northern Ea,ilway 
system just sonth of Sendai, and 
thus affords an alternative route 
for the traveller proceeding north- 

Running through the rice plains 
that surround Tokyo and Mito, it 
then passes along the naiTOW strip 
of cultivated ground bordering the 
Pacific coast, which it closely sMrts 
most of the way to Taira. Inter- 
esting glimpses are obtained of 
some of the lagoons connected 
with the Tonegawa ; and although 
the coast line is sandy and mono- 
tonously straight, the breakers and 
occasional rocky inlets, \\ith fish- 
ing villages here and there, lend 
something of variety and colour. 
In the section north of Taira the 
Iwaki hills stretch in one low, 
unbroken hne on the 1. almost 
all the way to Iwanuma. The rail- 
way runs midway between the hiUs 
and the coast, and beyond Tomioka 
station the sea rarely comes in 

Diverging from the Northern 
Railway at Tabata, the hne striltes 
due E., passing through Senju, an 
extensive suburb of Tokyo. After 
crossing the Nakagawa and Yedo- 
gawa, it turns northwards, and 
reaches the main stream of the 
Tonegawa, which is spanned by a 
long iron bridge at 

Toride, a cleanly town on its 1. 
bank. The Ushiku-numa, seen to 
the 1. beyond Fujishiro, is a long, 
narrow, and shaUow lagoon. Tsti- 
kuba-san, with its twin peaks, also 
comes in sight 1. before 


Route 22. — Tlie East Coast Railway. 

Tsuchiura {Inn, Matsuya). This 
former castle-town stands at the 
W. end of Kasumi-ga-ura, the 
largest of the lagoons. Small 
steamers start every morning, and 
call in at the villages scattered 
along the shore. Ishioka was like- 
wise a castle town in feiidal days. 

As the train approaches Mito, a 
number of cavities are seen on the 
1. in the high bluff on which a 
portion of the town is built. These 
galleries were hollowed out for the 
sake of the blocks used in the 
manufacture of soft-stone furnaces. 

Mito [hins, SuzuM-ya, with 
branch at station ; Izumi-ya), 
the principal town of the prov- 
ince of Hitachi and capital of 
the prefecture of Ibaraki, lies some 
3 ri inland fi-om the shore of the 
Pacific Ocean, on rising ground in 
tbe midst of a wdde plain. The 
town is in three divisions, the 
Lower Town, the Upper Town, and 
the Castle Enclosure which lies 
between the other two. The castle, 
where formerly dwelt the lords of 
Mito, is picturesquely situated on 
the crest of the high ground that 
rises from the plain. The defences 
consisted of deep trenches on the 
upper town side, and lofty banks — 
the edge of the hill in fact — on the 
other, with a small moat below. 
Three large gates and one tower 
still remain. It is worth walking 
roirnd the castle and under the 
beautiful trees within the grounds. 
The Public Garden on the E. of the 
upper town, overlooking the large 
mere of Semba, is also prettily 

It was laid out some fifty years ago by 
Kekko, lord of Mito, as a retreat for 
himself after handing over the cares of 
government to his successor. See p. 79 for 
the part played by this noble house in the 
modern history of Japan. 

A good view is obtained from the 
summer-house in the garden, where 
men of letters formerly assembled 
to -wiite verses and practise calli- 
graphy. The staple manu- 
factures of Mito are cloth and 

paper. Tobacco is also made into 
cigarettes in large quantities, and 
a considerable export trade is car- 
ried on in both salt and fresh- 
water fish. 

The visitor with time to spare 
may run out by jinrikisha to the 
pleasant sea-side hamlet of Oarai 
{Inn, Kimpa-ro), 3 ri, a favourite 
resort of the IVIito folk. 

A short line of railway connects 
Mito ^\ith Ota, an important town 
some 14 m. to the N. 

Very little of the town of Mito is 
visible fi-om the train, which merely 
skirts the 8. and E. suburbs. 
Leading it, we cross the Nakagawa, 
noted for its salmon, and in f hr. 
approach the Pacific coast at Omika. 
The ancient highway will often be 
distinguished on the r. by its 
avenue of pine-trees. There are 
two pretty pieces of sea-beach on 
this section visible from the caniage 
windows, — -one at Isohara, where 
the small i^romontory of Tempi-san, 
with its fine trees and rocks, recalls 
Enoshima in luiniature, and another 
near Nakoso, close to the boi;ndary 
which separates the provinces of 
Hitachi and Iwaki. At Nakoso also 
stood in ancient times one of the 
barriers erected by government in 
days when the object was, not to en- 
courage travel, but to impede it. 
This spot was immortahsed in verse 
by Minamoto-no-Yoshiie (see p. 72, 
under Hachiman Tard), while on his 
way back from conquests in the 

Every lover of Japanese poetry knows 
the lines by heart. They run thus :— 

Fuku kaze wo 
Nakoso no seki to 

Omoishi ni 
Michi mo se ni chiru 
Vama-zakura kana ! — 

which may be Englished as follows : — 

' ■ Jlethought this barrier, with its gusty 
breezes, was a mere name ; but lo ! the 
wild cherry-blossoms flutter down so as 
to block the path.'' 

The railway leaves the sea near 
[feda, to strike in amongst a 

Promnce of Iwaki. 


conglomeration of conical hills 
which have necessitated a good deal 
of tunnelling. One ri from Izumi 
station lies the little port of Ona- 
hama, which is almost the sole place 
of refuge on this inhospitable coast. 
Two miles to the N.W. of Yumoto 
{Inn, ShintaM, with hot mineral 
baths), are the coal-mines of Ono- 
da, near Yunotake (2,060 ft.), a peak 
conspicuous for this part of the 

Taira (Inn, Sumiyoshi, with 
branch at station), situated in a 
kind of basin enclosed on every 
side by low liills, is the only town 
of any importance on this line 
north of Mito. 

[Though the Province of Iwaki 

is not generally considered at- 
tractive, the following itinerary 
from Taira to Koriyama on the 
Northern Railway is given for 
the benefit of such as may 
desire to traverse it. The road 
mostly leads N.W. up the coui'se 
of the Natsui-gawa (charming 
in autumn -with the maples 
lining its banks), and is practi- 
cable for jinrildshas. The best 
stopping-places are Ono-Nii- 
machi and Miharu, the latter 
town being connected with 
Koriyama by tramway. 


TAIRA to:— Ri Cho M. 

Uwadaii'a 2 14 5| 

Kawamae 4 3 10 

Ono-Niimachi. 4 8 1Q\ 

Kadosawa 3 15 8i 

Miharu ,.... 3 10 S" 

KORIYAMA... 3 11 8 

Total 20 25 50J ] 

Between Yotsukura and Hirono 

lies the most picturesque portion of 
the N.E. Coast Railway. Spurs of 
the hUls run down to the shore ; 
and as the train emerges fi'om the 
tunnels that have been cut through 
them, delightful sea views appear 
at every opening. In the vicinity 
of Hirono some coal-mining is 
carried on. Tunnelling continues 
at intervals on to Namie, whence 
for manjf miles the natural features 
of the country resemble those 
around Kamakura and Yokosuka, — 
low hills projecting in aU directions 
like tiny peninsulas, and the inter- 
vening valleys being cultivated with 
rice. These give place after Hara- 
no-machi (Inn, Maru-ya), which is a 
fair-sized town, to an alternation of 
pine-woods and paddy-fields. 

Nakaxaura (Inn, Ise-ya). The 
hamlets of Matsukawa-ura (Inn, 
Ise-ya) and Haragama (Inn, Toyo- 
kwan) lie 1 ri 8 cho and 1 ri 20 cho 
respectively in the same direction 
from this station, with excellent 
sea-bathing and pretty coast sce- 
nery. Matsukawa-ura stands on a 
large lagoon, separated from the 
sea by a long strip of sandy beach. 
Tiny islets covered with pine-trees 
dot the lagoon, whose shores are 
also lined with fine old specimens 
of the same tree. Haragama is on 
the sea-coast. 

On leading Shinchi, where we 
obtain our last peep of the sea, the 
double row of pine-trees planted to 
screen the fields from the northern 
blasts form an unusual feature 
in the landscape. Soon the Iwaki 
hills draw in a little ; and on passing 
YosMda, a rice plain stretches away 
to the north. The wide sandy bed 
of the Shiroishi-gawa is crossed just 
before entering the junction of 

Iwanuma (see Route 65). 

Il-i>^l^ > '^Jt. 




(koutes 2^ 2^. 

Route. 23. — The Tokaido. 


ROUTE 23. 

The Tokaido by Rail from Tokyo 
TO Kyoto and Kobe. 





a a >» 




TOKYO (Shim- 







See Route 3. 













fChange for 



\ Kamakura & 
( Yokosuka. 





i Alight f or_ as- 



\ ceut of Oya- 

( ma (p. 109). 



rAlight for 



Hakone, and 

[ Atami. 









(Alight for as- 
\ cent of Fuji. 









from the west 
alight for 
Fuji. Atlwa- 



•i buchi alight 



for Kami-Ide 
waterfalls (p. 
176) and Mi- 



, nobu(Ete.27). 



( Excursion to 
\ Kuno-zan. 

















(Alight for 
\ Akiha. 





down rapids 
of Tenryu 


Tenryii-gawa .... 

^ & bound E., 
enter train 
here, but ex- 
press does 
not stop. 

Tenryu travel- 



lers for the 
W. enter train 









( Bran ch to 
( Toyokawa. 






An jo 



f Change for 



J Handa, and 

( Taketoyo. 





(("hange for 


NAGOYA Jet. ... 

J I 8 e and 



t Kwansai By. 











(Alight for 
( Yoro. 




fC hange for 


MAIBARA Jet . . . 

\ Nagahama 
( & TsTiruga. 












KUSATSU Jet. . . 

(Change for 
\ Kwansai line. 


Baba (OTSUt 






















Kanzaki Jet. 




San-no-miya . . . 

(See caution at 
( end of Route. 




Route 2'S. — The Tokaido. 

The word Tokaido aignifies " Eastern 
Sea Koad." The name was given to this 
road at an early date on account of its 
running along the sea-shore in an easterly 
direction from Kyoto, which, being the 
old historic capital, was naturally 
regarded as the starting-point. From the 
17th century onwards, the Tokaido was 
traversed twice yearly by Daimyos coming 
with gorgeous retinues to pay their re- 
spects to the Shogun at Yedo : and all 
the chief towns, here as on the other great 
highways of the empire, were provided 
with honjin — that is, specially fine hos- 
telries— for their lordships to sleep at. 
The greater portion of the beautiful avenue 
of pine-trees with which the road was 
lined still exists, and can be seen oc- 
casionally from the windows of the railway 
carriage. The road itself is now com- 
paratively deserted. " But what a scene it 
used to present ! How crowded with 
pedestrians ; with norimono (the palan- 
quins of the upper crust), and attendants : 
with cangoes (the modest bamboo 
conveyance of the humble classes) ; 
with pack-horses, conveying merchandise 
of all kinds to and from the capital 
or to the busy towns and villages along 
the route ; with the trains of Daimjos or of 
lesser gentrj' entitled to travel with a 
retinue ; and with the commonalty, men, 
women and children, on foot, all with 
their dresses turned up for facility of 
movement, and for the roost part taking 
the journey pretty easily : frequently 
stopping at the numberless tea-houses or 
resting sheds by the way, and refresh- 
ing themselves with the simple little 
cup of weak green tea, and a cheery chat 
with whomsoever might stop like them- 
selves to rest. It used to seem that dis- 
tance was no consideration with them. 
They could go on all day. and day 
after day, if only they were allowed 
(which they generally were) to take their 
own time and pace. The value of time 
never entered into their thoughts. . . . 

The numerous trains of armed men pass- 
ing in both directions were the most strik- 
ing feature of the scene. Never could one 
go out of one's house in any direction, 
but these two-sworded men were met 
with ; but on the Tokaido, and in the 
streets of Yedo, they appeared to be more 
numerous than the common people : and 
it must be understood that at this time of 
which I am speaking, the crowds on por- 
tions of the road and in all the principal 
thoroughfares of the capital, were as great 
as in the most crowded thoroughfares of 
London. It took one forcibly back to the 
feudal times in Europe, when no noble or 
landed propsrietor thought of going abroad 
unattended by his armed dependants. Ad- 
ded to this, there was a certain air of 
antiquity that imparted its charm to the 
scene. The old Dutch writers described 
the road long ago, and it was even in their 

day, precisely as it was in ours. A good, 
well macadamised causeway, (except that 
the hard stratum was of pebbles, not of 
broken stones), passing through numerous 
populous villages, only divided from each 
other by short intervals, where tine old 
trees on both sides of the road were the 
sole division between the road and the 
paddy fields. The etiquette of the road 
was well and rigidly defined. When the 
trains of two princes met, it was incum- 
bent on the lesser of them — (measured by 
his income as recognised by the Govern- 
ment, and published in the official list), to 
dismount from his norimon, if he hap- 
pened to be riding in one, and draw with 
his followers to the side of the road whilst 
the other passed. Whenevei it was 
possible, therefore, such meetings were 
avoided." * 

The railway was begun in 1872 and 
finished as a single Une in 1889. The 
process of doubling it is still incomplete. 
The journey from Tokyo to Kyoto, which 
formerly was an affair of 12 or 13 days on 
foot, i.s now reduced to 14! hrs. 

Travellers with time on hand are 
advised to break the journey at 
Kozu, in order to visit Miyanoshita 
and Hakone (Ete. 6) ; at Okitsu, in 
order to visit Eunb-zun on the way 
between that station and Shiziioka ; 
at Shizuoka itself, and at Nmjoya. 
Of these places, three, viz. Miyano- 
shita, Shiznoka, and Nagoya, have 
hotels in foreign style. Those who 
are hunied may console themselves 
for missing these interesting places 
by the knowledge that the scenery 
through which they are to pass of- 
fers many chamis, including superb 
views of Fuji fiom both the land 
and the sea side. The least in- 
teresting portion of the line is that 
between Shizuoka and Nagoya, a 
6 hours' run which may with 
comparatively Uttle disadvantage be 
performed after dark, as most of it 
passes through flat country devoted 
to the cultivation of rice. 

The first hour of the journey, — 
that between Tokyo and Yokohama, 
— ha\ing been already described 
in Eoute 3, calls for no further 
remark. Some trains run into Yoko- 
hama station to pick up passengers 
for the west, and run out again 

* This description is quoted from 
Black's Young Japan, Vol. I., p. 163, e.t seq. 

From Ofuna to Sana. 


for a few min. over the same ground, 
but soon diverging to the 1. Other 
trains, by an arrangement most 
inconvenient to travellers starting 
from Yokohama, leave Yokohama 
aside and run straight fi'om Kana- 
gawa to the small station of Hodo- 
gaya, where the Yokohama passen- 
gers are picked up. At 

Ofuna Junction, a short branch 
line takes travellers to the famous 
Daibutsu at Kamakura (see pp. 

Fujisawa {Inns, Inage-ya and 
Wakamatsu-ya at station). The 
Buddliist temple of Yugyo-dera, 
8 cho from the station, is known 
far and v(dde for the wonderful 
powers of heahng, etc., ascribed to 
its successive abbots. The es- 
tablished custom is for the abbot 
to spend all his time in pious 
journeyings, and return to Fuji- 
sawa only at the approach of death. 
The present temple is spacious and 
possesses a handsome altar, but 
can nowise be compared mth the 
earher set of buildings destroyed 
by fire in 1880. Fujisawa is the 
nearest station for the sacred island 
of Enoshima (see p. 105). After 
passing Fujisawa, the Hakone range, 
behind which towers the cone of 
Fuji, begins to come in sight r. Soon 
afterwards, the line crosses the 
broad, stony bed of the river 
Banyu, which rises in Lake Yama- 
naka on the N.E. flank of Fuji. 

Oiso (Inn, *T6ryo-kwan) is a 
bathing resort which has become 
fashionable of late years ; the hill- 
side is dotted with the villas of 
the Japanese nobUity. The coast 
from here onwards is well-protect- 
ed from ■winter winds, an advan- 
tage to which the groves of orange- 
trees coveiing the surrounding 
slopes bear witness. At 

£[5zu (Inn, Kozu-kwan), the hne 
turns inland up the vaUey of the 
Sakawa-gawa, in order to avoid the 
Hakone mountains which effect- 
ually bar the way to all but 
pedestrians. The scenery now 

becomes mountainous, with to the 
1. the chief peaks of the Hakone 
range, — Futago-yama (the " Twin 
Mountain," so-called fi'om its 
double round summit), Mydjin- 
ga-take, Kamiyama, and Kin- 
toM-zan (tooth-shaped). An extra 
engine is put on at Yamakita to 
help the train up to Gotemba, the 
highest point on the line, — 1,500 ft. 
above sea-level. Between Yama- 
Idta and Oyama (not_to be mistaken 
for the mountain Oyama, with a 
long O), the scenery becomes wilder 
and there is a rapid succession of 
tunnels and bridges, testifying to 
the engineering difficulties that had 
to be conquered. Reaching 

Gotemba {Inn, Fuji-ya at sta- 
tion ; the old vill. is 12 cho distant), 
the passenger finds himself in the 
broad and fertile plain stiiTounding 
Fuji's base, — a plain whose soil 
indeed has been formed by the 
outi^ourings of the great mountain 
during countless ages. Nothing 
here inteiTupts the view of the 
volcano from base to summit. The 
long-ridged wooded mountain im- 
mediately to the 1. of Fuji is 
AshUaka (see p. 17G). The range 
to the spectator's 1. fi'om the car- 
riage window is the Hakone range, 
the lowest point of M'hich seen from 
here is the Oiome-tuge leathng over 
to IVIiyanoshita. 

Gotemba (literally, "Palace Site") de- 
rives its name from having been the seat 
of the hunting-lodge of the great Shogun 
Yoritomo, when he came from his capital 
at Kamakura to hunt iu the ueighbom-- 
hood of Fuji. The Fuji no maki-gari , as 
these royal hunting parties were called, 
are often represented in art, especially on 
screens : and various localities iu the 
surrounding country-side have names 
connecting them with incidents real or 
imaginary of the chase. 

At Sauo, there is a semi-Europ- 
ean Hotel close to the waterfalls 
{8ano no taki), 12 cho fi'om the sta- 
tion by jinrikisha. The water form- 
ing these fine falls comes from Lake 
Hakone, via the tunnel mentioned 
on p. 160. Kei-ga-shima, 17 cho 
beyond the falls, is another pictiu- 


Route 2'^. -The Tdkaido. 

esqne spot, remarkable for its 
curious rocks. 

One still has Fuji and Ashitaka 
to the r., the other mountains from 
r. to 1. being Amagi-san in Izu, 
Yahazu-yama (a small peak), Higa- 
ne-san on the other side of which 
lies Atami, the Hakone range, and 
in fi-ont — isolated as if let drop 
independently into the plain — 
Kanold-yama. The railway turns 
■west, and rejoins the old Tokaidd at 

Numazu (Inns, Sugimoto, 
Kikyo-ya). There is much marshy 
ground in this neighbourhood, 
whence probably the name of the 
place (/iwHia = "m.arsh"). Most 
persons, rather than stay at Nimia- 
zu itself, prefer to go on 25 min. 
by jinriMsha to the Till, of i^shibu- 
se (see p. 164). The Crown Prince 
frequently resides at a villa 1 ri out 
of Niimazu to the S. E. It is about 

Suzukawa (Inns, SiTzrJd-ya, at 
station; Bessd, near the sea, with 
fine \iew) that the nearest and 
most perfect view of Fuji is obtain- 
ed. Nowhere else does the " Peer- 
less Mountain " so absolutely dom- 
inate its sun-oundings. The 
beauty of the stretch of shore from 
here to the mouth of the Fujikixwa, 
called Tago-tw-ura, has been sung 
by a hundred Japanese poets. The 
Fujikawa is noted for its rapids 
(see Kte. 27). From 

Ivcabuchi (Lin, Tani-ya at sta- 
tion) to Okitsu is very beautiful, 
the space between the sea and a 
range of hills to the r. becoming so 
naiTow as barely to leave room for 
the railway to skirt the shore. In 
the neighbourhood of 

Kambara, fields of sugar-cane 
^^all be observed. 

The cultivation of the small but hardy 
Chinese variety of the sugar cane (Saccha- 
rum sinense) is carried on with fair success 
in the warmer provinces of Japan, such as 
Mikawa, Owari, Kishii, Southern Shibo- 
iu, and Satsuma. Being unable to with- 
stand the frosts of winter, it is planted 
out in March or April, and harvested not 
later than November. The cane, which is 
used for planting, is buried in a dry place 
to preserve it from the cold. In spring it 

is cut into pieces, which are planted out 
in the usual way. 

Okitsu (Inns, Minakuchi-ya ; 
Tokai Hotel) has a lovely view of 
the Bay of Suniga, the large 
mountainous peninsula of Izu, and 
to the r. the j)oint of land called 
Min-no- Mai Sahara, celebrated aUke 
in poetry and art. It is covered 
with pine-trees, is low and sandy, 
hence more pleasant to look at 
than to walk on. Still fiulher to 
the r. lie the Kuno-zan hills, with 
the white little seaport town of 
Shimizu nestling at their base. 

At Mio-no-Matsubara is laid the scene 
of Ha-goromo, or " The Kobe of Feathers," 
one of the prettiest and most fanciful of 
the Japanese Lyric Dramas {-Xo no Utai). 
A fisherman, landing on this strand, finds 
a robe of feathers hanging to a pine-tree, 
and is about to carry it off as treasure- 
trove, when a beautiful fairy suddenly 
appears an<l implores him to restore 
it to her, for that it is hers, and 
without it she cannot fly home to the 
Moon, where she is one of the attendants 
on the thirty monarchs who rule that 
sphere. At first the fisherman refuses 
to grant her request. He only does so 
when, after many tears and agonies of 
despair, she promises to dance for him 
one of the dances known only to the 
immortals Draped in her feathery robe, 
she dances beneath the pine-trees on 
the beach, while celestial music and 
an unearthly fragrance fill the air. At 
last her wings are caught by the breeze, 
and she soars heavenward past Mount 
Ashitaka, past Fuji, till she is lost 
to view. There is still a small shrine 
on Mio-no-JIatsubara dedicated to this 
fairy, where a relic of her robe is 

The Temple of Seikenji or Kiyomi- 
dera at Okitsu, belonging to the 
Zen sect of Buddhists, merits a 
\'isit, partly for the sake of the 
view, partly for the temple itself 
and the temisle grounds, which 
even the railway, though it cuts 
through them, has not entirely 
spoilt. The very plain altar in a 
small shrine near the Uomlo — a 
large hall paved Trt-ith tiles — contains 
funeral ta])]ets of all the Shoguns 
of the Tokugawa dynasty. In a 
side temple are forty brilhantly 
coloured tigiu'es. three-foiu-fhs life- 
size, of Balcan — old. but restored in 



1881. They were, formerly kept in 
a tea-house in the town, which 
became a favoiirite resort, and 
brought in a considerable revenue 
to the priests. This, however, 
moved the townspeople to jealousy 
and fhssatisf action, for which reason 
the images were removed to their 
present site, where money can no 
longer be made out of them. Two 
stone praying-wheels stand in fi'ont 
of their present shidne. In the 
gi'ounds are 300 (formerly 500) stone 
images of Bakan. The creeping 
plum-trees {gicaryil-bai) in front of 
the temple are said to have been 
planted by leyasu's own hand. 
Besides the temple proper, a suite 
of rooms is shown, affording an 
example of the best style of 
Japanese domestic architecture. 
Built in 1865 for the use of the 
Shogun lemochi, they have of late 
been sometimes occupied by the 
Crown Prince. 

[A detour of 6 or 7 hrs. to Kuno- 
zan will afford the traveller a 
real multum in purvo, — splenchd 
views, sujierb temples, nearer 
acquaintance with Japanese 
town and country life off the 
beaten track. — The plan is to 
leave Yokohama by the first 
train, alight at Okitsu, and 
thence go by jinrikisha vvith 
two men, rejoining the railway 
at Shizuoka, where sleep. Sel- 
keaji, described above, is first 
visited ; thence through Ejiri, 
one of those smaller Tokaidd 
towns which the railway has 
paralysed, and Shimizu, a neat 
bustling seaport town ; and 
then strikes inland to Tesslmji, 
a riuned temple on a low hill 
called Fudaraku-san, 4 <'ho in 
height. Yamaoka Tetsntaro, 
writing-master to the present 
Emperor, collected funds for the 
restoration of this place. Un- 
fortunately the money was squ- 
anderer] after his death, and 
the temple is nothing ; but the 
view is magnificent, recalling a 
painting by Claude. At the 

beholder's feet stretches a 
gi'een carpet of rice-fields, with 
the town of Shimizu and the 
curious square enclosures in 
the adjacent sea, used as fish- 
preserves to supply the needs 
of the inhabitants in stormy 
weather. The two promon- 
tories to the 1. are the Satta- 
toge and the point near Kam- 
bara, beyond which come Fuji, 
Ashitaka, and the Hakone 
range. The peninsula of 
Izu extends the whole way 
round from 1. to r., like a 
gigantic scythe, forming the 
Gulf of Suruga, while much 
closer and smaller, making a 
bay within a bay, stretches the 
pine-clad promontory of Mio- 
no-Matsubara, which is from 
here seen to divide at the tip 
into three points like claws. 
Near Tesshuji stands another 
temple called Ryugeji, noted in 
the vicinity for its sofeisu 
{Oycas revoluta) and prickly 
pears, — the latter a great rarity 
in Japan ; but the view, though 
fine, is not comparable to that 
from Tesshuji. 

The way now leads back to 
the sea and along the sandy 
shore to the hamlet of Nekoya 
(Inn, Ishibashi), at the foot of 
Kuno-zan, one of a range of 
hills only some 500 ft. high, but 
fortress-like in steepness. Here 
was the first buiial-place of the 
gi'eat Shogun leyasn, and the 
shrines here erected in his 
honour were the originals of 
which those at Nikkd are but 
a more elaborate development. 
Travellers who are unable to 
go to Nikkd, can therefore 
obtain an idea of what the 
Nikko temples are like by visit- 
ing Kuno-zan. According to 
some, leyasu's body still lies 
here, only a single hair or 
other minute portion having 
been transported to Nikko. 
The ascent to the temples is by 
a steep zigzag path cut in the 


lioute'1'6. — Tlie Tokaidd. 

living rock. A guide must be 
applied for and a small fee paid 
at the shamusho, or temple of- 
fice, near the top on the 1. The 
view over the sea from this 
temple office is glorious ; but 
a still better one is obtained 
from a venerable gnarled pine- 
tree called the mono-mi no ma- 
tsii. The headlands seen hence 
are T6me-no-saki, Wada-no-mi- 
saki, and Omae-zald. The well 
on the r. of the path at this 
level is said to be 108 ft. deep, 
and to have been dug by a 
sixteenth centiuy warrior, Ya- 
mamoto Kansidte, the lame and 
one-eyed retainer of Takeda 
Shingen, lord of Koshu. The 
temples, though " purified " to 
a certain extent by the pro- 
Shintd party thirty years ago, 
retain their Buddhist orna- 
mentation. The wooden effigy 
of a sacred horse 1. is b)-^ Hidari 
Jingoro. Up a flight of steps 
hence, we come r. to the drum- 
tower, and 1. to the site of the 
five-storied pagoda, which was 
removed by the " pmifiers " as 
savouring too much of Bud- 
dhism. Alaove these again, are r. 
the kayura stage, the treasure- 
house or "godown," and a build- 
ing formerly dedicated to the 
Buddhist god Yakushi, and now 
to the Shintd god Oyamagui-no- 
Mikoto ; while 1. is the building 
where the sacred offerings are 
prepared. The oratory proper 
is painted red on the outside, 
black and gold Avithin. Kound 
the interior hang pictures of 
the Thiiiy-six Poetical Genius- 
es, and there is an elaborate 
bordering of phoenixes and 
chrysanthemums. A final flight 
of steps behind the oratory 
leads up to the stone tomb, 
which is an octagonal monohth. 
The annual festival at Kuno- 
zan is held on the 17th April. 
8er\ices are also celebrated on 
the 17th of the other months. 
The temple treasures are ex- 

posed to ^iew in October, when 

the anntial airing takes place. 

On leaving Kuno-zan, the road 

first foUows the sea-shore, and 

then turns inland, reaching 

Shizuoka in about 1 hr.] 

Between Okitsu and Ejiri there is 

a view of Mio-no-Matsubara. After 

leaving Ejiri, the line tiirns inland 

to avoid the Kuno-zan hills. 

Shizuoka (Hotels, Daito-kwan, 
Europ. style ; Kiyo-kwan), former- 
ly called Siimpv, is the capital of 
the prefecture of the same name 
and of the province of Sm-uga. It 
is a clean, airy, flourishing city, 
noted for its manufactures of cheap 
lacquer-Tv^are, delicate basket-v.ork 
in curious and beautiful shapes, 
and fine bamboo plaiting used to 
cover egg-shell porcelain cups, 
which are brought fi'om the prov- 
ince of Mino. The tea produced at 
Ashikubo, a vill. 2 ri thstant, ranks 
second only to that of Uji. In fact, 
the heights in all this district and 
on to Fujieda are covered ^rith the 
low, thick tea-bush. 

Historically, Shizucka is remarkable 
chiefly as the place where leyasu chose 
to spend the evening of his life in learned 
leisure, leaving his son Hidetada to carry 
on the government at Yedo. Here for the 
first time many of the treasures of Japa- 
nese literature, which had hitherto exist- 
ed only in manuscript, were put into 
print. Shizuoka was, until 1897, the place 
of retirement of the ex-Shogun Keiki, 
who lived there in seclusion as a private 
gentleman. He now, in bis old age, 
occupies a high position at Court in 

An afternoon is enough for the 
sights of Shizuoka, which consist of 
the ruins of the former castle, and 
of two fine temples, — Rinzaiji and 
Sengen. AH that remains of the 
castle are the decaying walls and 
the moats. Within its enclosure 
stands the Piefectme, a hideous 
red biick bmlding. The Court- 
house and Normal School are 
outside the moat, on the S. side. 

The Buddhist temple of Rinzaiji 
Kes 8 chd from the city, at the 
foot of a range of wooded hUls. 
It belongs to the Zen sect, and is 



noleu for its connectiou with le- 
yasTi and for the number of objects 
of art which it contains. The little 
room of only 4i mats (yo-jd-han), 
where leyasu learnt to MTite, is 
shown, as are several scrolls, 
screens, pieces of lacquer and 
porcelain, etc., presented by him 
to the temple in his old age. There 
is also a threadbare, but still beauti- 
ful, ■piece of embroidery presented 
by the Miliado Go-Nara (A. D. 1527- 
1557), and a number of kaicemono 
by Kano 3'Iasanobu, Chin Nam pin, 
and other old masters. In the 
Hondo is a painted statue of Ima- 
gawa Yoshimoto, younger brother 
to Ujiteru, founder of the temple. 
Another painted statue represents 
the second abbot. The Honzon is 
Amida, a black image with a gold 
background. In a side shrine is 
preserved the wooden image of 
Marishi-ten, which leyasu — who, for 
aU his pohtical and military genius, 
was not free from the superstitions 
of Ids time — used constantly to 
cany about with him as a charm. 
The visitor will also be shown a 
gilt revolving bookcase shaped like 
a pagoda and containing a com- 
plete set of the edition of the Bud- 
dhist scriptures, which were printed 
for the first time with movable 
types in 1888. The 1st and 2nd 
October are the great festival days 
at Einzaiji. 

The Temple of Sengen, which 
stands at the N. limit of the town, 
was built under the superinten- 
dence of Okubo Hikozaemon, a 
personage famous in Japanese his- 
tory as the minister and confidant 
of the Shogun lemitsu. Though 
chiefly dedicated to the worship of 
Kono - hana - saku - ya - hime, alias 
Sengen, the beautiful Shinto god- 
dess of Mount Fuji, it is construct- 
ed and decorated in the most or- 
nate Buddhistic style. Specially 
noteworthy are the wood-carvings. 
The grounds now serve as a public 
park. Entering by two handsome- 
ly carved wooden gates, the visitor 
finds himself in a large quad- 

rangle, in the centre of which is a 
stage formerly reserved for the per- 
formance of the ka<iura dance by 
young girls. The interior of the 
oratory proper {go haiden no obiro- 
ma) is a haU 63 ft. by 33 ft., with 
large solid pillars of keyaki lacquer- 
ed red, two of which "form at the 
saiue time the corner piUars of the 
upper storey. The two central 
compartments of the ceiling are 
painted with dragons, — one called 
the Shi-hfi no Byo, or " Dragon of 
the Four Quarters," because, what- 
ever point of the compass it be 
vieM-ed from, it seems to glare 
down directly at the spectator ; the 
other, Hap-po no Ryo, or " Dragon 
of the Eight Quarters," because its 
glance is directed to every point of 
the circle. The former of these is 
by Yiisen Hogan, the latter by 
Kand Motonobu. Eight other com- 
partments contain pictures of 
angels playing on musical instru- 
ments, also by painters of the Kano 
school. Two broad flights of steps 
behind the oratory lead up to a 
building containing two shiines, 
one^ sacred to Sengen, the other 
to Onamuji. The two shrines are 
connected by a room in which a 
nightly watch was formerly kept 
by retainers of the Tokugawa 
family. Dcj not fail to notice the 
carvings on tlie gates leading to 
these twin shrines. One set 
represents a lioness with her cub, 
and on a second panel her royal 
mate, — both sm-rounded by peonies, 
the king of flowers, as the Hon is 
the king of beasts. Another set 
represents hawks Avith pine-trees. 
Round the shiine itself are car\ings 
of the pine-tree, bamboo, and 
plum-blossom by Hidari Jingoro. 
The crest of a fan of feathers is 
that of the goblin (tengu), who was 
god of Mount Oyama and father of 
the goddess of Fuji. 

Near the main quadrangle is a 
smaller building called Sd.sha, 
formerly dedicated to Marishi-ten 
and now to the Shinto god Yachi- 
hoko-no-kami. It is the newest of 


Route 2'^. — The Tokaido. 

all the buildings, and the decora- 
tions are therefore in better repair. 
In the curved roof of the porch is 
a ^ery fine phoenix cut out of a 
single block of wood ; and all round, 
above the architrave, runs a series 
of dehcate little gi'oups representing 
the Twenty-fon.r Paragons of Fihal 

The stone lanterns in the grounds 
were presented by various Dai- 
myds and Ildtamoto. — Beyond the 
Maiishi-ten temple, a broad flight 
of 105 stone steps leads up to the 
Oku-no-iii, which affords a good 
view of the town. 

The best excursion f roni Shizuoka 
is that by jimikisha to Kuno-zan 
(3 ri) ; see pp. 237-8. 

From Shizuoka to Nagoya, a 
distance of 115 miles, the Une for 
the most part ceases to skirt the 
sea, and runs over a flat coiintry 
with low hills on one or both sides, 
or else among rice-tields. Spurs of 
the central range forming the back- 
bone of the country are, however, 
often seen away to the r. Just 
outside Shizuoka we cross the Abe- 
kawa close to its mouth, and obtain 
a pretty ghmpse of the sea vnth 
the small promontory of Kuno- 
zan and the large peninsula of 
Izu, before passing through two long 
tunnels. The Oigawa is crossed 
after passing the station of Shimada. 
Like Jill the rivers on this coast, 
the Oigawa has a bed out of 
proportion to the small volume of 
water that generally flows down 
it, the bed being nearly a mile 
broad, while the actual stream is 
not more than some 50 yds. 
except in flood-time. 

_ In pre-raihvay days, the passage of the 
Oigawa was one of the most exciting por- 
tions of the journey along the Tokaido. 
No ferry-boats could be used on account 
of the swiftness of the current, and trav- 
ellers were carried across on small hand- 
platforms called rendai. The naked 
coolies who bore these aloft always chose 
the deepest parts of the stream, in order 
to impress their fares with a sense of the 
peril of the undertaking, and thus obtain 
the largest possible gratuity. This inci- 
dent of old-fashioned travel is ]iourtrayed 

in almost every set of coloured prints 
representing the " I'ifty-three Stages of 
the Tokaido " (Tokaido Go-jii-san Tsugi). 

Kakegawa [Inn, Kyfigetsu-ro) 

manufactures kuzu-ori, a sort of 

linen cloth woven from gi'ass. 

[The Temple of Akiha hes 

12 ri inland, of which the 

first 6 ri as far as the vill. 

of Mikura are practicable for 

jinrikishas. The visitor may 

conveniently sleep at SakashUa 

some 4J ri further on, at the 

base of the mountain on which 

the temple stands. The ascent, 

locally computed at 50 cho, is 

probably less. 

The temple of Akiha enjoys a wide 
reputation for sanctity, and is visit- 
ed annually by crowds of pilgrims. 
Unfortunately all the beautiful Bud- 
dhist buildiugn in which Kwan- 
uon and other deities had for 
centuries been invoked, were de- 
stroyed by fire on the occasion of 
the great yearly festival in 1875, and 
the i)resent temple was afterwards 
erected in the bare, uninteresting 
style of Pure Shinto. It has been 
dedicated to Kagutsuchi-no-Mikoto, 
who is regarded by some as the God 
of Fire, but is more correctly ex- 
plained as the God of Summer 

Before reaching Hamamatsu the 
train crosses the Teniyu-gawa, 
whose celebrated Rapids form the 
subject of Pioute 30. The Tenryti 
is the first of the three great 
rivers from wMch the province of 
Mikawa, here traversed by the rail- 
way line, takes its name. The 
other two are the Ogawa (also call- 
ed Oya-gawa or Ohiragawa) on 
this side of the station of Okazaki, 
and the Yahagi-gawa just beyond 
the same station. 

Naka-izunii {Inn, at station). 

Hamamatsu (Inns, *Ogome-ya, 
* Hana-ya, at station) is the only 
place between Shizuoka and Nagoya 
where the journey can be broken 
with, any comfort. The town de- 
rives a peculiar appearance from 
the use of long projecting eaves, 
which cause the houses to look as 
if about to tumble forward into the 
street. Just beyond 

From Maisaka to Nagoya. 


Maisaka, we reach a large and 
beautiful lagoon [Hamann no Mizu- 
umi), which is crossed near its 
mouth on a long series of dykes 
and bridges, whence the breakers 
of the Pacific can be seen. On the 
other side stretches far away the 
deeply indented shore-hne clad A\-ith 
pine-trees. The boats sailing over 
the smooth water, and the moun- 
tains rising range beyond range in 
the background, combine to form a 
delightful picture. 

Thoush called a lake in Japanese, this 
lagoon has now a narrow entrance about 
600 yds. across, formed in the year li99, 
when an earthquake broke down the 
sand-spit that had previously separated 
the fresh water from the sea. The ijro- 
vince of Totomi derives its name from 
this lake, which was called Totomi, a 
corruption of To-tsu-awa-unii. "the distant 
foaming sea, "in contradistinction to Lake 
Biwa, named rhika-tsu-awa-wni, "the 
near foaming sea,'l which gave its name 
to the province of Omi. 

Between Futagawa and Toyo- 
hashi {Imi, Tsuboya, at station), 
a tine bronze image of Kwanuon, 
dating fi-om the year 17G5, is seen 
perched r. on a pinnacle of rock. 
It is called Iimya no Kicannon, and 
formerly possessed eyes of pure 
gold, but only one remains. 

[In the town ofToyokawa, 5 m. 
distant from Toyohashi by a 
branch line, stands a celebrat- 
ed Temple of Inari. It is apt 
now to be neglected excejjt on 
festival days, namely, the 22nd 
of each month. The annual 
festival is held on the 21st — 
22nd October.] 

Between Goyu, where the line 
again touches the picturesque 
shore, and Kamaqori there are de- 
lightful peeps of the sea, of the 
islets in the Bay of Toyohashi, of 
the hilly tip of the peninsula of 
Atsumi, and of the mountains of 
the provinces of Shima, Ise, and 
Iga beyond. After 

Okazaki, noted in history as 
the birthplace of the great Sh5- 
gun leyasu, comes a dull bit, flat 
and with rice-fields on either hand. 

or sand-hillocks and pine scrab ; 
but from Otaka the fine range 
separating the provinces of Ise and 
Omi rises ahead, and is kept in 
view all the way to 

Atsuta [Inn, Kikyo-ya, near 
station), which is practically a 
suburb of Nagoya. It i)ossesses a 
fine set of Shinto temples, fi'om 
which it derives its alternative name 
of Miya. These temples, originally 
founded in A.D. 686, were restored 
in 1893 in Pure Shintd style, after 
the j)attern of the temples of Ise. 
Persons unable to spare time for 
visiting the latter may therefore, by 
stopping over a train at Atsuta, gain 
some notion of what Ise is like, 
though here, as at Ise itself, no one 
is allowed to go inside. The official 
name of the temples is Atsuta Dai- 
jingu. Notice the splendid camphor- 
trees in the grounds. The jiniikisha 
ride on to the next station, Nagoya, 
where the journey w^ould probably 
be broken in any case, is only 
about 4 miles. 

The gods worshipped at Atsuta are the 
Sun-Goddess Amateiasu, her brother Susa- 
no-o, Prince Yamato-take (see p. 87), the 
latter's wifeMiyazu-hime, and her brother 
Take-ino-tane. But the object really most 
venerated,— indeed, the raison d'etre of the 
temples and consequently of the town, — 
is the famous sword called Kusa-nagi no 
Tsurugi. one of the three antique objects 
which form the Imperial regalia of Japan, 
the other two being a mii'ror and a jewel. 
This sword (so legend goes) v/as found by 
Susa-no-o in the tail of an eight-headed 
serpent, which he intoxicated with sake 
aud then slew. Having been brought 
from heaven many centuries later by the 
first ancestor of the Mikados. it came into 
the possession of Yamato-take and assist- 
ed that prince in the conquest of Eastern 
Japan. This treasure is never shown, but 
a great festival is held in its honour on 
the 21st June. The complete legend of 
the sword Kma-nagl will be found in 
the Kqjiki (Trans, of the Asiatic Soc. 
of Japan, "Vol. X., Supplement. Sect 
some little distance from the chief temple 
stands another dedicated to a scarcely less 
sacred sword called Ya-tsurugi. The 
legend concerning it is kept as an 
esoteric secret. 

Kagoya {Inns, *Nagoya Hotel, 
Shinachu, both near station 


Route 'lo. — T}i(' Tokaido. 

foreign ; Shnldn-ro ; Tea-house, 
Toyo-kwan, for entertainments in 
native style). 

This floarisliiiig corumercial city, the 
lurgpst on the Tokaido, capital of the 
lirovince of Owari aud of the prefecture 
of Aichi, was formerly the seat of the 
Baimyos of Owari, a family closely 
allied" to that of the Tokugawa Shogtins, 
the founder of the house of Owari having 
been a son of leyasu. Their fief was 
rated at 500,000 koku of rice, and the Owa- 
ri's ranked as one c .f the ■ ' Three August 
Families" (Go San-ke), entitled to furnish 
a successor to the Shogun's throne in 
default of an heir. Their castle, which is 
still one of the wonders of Japan, was 
erected in 1610 by twenty great feudal 
lords, to serve as the residence of leyasu's 
son. Like other Japanese castles, it is a 
wooden building standing on cyclopean 
walls. The roofs of the keep are all cop- 
pered, and its massive gates are cased 
with iron. Curiously enough, this strong 
castle has never seen war. In the early 
years of the present riffime it was hand- 
ed over to the Military Department ; 
and the beautiful decorations of the 
Daimyo's dwelling apartments suffered, 
a.8 did so much else in Japan, from the 
almost incredible vandalism and vulgar 
stupidity of that period,— common 
soldiers, or officers as ignorant as they, 
being allowed to deface the priceless wall- 
paintings of a Tan-yii, a Motonobu, and a 
Matahei . This desecration is now happily 
put an end to, though much irreparable 
damage has been done. The castle has 
been taken over by the Imperial House- 
hold Department, to be preserved as a 
monument of historic interest. The two 
golden dolphins {kin no sharhi-hoko), which 
can be seen glittering all over the city 
from the top of the ftve storied don.ion 
[tensAu), were made in 1610 at the cost of 
the celebrated general, Kato Kiyomasa, 
who also built the keep. One of them 
was sent to the Vienna Exhibition of 
1873, and on its way back was wrecked in 
the Messageries Mai itimes Steamer "Nil." 
Having been recovered with great diflS- 
culty. it was finally restored to its original 
position, much to the satisfaction of the 
citizens. The golden dolphins measiu-e 
8.7 ft. in height and are valued at £ 36,000 

Nagoya is noted for its manufac- 
ixne of porcelain, cloisonne, and 
fans. The principal dealers are : 

Porcelain. — Saji Haruzo, Takito, 
Matsumura. At the latter the process 
of maniifactnre can be inspected. 

Cloisonne. — Honda, Take-uchi. 
Process of inamifactnre shown to 


There are many lesser but good 
shops for all the above articles ; 
also seTeral bazaars (kwankoha) near 
the Post-Office for articles of general 
ntihty. Several cotton-mills have 
been started of late years, and the 
embroidering of handkerchiefs has 
taken a considerable place among 
the local industries. 

Theatres. — Misono-za, Suehiro-za. 

The Museum contains a collection 
of the various manufactures of the 
prefecture, together with art ob- 

It may be worth spending a day 
at Nagoya to see a flourishing pro- 
vincial town. Though the Castle 
is now inaccessible except by 
special permit obtainable through 
the foreign legations, all may in- 
spect Nagoya's second greatest 
sight, — the Higashi Hongwanji 
temples, — the Museum, and the 
minor temples mentioned below. 
The evening may be agreeably 
whiled away by going the round of 
the bazaars and theatres. 

The Castle ( Shiro).— The si>ace 
between the inner and outer moats, 
now containing extensive ban-acks 
and parade-groiinds, was formerly 
occupied by the Daimyo's mansion 
and by quarters for his retainers, 
offices ciATil and military, etc. All 
this arrangement and the wreck 
that remains of the garden are well 
seen from the top of the castle. 
Passing into the inner enclosure 
over a moat now dry and used to 
keep tame deer in, the traveller is 
first shown through the Apartments, 
which offer a beautiful specimen 
of aristocratic decoration. The 
sliding screens (fiisnma) between 
the rooms, the alcoves (toko- 
noma), and the wooden doors sepa- 
rating the different sets of Apart- 
ments are all adorned with paint- 
ings of flowers, birds, etc., chiefly 
by artists of the Kano school, such 
as Eishin, Motonobu, and Tan-yu. 
One room has cherry-blossoms and 
pheasants by Tosa-no-Mitsuoki. 
Another — the most attractive of all 



— has multitudinous scenes of 
popular life by Iwasa Matahei. One 
specially gorgeous apartment, dec- 
orated by Tan-yH with ideal 
Chinese scenery, was reserved for 
the use of the Shogun when he 
came to visit the Daimyo his kins- 
man. Observe the difference of 
height between the inner and outer 
portion of this room, — the former 
(jodan) being for the Shogun him- 
self, the latter {gedan) for those in- 
ferior persons who were graciously 
admitted to an audience. The 
ramma (ventilating panels) of this 
room have exquisitely faithful carv- 
ings of a crane and tortoise and 
of a cock perched on a drum, by 
Eidari Jingoro, who also carved the 
flowers and birds in certain other 
rooms. Leaving these apartments, 
one comes to a much humbler 
suite brought from Nobunaga's 
castle at Kiyosti, and is then led 
into the donjon or keep, a gloomy 
five-storied building, all of stone 
without, but furnished with wooden 
staircases within._ The well at the 
bottom, called Ogon-sui, or " the 
Golden Water," was dug by Kat5 
Kiyomasa. The fifth storey com- 
mands an extensive view, — the town 
of course, the sea, the immense 
plain of Owari and Mino laid out 
in rice-fields, and, bounding the 
horizon, the mountains of Ise, Iga, 
Omi, Echizen, Hida, Shinshu, and 

No fee is accepted by the custo- 
dian of the Castle. 

Higashi Hongwanji. 

This wonderful Buddhist temple, where 
exterior and interior are both equally- 
grand, dates in its actual shape from 
the beginning of the I9th century. In 
medisBval times a fortress occupied its 
site, whence the castle-lilie walls that still 
surround the enclosure. 

The magnificent two-storied 
double-roofed gate-house has three 
portals decorated with floral ara- 
besques in relief on the lintel and 
posts ; and the gates have scrolls and 
open-work diapers, with sohd bronze 
plates binding the frame-work to- 

gether, the whole in charming style 
recalling Italian Kenaissance work. 
On the further side of a spacious 
court rises the lofty temple, which 
looks two-storied, — an effect pro- 
duced by the exterior colonnade 
having a roof lower than that of 
the main structure. The interior 
measures 120 ft. in length by 108 
ft. in depth, and is divided longi- 
tudinally into three parts, that in 
front being for the use of ordinary 
worshippers, the centre for the con- 
gregation on special occasions, and 
the innermost being the naijin, or 
chancel. This latter is divided into 
three compartments, the central 
one being occupied by the shumi- 
dan, a platform on wMch stands a 
handsome gilt shrine holding an 
image of Amida about 4 ft. high. 
Both the shumi-dan and the table 
in front are enriched with small 
painted carvings that produce a 
glorious effect. L. of the chief shrine 
is a smaller one, containing a por- 
trait of the founder of the sect, 
taken from the effigy in the metro- 
poUtan temple at Kydto. In the 
ramma along the front of the naijin 
are gUt open-work carvings of 
angels, with gilt carvings of the 
peacock and phoenix in the kaeru- 
mata above. The heavy beams 
of the ceihng are supported by 
excellent carvings of lotus-flowers 
and leaves. In some of the kaeru- 
maia over these beams are spirit- 
ed carvings of conventional lions. 
The ceiling itself is unpainted, 
and divided into coffers about 3 ft. 
square. The compartments r. and 
1. of the altar have gilt coppered 
ceilings. In the kaeru-mnta of the 
external colonnade are well-con- 
ceived groups of supernatural be- 
ings, — Oama Sennin with his frog, 
Kinko riding on the carp, Koan on 
the bushy-tailed tortoise, O-Shiko 
riding on his crane, Ka-Shinjin ad- 
ministering medicine to the dra- 
gon, the umbrella miraculously fly- 
ing back to Shoichi through the 
air, and two carrying baskets of 
fish. The series is continued round 


Route 23 —The Tokaido. 

the sides by the crane, the lion, and 
the flying dragon. The building 
to the r. is a large reception hall 
( Taimeajo). used by the Lord Abbot 
©n great occasions. As usual in 
Hongwanji temples, there is another 
building called the Jiki-do, 
connected •with the main building 
by a gallery resembUng a bridge. 
Though much less elaborate than 
the main altar, the altar of the 
Jiki-d5 is yet a fine blaze of gold. 
E,. and 1. of the central image of 
Amida, are some charming gold 
sliding screens representing moun- 
tain scenery. The Apartments of 
the temple contain several kake- 
monos and other works of art, which 
are, however, generally stowed 
away in a godown. In fi-ont of the 
main gate is an avenue of di-ooping 
chen'y-trees [shidare-zakura), — a 
vei-y pretty sight in April. The 
odd-looMng row of builchngs paral- 
lel to the aveniTe is a set of lodgings 
attached to the temple, where 
worshippers fi'om the country are 

Go-hyaku Kakan (prox)erly 
Dairyuji). Though this ugly little 
temple on the N. E. hmit of the 
city is nothing in itself, it well 
deserves a visit for the sake of the 
gallery behind (application to the 
custodian necessary), where are 
kept five hundred images of Bud- 
dha's chief disciples, mostly about 
2 ft. high, all brightly painted, and 
all different. Some are smiling, 
some are solemn, some are fierce, 
some stupid-looking, some have a 
supercilious air, some an air of 
smug self-satisfaction, some few 
are lying down, others are praying, 
others again have their arms ex- 
tended in the attitude of benedic- 
tion, one has three eyes, one holds 
a tiger-cub in his arms, one ■with a 
gold halo bestrides a peacock with 
outstretched wings, others ride on 
horses, elephants, phoenixes, and so 
on, almost ad infinitum.. No wonder 
the Japanese say that among the 
Five Hundred i^kan, every spec- 
tator can find the likeness of his 

own father by dint of a little 

The images are said to date from the 
beginning of the 18th century. A keen 
eye will detect among the maas some 
much better carved than the rest. They 
are chocolate-coloured, and stand a good 
way on in the collection, — one of them 
recumbent, a second leaning on his hand, 
a third clasping his knee, etc. These are 
genuinely bj' Tametaka, an artist to whom 
the whole collection is incorrectly at- 
tributed. This sculptor is best-known as 
a carver of nefsule. His spirited, life-like 
figures tell out among the grotes'^tieness 
of the rest. 

The remaining temples of Nagoya 
are much inferior in interest. 
Mkokuji, the Nishi Hongicauji, and 
Naivxtsv.-defra may be mentioned. 
Osu Kicannon, a temple sacred to 
the Goddess of Mercy, is remarkable 
chiefly as the centre round which 
many places of popular amusement, 
such as peep-shows, etc. have gath- 
ered. A gi'eat rehgious procession is 
held yearly on the 4th day of the 4th 
moon, old style (some tuue in May), 
when each of the twelve principal 
wards of the city furnishes a car 
illustrating some subject, historical 
or legendary. 

Nagoya, Uke most other large 
tOM'ns, possesses a number of new, 
uninteresting buildings in the style 
or no style known in the Japan of 
to-day as " foreign." Siieh are the 
Prefectural Office, the Post and 
Telegraph Office, the Hospital, the 
Normal School, the Court-houses, 
etc. The hiige iiepper-castei' top of 
the Nagoya Hotel towers above all 
the rest. 

[The only exciu'sion to be recom- 
mended in the neighbourhood 
of Nagoya is to the potteries 
of Seto, 13|^m. tlistant by a 
new line of railway called the 
Om-o Tetsudo, ^vhich continues 
on to Tajimi mentioned below. 

The province of Owari, of which 
Nagoya is the capital, and the adja- 
cent province of Mino, have for many 
ages been flourishing centres of the 
porcelain industry, the most famous 
seat of which is at Seto, where Kato 
Shlrozaemon, the first great master 

Potteries of Seto. Gifu. Wate)fall of Yord. 245 

of Japanese ceramic art, set up his 
Mln about the year 1230 on his return 
from six years of diligent study in 
China. Thenceforth Seto became 
the head-quarters of the manufacture 
of dainty little jars, ewers, and other 
utensils for the tea ceremonies {cha- 
no-yu), so that the word seto-mono, 
literally "Seto things," has come to 
be employed in Japanese as a genetic 
name for aU pottery and porcelain, 
much as the word china is used in 
English. Seto has remained the 
chief porcelain manufactory of Japan. 
Many of the pieces now turned out— 
es-pecially the monster blue-and- 
white vases— are intended only for 
the foreign market. Fine porcelain, 
is produced at Tcjimi, some 1 m. 
beyond Seto. Many of the small 
villages in the near vicinity of Nago- 
ya are devoted to the production 
of minor kinds of porcelain and 

From Nagoya on to Kusatsu the 
railway line deserts the old Tokai- 
do, and though called the Tokaido 
EallTvay, really follows the Naka- 
sendo. Qiiitting Nagoya, the train 
wends on through more and ever 
more rice-fields, -^-ith blue moun- 
tains far ahead, somewhat to the 1. 
They are the mountains dividing 
the provinces of Owari and Mino 
from those of Omi and Ise. Four- 
teen miles out of Nagoya, the line 
crosses the Kisogawa, the river 
whose upper course forms so beau- 
tiful a i)ortion of the Nakasendo, 
(see p. 248), and which is pictur- 
esque even here near its mouth. 

Gifu {Lms, *Tamai-ya, Tsuno- 
kuni-ya, both 12 cho from station) 
is an important place, and capital 
of the prefecture of the same name, 
which includes the two provinces 
of Mino and Hida. A conical hill 
named Kinkwa-zan, N. E. of the 
town, was the site of a castle built 
by the great warrior Ota Nobunaga. 
The view hence of Ontake and the 
^linshu Koma-ga-take, with the 
ffida range, well repays the climb. 
The traveller will also be taken to 
maha-yama, near the centre of the 
town, where stands a Shinto shrine. 
Eaw silk and the silk of the wild 
silkworm [yama-mai) are produced 
in large quantities in the neighbour- 

hood, most of it being woven into 
crape. In this the glittering threads 
of the wild silk, which takes the 
dyes in a less degree than that of the 
ordinary silkworm, are introduced 
to form the pattern. The mon- 
chirimen woven in this manner is a 
favourite fabric. Gifu is also noted 
for its paper-lanterns (said to be 
the best in Japan) and other paper 
wares, the Mino-gami being univer- 
sally prized. 

In the summer-time it may be 
worth staying over a night at Gifu, 
in order to see an extremely curious 
method of fishing -^ith the help of 
cormorants (u-kai) on the river 
Nagara. Comfortable house-boats 
may be engaged for this pm-pose. 
The traveller is referred for a full 
description to the article entitled 
" Cormorant-fishing " in Things Ja- 
panese ; but the fishermen do not go 
out^on moonlight nights. On nearing 
Ogaki (Inns, Kyomaru-ya at the 
station; Tama-ya), the castle of 
the former Daimyo, with one turret 
in fairly good preservation, is seen 
1. of the line. Far away to the r., 
Haku-san rears its head over the 
nearer range. 

[Not to the hunied tourist, but to 
the leisurely lover of Old Japan 
and her ways, a day or two at 
Yoro, in this neighbourhood, 
is much to be recommended. 
The plan is to alight at OgaM 
station, there take ajinriMsha 
over the plain through the vilL 
of Takada (2^ ri) to Ishibata 
(10 cho more), and thence walk 
the last J ri to Yoro, which 
stands on the flank of the 
mountain ridge of the same 
name. One may return either 
the way one came, or else to 
Tarui station, about the same 
distance, or to Seki-ga-hara, 
nearly 1 ri longer. Seki-ga- 
hara is the best station from 
which to approach Yoro, when 
coming fi-om the Kyoto direc- 

The raison d'itre of the little 
village of Yoro (Inns, *Kiku- 


Boute 23.— The Tokaido. 

sui-r5, Murakami), of the gar- 
dens, and of the line Kairaku- 
sha club-house dating from 
1880, is the celebrated water- 
fall called Yoro-cja-taki. 

This name, which may be translat- 
ed as "the Cascade of Filial Piety," is 
explained by the following legend. 
In A D. 717 there lived a wood-cutter 
so filial in his conduct that he was 
wont to expend the proceeds of his 
toU on sake for his aged father, 
whose great passion was strong 
drink. As a reward for such exem- 
plary piety, there was one day re- 
vealed to him the existence of this 
cascade, which consists (or at least 
consisted at that time) of pure and 
excellent sake. The legend forms a 
favourite subject of Japanese art. 

Both the Kikusui-r5 inn and 
the Kaii-akusha club command 
lovely views of the broad sweep 
of the Mino plain, with Ontake, 
Ena-san, and other mountains 
beyond. Very charming, too, 
is the thoroughly Japanese ar- 
rangement of the park, and 
the walk up to the waterfall 
through 5 cho of cherry and ma- 
ple trees. The fall itself, which 
is 105 ft. high, is embosomed 
in maple-trees. The rock on 
either side contains fossil 
ferns, known as .shinobu-seki. 
Yoro is a cool place in sum- 
mer. In -wdnter the Shimo-ike, 
a large mere a little over 1 ri 
distant in a S.E. direction, 
swarms with wild-geese, duck, 
etc., which are taken by means 
of nets, and at all seasons with 
eels, carp, and perch, which 
help to supply the Kyoto fish- 
market. The distance to the 
summit of Yoro-yama is locally 
estimated at 2 ri. A most ex- 
tensive view rewards the 
climber.— While in this neigh- 
bourhood, one might visit the 
marble quarries of Akasaka- 
yama, also called _Kinsh5-zan, 
1 ri 10 cho from OgaM in the 
direction of Tarui, and the 
celebrated temple of Tanigumi- 
dera, some 7 ri to the N. of 
Taxui by a jinriMsha road. 

This temple is the thirty-third 
and last of the Places Sacred 
to the Goddess Kwannon (see 
Ute. 37), and here accordingly 
the pUgi-ims deposit their pU- 
grim shirts (oizuru). It can 
scarcely be recommended ex- 
cept on festival days, viz. the 
17th July which is the yearly 
festival, and the 18th of aU 
the other months.] 

There are inferior inns at the 
small stations of Tarui and 


Seki-ga-hara takes its name, which 
means literally "Moor of the Barrier," 
from the barrier of Fuwa {Fuwa no seki) 
established at this spot in A. D. 673 by the 
Emperor Temmu, it having been a Japa- 
nese custom from the earliest period down 
to the beginning of the present reign to 
hamper free communication throughout 
the country by means of barriers near the 
capital, which none might pass without 
a special permit. Doubtless the original 
object was to guard against incursions of 
the barbarians of the East and North. 
Seki-ga-hara is celebrated in Japanese 
history as the scene of a decisive battle 
fought in the year ICuO between leyasu 
and Hideyori, son of the great Hideyoshi, 
in which leyasu triumphed. His camp 
at Seki-ga-hara was on a level piece of 
ground among the hills on the 1. side of 
the road, near a hamlet called Kogami- 

Here the journey across the plain 
terminates, and the Tokaido Rail- 
way again enters diversified scen- 
ery, as it plunges among the hills 
that enclose beautiful Lake Biwa. 

Between Seki-ga-hara and Xaga- 
oka the gradient is steep, the line 
being led up a naiTow valley open- 
ing out on a small plain devoted to 
the cultivation of the mulberry- 
tree. The tall bare mountain 
frequently seen looming up to the 
r. during this portion of the joiu-ney 
is Ihuki-yama (about 4,300 ft.), one 
of the " Seven High Mountains " of 
Central Japan, and noted in the 
early Japanese pharmacopoeia for 
its wealth of medicinal plants. 

The " Seven High Mountains " are Hiei- 
zan, Hirayama in Omi, Ibuki-yama, Kim- 
pu-zan (or Omine) near yoshino, Atago- 
yama in Yamashiro, Tonomine, and Kazu- 

From Maihara to Nishi-no-miya. 


Passing among pine-clad hills, 
we reach 

Maibara {Inn, Izutsu-ya at the 
station), whence all the way on to 
Baba, the station for the important 
town of Otsn, the line runs along 
the basin of Lake Biwa, though 
unfortunately not near enough 
to the shore to allow of many 
glimpses of the lalvc being ob- 
tained. The whole scenery is, 
however, pretty, — and pretty in a 
way of its own. Quite close, to 
the 1., is the range of hills forming 
the southern rim of the Lake Biwa 
basin ; far away to the r., in the dim 
distance, are the blue mountains 
enclosing the lake on the N., while 
immediately on either side of the 
line is a fair, cultivated plain. At 

Hikone [Inns, *Raku-raku-tei, 
Matsu-ya), the former Daimyo's 
castle is seen r. on a wooded hill. 
For the fish-traps to be observed 
in the lake, see the small type near 
the beginning of Route 40. Before 
reaching Notogawa, the rivers Seri- 
gawa, Inukami-gawa, and Echigawa 
are crossed. The cone of Mikami- 
yama, also called IVIulcade-yama, 
shaped like Fuji but thickly wood- 
ed, begins to j)eep up from behind 
a nearer range of hills before arriv- 
ing at 

Kusatsu. Between this place 
and Baba, the most striking view 
on the whole Tokaido W. of Shizu- 
oka is obtained on crossing the 
long bridge that spans the Seta- 
gawa (Seta no JS'aga-hashi), where 
the lake opens out beautifully for a 
few minutes. From 

Saba or Otsu (Inn, Minarai-tei, 
foreign style), the line passes 
through a tunnel under Osaka- 
yama (nothing to do with the city 
of Osaka), before ru.nning into the 
small station of Otani, where it 
emerges on a narrow valley. The 
hills are covered with that thick 
growth of pine-trees which charac- 
terises all the country round about 

[For further details concerning 
the portion of the Tokaido 
Route lying between Maibara 
and Otani, see Route 40.] 

The train then passes through 
the stations of Yarnashina and Inari. 
Over 11,000 pilgrims alight at this 
latter place on the occasion of the 
yearly festival of the great Shinto 
temple of Liari, for which see Route 
35. The train then enters the old 

Kyoto, fully described in Route 
35, after which it crosses a wide 
plain, and passes through several 
minor stations before reaching the 
great commercial town of 

Osaka, described in Route 34. 
From Osaka onwards, the hills in 
the distance to the r. begin to draw 
in, the broad fruitful plain rapidly 
contracts until it becomes a mere 
strip fringing the sea-shore, and at 
the station of 

Nishi-no-miya, there begins 
to rise r. the screen of somewhat 
barren hills that help to give Kobe 
its good climate by protecting that 
part of the coast from wintry 
blasts. The high land seen in the 
distance across the water is not, as 
might be supposed, an island, but 
a portion of the pro-vLnoe of Izuml. 
At Nishi-no-miya stands a small 
but famous Temple of Ebisu, one of 
the seven gods of Luck, to which 
immense crowds of worshippers 
flock on the First Day of the Horse 
(Hatsu-uma) of the First Moon, old 
style, — generally some day in 
February. This part of the country 
is one of the chief centres of the 
sake manufacture. The three 
tunnels passed through on this 
section of the journey are remark- 
able, as going under river-beds. 
O^ing to the proximity of the 
neighbouring mountains to the sea, 
quantities of sand and stones are 
swept down whenever the streams 
are swollen by rain. As a con- 
sequence of this, the liver-beds 
tend constantly to raise themselves 
more and more above the general 


Eoute 24. — The Nakasendo. 

level of the country, which they 
traverse like dykes. Occasionally 
of course a dyke breaks down, and 
then ensues an inundation with 
attendant loss of life and property. 
Soon after passing through Sumi- 
yoshi, — an insignificant place not to 
be confounded with the well-known 
Sumiyoshi near Sakai, — the train 
runs in to 

Sannoraiya, and the long jour- 
ney is at an end, Sannomiya being 
the station for the foreign settle- 
meni of Kobe. To go on one 
station further, to what is ofificially 

Kobe, would caiTy the traveller 
past his destination into the native 
town. It must therefore be dis- 
tinctly borne in mind that, if bound 
for Kobe, one must book only as 
far as Sannomiya. 

[For Kobe and neighbourhood, 
see Route 33.] 

ROUTE 24. 

The Nakasendo. 

Itirmrary of the Nakasendo from 
Oifu to Oya. 

GIFU to :— Ri Cho 31. 

Unuma 4 31 llf 

Ota 2 10 5J 

Mitake 3 4 7i 

Shizuki 2 — 5 

Hambara 2 11 5| 

Kamado 25 If 

Takeori 1 30 4^ 

Oi 1 20 31 

Nakatsu-gawa 2 24 6 J 

Ochiai 17 3 

Azuma 4 n 10 

Midono 1 28 4^ 

Nojiri 2 11 5f 

Suwara 1 29 4ri 

Agematsu 3 7 74 

FUKUSHIMA 2 11 5| 

]VIiyanokoshi 2 11 5f 

Yabuhara 1 35 4^ 

Narai 1 12 3^ 

Niegawa 1 29 4| 

Motoyama 2 — 5 

Seba 28 2 

Shiojiri 1 28 4|- 

SHIMO-NO-SUWA. 2 30 7 

Wada 5 22 13| 

Nagakubo (Shim- 

machi) 2 15 

Nagakubo (Furu- 

machi) 19 IJ 

Kami-Mariko 2 25 6| 

OYA 2 — b" 

Total 65 25 160^ 

The yakasentld, or Central Mountain 
Road, is so named in contradistinction 
to the Tokaido or Eastern Sea Road, and 
the comparatively unimportant Hoku- 
roku-do, or Northern Land Road In Kaga 
and Etchu, between which it occupies a 
middle po.sition. It runs from Kyoto to 
Tokyo, passing through the provinces of 
Yamashiro, Omi, ZSIino, Shinshu, Kotsuke, 
and Musashi. The road seems to have 
been originally constructed early in the 
8th century. Legendary history states. 
however, that in the reign of the Emperor 
Keiko (A. D. 71-130), his son. Prince 
Yamato-take, crossed over the Usui 
during his conquest of Eastern Japan, 
suggesting the inference that some kind 
of track was believed to have existed there 
from the very earliest times. 

Though, properly speaking, the 
Nakasendo runs the whole way 
from Kydto to Tokyo, the portion 
between Gifu and Karuizawa (or 
Oya, which is off the road proper) 
is the only one now usually done 
by road, the so-called Tdkaido 
Ilailway having usurped the place 
of the Nakasendo between Kyoto 
and Gifu, and the final section 
across the Tokyo i^lain being also 
now traversed by rail. Oya, on the 
Karuizawa-Naoetsu Railway (see 
Route 26), is now generally adopted 
as the terminal point of the jour- 
ney, which takes 5 days. Travel- 
lers may find it advantageoiis to 
engage jinrikishas at Gifu for the 
through jovirney. At the other 
end it is more difficult to make 

Front Gifu ■krMitake. 


such an aiTangement. Constant 
attention is paid by tlie govern- 
ment to the improYement of the 
Nakasendo, with the result that 
jiniiMshas with two men will 
soon be practicable throughout. 
At present there still remain a few 
steep hills, where those who can- 
not walk must engage an extra 
coolie or two. Those who intend 
partly to walk and partly to ride, 
are advised to take jinrikishas for 
the first flat section as far as Mi- 
take, then from Kamado to Oi, and 
perhaps from Nakatsu-gawa on- 
wards to Azuma-bashi, and thence 
again at intervals to the foot of the 
Torii-toge, perhaps from Motoyama 
into Suwa, and again either from 
Wada or Nagakubo into Oya 

The Nakasendo trip may be 
shortened by half a day, and yet 
the most picturesque portion 
retained, by starting fi'om Nagoya 
and taking train to Tajimi, whence 
by jinrikisha to Kamado, 5 ri 2U cho 
(13i- m.). The railway may ulti- 
mately be pushed on to Kamado 
and along the Nakasendo. 

The Nakasendo traverses moun- 
tainous, sparsely cultivated dis- 
tricts, remote from populous cen- 
tres ; and it used to be noted that 
the peasantry along portions of 
the route had a poverty-stricken 
appearance. But the recent won- 
derful development of the silk in- 
dustry has done much to amelio- 
rate their contlition ; and the ac- 
commodation is everywhere good, 
— judged, that is, from a country 
stand-point. The best time for 
travelling along the Nakasendo is 
the summer or autumn. Between 
December and April this route can- 
not be recommended, on account of 
the snow, especially on the passes. 

On leaving Gifu, a flat country, 
a good road, hills to the 1., many 
villages, rice-fields at first, and 
then a pleasant moorland partly 
wooded, — such is the impression 
left by the first stage of the 

journey. Shortly after passing 
Kano, a suburb of Gifu, the Tdkaidd 
Railway line is crossed. Just before 

XJnuma {Inn, Oshima-ya), we 
see r., a couple of miles oil', the 
keep (ienshu) of the castle of Naru- 
se, lord of Inagi, in fair preserva- 
tion, crowning a wooded hill be- 
hind the rice-fields. Soon after, 
we get our first sight of the river 
which is to be our companion for 
several days, — the Kiso-gaioa, — 
already picturesque even thus far 
down its course, with dark boul- 
ders and reefs of rock that make 
navigation dangerous for the boats 
and rafts. 

The Kiso-gawa ranks as one of the San- 
dai-ka, or Three Great Rivers of Japan, 
the other two being the Tonegawa and 
the Shinano-gawa : but the Kiso-gawa is 
incomparably the most beautiful. Rising 
near the Torii-toge iu the province of 
Shinshu, it runs for a length of laS miles, 
and after forming an intricate delta which 
is subject to dreadful floods, falls into the 
Bay of Owari. The Nakasendo is often 
called by the alternative name of Kiso- 
Kaido, or Kiso-ji, that is, the " Road along 
the Kiso." 

Beyond Ota (Inn, Isogai), the 
Kisogawa is crossed by ferry to 
Ima-icaiari, — one of the few ferries 
remaining on the beaten tracks. 
The stream is singularly clear and 
pure. A gradual ascent leads over 
a rather dull bit of country to 

Mitake (Inns, *Masu-ya, Ebi-ya). 
Some small caves (hito-ana) in this 
neighbourhood are popularly believ- 
ed to have been the abode of the 
prehistoric Emperor Keiko Tenno. 
There are two himdred of them, all 
facing S. in the sandstone rock. 

The traveller should turn aside 
at Shizuki to visit the Oni-iica, or 
" Ogre's Kocks," engaging a local 
guide. The detour occupies about 
j hr., and the jinrikishas and lug- 
gage can be rejoined at the top of 
the Gara-isld-tixje. 

Nearly seven hundred years ago — so 
runs the legend — there lived an ogre 
called Seki-no-Taro, who made his dwell- 
ing among those gloomy rocks. Year 
after veiir. at the yreat festival of ilitake 


Route 24. — The Nakasendo, 

on the 10th day of the second moon, 
some beautiful maiden disappeared and 
was no more heard of, because she had 
been carried off and devoured ; but the 
monster could not be caught. So the wise 
men of the place devised a plan : — on 
the next festival every one was to have a 
mark painted on his forehead as he 
entered the precincts, without which he 
should not be suffered to leave again at 
night. Accordingly, when all the rest had 
departed, one man alone remained, ill- 
favoured and of great stature, but lacking 
the appointed sign. So they cut off his 
head, whereupon both head and body 
instantly grew too heavy to be moved and 
had to be buried on the spot. From that 
time forth the festival was never stained 
with blood: and the grave, called Kubi- 
sv.ka, is still vi-sited by persons afflicted 
with any trouble iu the head. In the weird 
gorge where the ogre held his revels, the 
country-folks still point out the rock 
from which the maidens were hurled 
(Hito-sute-iwa), the Slicing Board {Mana- 
ita), the Chopsticks {Sai-basJn), and others 

Coming to the Gara-islii-t5ge, we 
find the hills dotted with scattered 
boulders and scrub pine. From 
the top of the pass, but a good deal 
off the road on opjjosite sides of it, 
may be reached two places called 
Tsukiyoshi and Hiyoshi, the former 
very rich in fossil shells, some of 
which have been removed and 
enshrined in a temple at the latter. 

The local legend avers that some of these 
fossils fell from the moon, others from 
the sun, whence the names of the two 

The Hamhara-toge is crossed be- 
fore reaching Kamado. a village of 
some local importance, as here a 
road called the tihita Kaido, which 
is much used for traffic, diverges to 
Nagoya. It is mostly flat and excel- 
lent going. Ontake now comes in 
view ahead to the 1., while Ena-san is 
seen to the r. (for these two celebrat- 
ed mountains, see Rte. 31). The road 
is very hilly most of the way to Oi, 
and indeed on to Nakatsu-gawa and 
Ochiai. The peasantry in the 
district stretching eastward use an 
odd kind of spade, heav)"^ and two- 
handled. The diggers stand op- 
posite each other, one delving, the 
other using the second handle to 
assist in raising the blade for the 

next blow. Another local pecu- 
liarity consists in the rows of bird- 
cages under the eaves of most of 
the houses in the villages passed 
through. Each cage contains one 
tsugume, a kind of thrush, used as 
a decoy. These thrushes form a 
welcome addition to monotonous 
travelUng fare. When not in season, 
— which is autumn and spring — 
they are kept preserved in yeast 
(koji-zuJce), and are eaten slightly 
roasted. Further eastward another 
small bird, called miyama, is treated 
in the same way. 

[The section of the Nakasend5 
from Mitake to Oi is a com- 
paratively new road (shindo) ; 
the old road (kyudo) to the N. of 
it, passing through the villages 
of Hosokute and Okute, leads 
over the Biwa-toge and a 
succession of hills known as 
the Ju-san-toge, or "Thirteen 
Passes," none of which are 

Nakatsu-gawa {Inn, Hashi- 
rild), generally called Nakatsu for 
short, lies close to the base of Ena- 
san, and is the best starting-point 
for the ascent of that mountain. 
Here, as at other towns further on, 
the traveller will be waked early 
by the shriek of the sUk factory 
whistle. The 1 ri on hence to Ochiai 
is a succession of ups and downs. 
The little town itself lies in a hol- 
low by the side of an aflluent of the 
Kiso-gawa, which river we now 
rejoin and follow for two days 
along the most beautiful part of its 
course by a splendid jinriMsha 

[The old road over the Jik-koku- 
toge, via Magome and Tsumago 
(Inn, Matsushiro-ya), though 1 
n shorter, is now rarely taken 
by any but the jjostman. It 
rejoins the new road at the 
hamlet of Azuma.'] 

Soon we pass out of Mino into 
the more varied and mountainous 
province of Shinshti, and the river 

Timber-felling. Nezame no Toko. 


scenery becomes more and more 
picturesque, -witli great overhang- 
ing masses of rock and little 
tributary waterfalls, before reach- 
ing the hamlet of Azuma-bashi, 
where a considerable affluent, the 
Araragi-gawa, falls in r. 

[A_ mountain road over the 
Odaira-tof/e diverges here to lida 
for the rapids of the Tenryu- 
gawa, see Rte. 30.] 
Between Midono (Inn, Matsu- 
ya) and Nojiri, a poor place, is the 
narrowest part of the valley. The 
hills get more pointed and more 
feathery-looking with their splen- 
did timber, except in the too nu- 
merous places where deforestation 
has left its ruthless trace. 

At some times and in some places, there 
really seems to be more wood in the 
river than water, 80,000 trees being sent 
annually down stream, not in rafts but 
singly, each stamped with its owner's 
mark. The trees most esteemed are 
hinoki and sawara. Several tracts apper- 
tain to the Imperial domain, while others 
now belong to the peasants. In former 
days, when all the woods of Kiso were 
owned by the Daimyo of Owari, stringent 
forestry laws were enforced ; and where- 
as ordinary trees might be hewn down at 
will, the two species above-mentioned 
and also keyaki, nezu, and asuhi, mij^ht not 
have so much as a twig broken off, and 
armed foresters were placed to shoot all 
poachers dead. Any peasant found in 
possession of a utensil made of one of the 
forbidden kinds of woods was arrested. 
In case of his having purchased any such 
from a neighbouring province, it was in- 
cumbent on him to infoi-m the authorities 
of his own locality, who verified the 
transaction and branded the article in 
question with the official stamp. This 
paternal despotism had at least the effect 
of bequeathing splendid forests to poster- 
ity. Immense havoc was done during 
the turmoil which ushered in the new 
regime, and only since about 1890 has 
serious attention again been turned to 
forest preservation. The Imperial do- 
main is believed to be now economically 
managed, but the peasants continue to 
waste their newly acquired source of 
wealth. The timber is felled in late 
spring and summer, and floated down 
stream in autumn and winter. A largo 
number of men find employment as wood- 
cutters, others are stationed along the 
stream with bill-hooks to push off strand- 
ed logs. At a place called jSTishikori in 
Mino, hawsers are stretched across the 

stream to prevent the logs from floating 
further. There they are sorted and i- 
dentified by government officials, and 
afterwards bound by their respective 
owners into rafts, most of which are 
navigated down to Kuwana in the 
province of Ise. 

We cross the Inagawa, an afflu- 
ent of the Kiso, which flows down 
from Koma-ga-take, before rejoin- 
ing the main river and entering 
the town of 

Suwara {Inn, Sakura-ya). This 
lies in a more open part of the 
valley, where much sUk is produced. 
The mountains again draw in, and 
the road becomes more hilly. 
About 2 ri on is the cascade of Ono, 
not very remarkable. Koma-ga- 
take, of which only peeps have 
been obtained hithex'to, is seen 
excellently on entering the hamlet 
of Nezame. In shape it exactly re- 
sembles a saddle, two sharp little 
knobs in the middle making its 
resemblance to that instrument of 
torture, a Japanese saddle, only 
the more realistic. Native travel- 
lers always stoxD at this hamlet to 
see the Nezame no Toko, or " Bed 
of Awakening." 

This curious name is derived from a 
local tradition which avers that Ura- 
shima, the .Japanese Kip Van Winkle (see 
p. 85), awoke in this spot from his long 
dream. Others, more matter-of-fact, ex- 
plain the name to mean that the view 
"wakes up," that is, startles those who 
come upon it. 

Without going the whole way 
down to the river, one can obtain a 
good view of the rocky platform 
from the gi'ounds of the poor temple 
of Binsenji, where it appears far 
below the spectator. There is the 
rock on which Urashima opened the 
casket (tama-te-bako), and others 
resembhng a Hon, an elephant, a 
mat, a screen, etc., are pointed out. 
But Europeans ^vill probably be at 
a loss here, as in several other 
celebrated show-places in this 
country, to understand why the 
Japanese should have singled out 
this special spot from among so 
many lovely ones ; and when a 


Route 24. — The Nakasendo. 

native guide-book says that " its 
noble character surpasses the 
power of the mind fully to appre- 
ciate, and of language adequately to 
describe," one can but smile and 

Twelve cho beyond Nezame, we 
pass r. a steep flight of steps, with 
a stone marMng "4 ri 20 cho to 
the summit of Koma-ga-take," 
and then we reach 

Agematsu ( Inn, Haku-ichi). 
Either this town or Fukushima 
woidd be an excellent place for the 
lover of mountain scenery to stay 
at for a few days. Both Ontake 
and Koma-ga-take can be con- 
veniently ascended from these 
points, and from the top to Koma- 
ga-take one may descend to the 
Ina Kaido for the rapids of the 
Tenryu-gawa. The ascent and then 
the descent on the other side could 
be done under favourable circum- 
stances in one extremely long day ; 
but it is better to stop at the hut 
recommended in our desciiption in 
Route 31, No. 12, or at another hut 
lower down. 

A distance of 30 cho more through 
similar charming scenery biings 
one to the Eiso no Kakc-hashi, a 
celebrated awkward bit, where in 
ancient days the nan-ow footpath 
clung with difficulty to the 
precipitous rock. The excitement 
of the passage has been lost by 
successive improvements in the 
road. Here pilgrims fi'om the west 
cross the river for the ascent of 
Ontake, of which sacred but bare 
peak a good view is obtained a 
little fiTrther on to the 1. 

Fukushima [Inn, Suimei-ro) is a 
good-sized town extending along 
both banks of the river, and is the 
most important place in the 
district. Here the scenery of the 
Nakasendo changes. The Kiso- 
gawa loses its rocky wildness ; but 
in exchange we shall soon have the 
high passes ami extensive ^dews. 

Miyanokoshi [Inn, Touari-ya) 
was formerly the seat of the feudal 
lord Kiso Yoshinaka. the graves of 

whose family are still shown at the 
temple of Tokuonji. The little 
town of 

Yabuhara {Inn, Kawakami-ya), 
called Yagohara by some, is entirely 
devoted to the manufacture of 
combs. It stands at the foot of 
the Torii-toge, at a height of 3,150 ft. 
above sea-level. 

[From Yabiihara, a road follows 
the r. bank of the Kisogawa 
nearly iip to its source, pass- 
ing over into the province of 

A good but very circuitous jin- 
riMsha road leads over the pass, 
without touching its summit ; 
pedestrians are advised to take the 
older and steeper but shorter way 
which does. A similar remark ap- 
plies to the descent on the other 

The name of this pass is derived from 
the toiii on the top dedicated to Ontake, 
the summit of which sacred m.ouutaiii is 
visible hence. Strange as it may seem, 
two battles were fought on this spot in 
the 16th century, between some of the 
rival chieftains who, during that period 
of anarchy, disputed Eastern Japan 
amongst them. 

The torii at the top is a massive 
granite structure. There are also 
several quaint bronze and stone 
images to be seen, both Buddhist 
and Sliinto. Narai, which nestles at 
the E. foot of the pass, offers fair 
acommodation, though the vill. is a 
poor one. Hirasaica is another 
poor place, where cheap and com- 
mon lacquered articles are made. 
The scenery improves as we ap- 

Niegawa (Inn, *Oku-ya). The 
river Kiso was left behind at the W. 
side of the Torii-toge ; but we 
remain in the Kiso tlistrict for a 
httle longer, and follow- another 
stream flo-wing between high, well- 
wooded banks. We next pass 
through Seha and Motoyama, where 
jiniiMshas < »r hasha can be engaged 
for the rest of the way to Shimo- 

[Basha are also practicable 
hence to the large town of 

From Niegawa to Shimo-no-Satva. 


Matsumoto (see p. 260), 4J ri 

The road is rather dull till reach- 
ing the spot where the way to 
Matsumoto branches off 1., while 
we, keeping to the Nakasendo, 
climb a short hill to a little uplaud 
called Kikyo-ga-hama, which affords 
a fine prospect, — Noiikura and Yari- 
ga-take 1., and ahead the moun- 
tains of central Shinshu. There is 
yet another road to Matsumoto at 
the vill. of Baimon, 10 cho before 

Shiojiri {Inn, Kawakami). Be- 
yond this town lies the Shiojiri- 
toye, 3,340 ft., the second of the 
high passes of the Nakasendo. 
Here, as so often elsewhere, a choice 
presents itself between two roads, 
— the old one, bad but shorter, the 
new whose practicability for jin- 
riMshas is counterbalanced by its 
length. The view from the top is 
extensive and very beautiful. 
Below hes Lake Suwa, with villages 
studded over the adjacent plain. Of 
the high mountains that almost 
completely encircle its basin, 
Yatsu-ga-take is the luost promi- 
nent. To the r. of the dip at the 
far end of the lake, the cone of 
Fuji appears behind a nearer range. 
The sharp peak further round to the 
r. is the Koshu Koma-ga-take, while 
more remote stretches the long 
summit of Shirane-san. A little 
further back, the top of Ontake is 
visible. Just behind are the lofty 
peaks of the range separating the 
plain of Matsumoto from the prov- 
ince of Hida. The descent on the 
other side is quite easy. Just before 
Shimo-no-suwa, we pass 1. a 
splendid bronze torli erected in 
1892 at the entrance to the Aki- 
rM-MUja, a famous Shinto temple. 

Shimo-no-Suwa {hms, Kikyo- 
ya, with private hot springs ; Maru- 
ya,and many others), lies in a basin, 
the greater part of which is occupied 
by Lake Suwa, \ hr. walk from the 

This lake, almost circular iu form, is 
said to be 35 ft. deep, but is slowly filliug 

up. It.'? present diameter is about 2J 
miles. It freezes over most winters ao 
solidly that heavily laden pack-horses can 
cross over to Kami-nn-SuvM with perfect 
safety near its S. E. extremity. The in- 
habitants do not, however, venture upon 
the ice until it has cracked across, believ- 
ing this to be a sign from heaven. Some 
attribute the cracking to the foxes. During 
the winter the fishermen make holes in 
the ice through which they insert their 
nets and manage to take a considerable 
quantity of lish, especially carp. From 
the S. end of Lake Suwa issues the 
Tenryii-gawa, which flows into the sea 
near Hamamatsu on tbe Tokaido. 

Shimo-no-SuAva ii-; celebrated for 
its hot springs, the principal of 
which, called Woia-^w-yu, has a 
temperature of 113°.9 F. Of the 
two other principal sources in the 
town, one called Ko-yu, which con- 
tains alum, has the high tempera- 
ture of 145°.4 ; the other, called 
Tanga-yu, has a temperature of 
114:°.«S. As in the case of many 
Jaj)anese spas, Shimo-no-Suwa is 
apt to be noisy of an evening. In 
the day-time it is busy with the 
silk industry. Within one hoiu- of 
the town are scattered nearly a 
hundred filatures, producing the 
best silk in Japan. The largest 
establishments employ over two 
hundred hands. Quinces, which 
ripen in October, are also produced 
in great abundance. Wild cats 
■v\'ith long tails inhabit this district, 
noticeably different from the short- 
tailed cat of E. Japan. 

Two great Shinto shrines, called 
respectively Haru-no-Miya (Spring 
Temple) and Aki-no-Miya (Autumn 
Temple), — the former situated near 
the inns, the latter on the E. out- 
skirts as already indicated, — have 
long been celebrated, but are now 
fallen into lamentable decay. 

They derive tlieir appellations from the 
fact that the divinities there worshipped 
are believed to change their abode from 
one to the other according to the season, 
moving in to the Haru-no-Miya on the 
1st February, and into the Aki-no-Miya 
on the 1st August, on each of which oc- 
casions a procession takes place. The god 
and goddess worshipped are named re- 
spectively Take-mina-gata-tome-no-Miko- 
to and JVIai-no-yasaka-touie-no-Mikoto. 

254 Route 25. — By Steamer from Yokohama to Kobe. 

The way now leads up towards 
the Wada-toge, at first through a 
didl valley, between hills of in- 
considerable height. The stone 
monument passed on the way is 
to the memory of six warriors, who, 
surprised here by the enemy, com- 
mitted harakiri rather than sur- 
render. This was in December, 

The Wada-toge is the longest and 
highest pass on the Nakasendd, 
being 5,300 ft. above the level of the 
sea. Snow lies on it up to the end 
of April, but is seldom so deep as 
to block the road. The glorious 
view from the summit may best 
be enjoyed by chmbing one of 
the mounds to the 1. of the road, 
involving i hr. delay. To the N.E. 
rises Asama-yama; to the S.E. 
Tateshina and Yatsu-ga-take ; S.W. 
the eye rests upon the basin of 
Lake Suwa ; further to the W. 
stand Koma-ga-take and Ontake, 
while to the N.W. a great portion 
of the Hida-Shinshti range is visible. 
Five cho down one reaches the 
cluster of tea-houses (Kiso-ya and 
Tsuchi-ya are the best) collectively 
known as 

Hig-ashi Mochiya. In case of 
having to spend the night, this 
would be found a better jAace to 
stay at than Wada, which hes at 
the N.E. foot of the pass, as the 
latter is apt to be crowded in sum- 
mer -with pilgrims going to Ontake. 

N'ag-aku'bo is a double vill., 
whose two halves, Nagakubo-Shim- 
machi (Lm, YamazakL-ya), and Na- 
gakubo-Furumachi, He over a mile 
apart. The former stands near 
the foot of the Kasatori-toge, over 
which the old Nakasendo highway 
via Mochizuki, Iwamiirata, and Oi- 
wake leads. It is now more xisual, 
as indicated in our Itinerary, to 
curtail the journey by branching 
off N. down the valley of the 
Idagawa, an easy ride into 

Oya (Inn, Oya-kwan), a smaU 
station on the Karuizawa-Naoetsu 
Railway. Here the traveller is 

within Ih hr. of the favourite 
Slimmer resort of Karuizawa, with 
hotels in foreign style ; or he 
can go straight into Tokyo (see 
Eoutes 13 and 12). 

ROUTE 25. 

By Steamee peom Yokohama to 

While steaming down Tokyo Bay, 
there is a good view of Fuji with 
the Hakone range in the foreground 
on the r ; on the 1. is the flat shore 
of the province of Kazusa. At 1 
hr., the ship will be near Kwannon- 
zaki, on which there is a fixed white 
light visible 14 miles, showing a red 
ray in a certain direction to guide 
vessels clear of Saratoga Spit (Fut- 
tsu-saM) and Plymouth Eocks to the 

Powerful forts have been con- 
structed on Kwannon-zaki, on Sara- 
toga Spit, and also in the centre of 
the channel in 26 fathoms of water, 
for the defence of the Bay. After 
passing Kwannon-zaki, the ship 
steers down the Uraga Channel, 
so called from the town of that 
name (p.l06) on the shores of a small 
harbour a few miles S.W. of Kwan- 
non-zaki, which was formerly the 
port of entry for Tokyd Bay. At 2 
hrs., Tsurugi-saki — the south end 
of the channel — is rounded, where 
there is a hght visible 24 m. 
Thence the track lies S.W. to Bock 
Island across the Bay of Sagami, 
which opens on the r., and close 
past the north end of Vries Island, 
described in Koute 8. From 4 to 6 
hrs., the ship will be running almost 
parallel to the coast of the pen- 

* The expressions ' at 1 hour,' ' at 2 
hours,' etc., in the description of this 
voyage, signify ' when the steamer has 
been 1 hour out of Yokohama,' ' 2 hours 
out of Yokohama,' etc., taking 12 knots 
per hour as the average speed. 

Whaling off the Coast of Kishu. 


insula of Izu (Kte. 7), within 10 m. 
of the shore. A fine prospect may 
be enjoyed of its rugged ruoiintain 
chain, with Fuji, which towers be- 
hind, bearing N.W. The island 
beyond Vries, looking like a cocked- 
hat, is Toshima, the second of 
the Seven Isles of Izu. At 6 
hrs.. Rock Island {Mikomoto), off 
the extreme S. of Izu, is reach- 
ed ; on it is a fine light visible 20 
m. Fi'om Eock Island, the direct 
route is W. S. W. to the S.E. ex- 
tremity of the province of Kishu. 
This course, which is followed in 
the summer months, leads the ship 
so far off shore that there is little 
to be distinguished. But in winter 
the N.W. winds generally blow so 
strongly that, to avoid the heavy 
sea, the ship, after passing Rock 
Island, is kept due W., crossing the 
mouth of Suruga Gulf, and at 9 
hrs. is off Omae-zaki, distinguish- 
able at night by a white revolving 
light visible 19 m. Fuji is now 60 
m. distant, and will not be seen 
much after this point except in 
clear winter weather. From Omae- 
zaM the track recedes for some 
hours from the land, which, being 
low, is not particularly interesting; 
and if the ship left Yokohama just 
before sunset, this part vnl\ be 
passed in the night. At 13 hrs. the 
ship is off Owari Bay, a deep bay 
stretching some 30 m. to the north- 
ward, narrow at the entrance, but 
widening out considerably inside. 
It is from Omae-zaM to this point 
that the voyage is generally most 
trying to bad sailors. At 15 hrs. 
the ship is off Cape Shima, whence 
to Oshima is a run of 70 m., grad- 
ually approaching the land, where 
fine views of the bold and pictur- 
esqe mountains of the proviaces of 
Kishu and Yamato are obtained. 

This Oshima is of course different from 
the Oshima (Vries Island) mentioned 
above. There are numerous Oshima's off 
the Japanese coast, which is not to be 
wondered at as the name simply means 
" big island." This particular Oshima has 
been the scene of repeated maritime dis- 

asters. The most terrible in recent years 
was the foundering of the Turtish man-of- 
war "Ertougroul" on the 16th sfeptember, 
1890, when ij02_ men perished out of a 
crew of .571. Oshima and its neighbour- 
hood form an important whaling centre. 
The whaling guilds conduct their opera- 
tions according to an elaborate system, 
described by Rev. R. B. Grinnan in the 
Japan Mail. Minute laws regulate the 
construction of the boats and weapons 
employed, and the functions of the 
various classes of men engaged. The 
following description of the modus 
operandi is somewhat condensed : — "The 
signals are a very important part of the 
work. INIen with glasses are arranged on 
three different mountains, one above the 
other. The man from the highest point, 
being able to see furthest, gives the first 
notice as to the approach of a whale by 
lighting a fire and raising a smoke, and at 
the same time by means of his flag he 
signals to the men on the mountain 
below, and they in turn signal to the 
boats. It is necessary for the men in the 
boats to know beforehand what kind of 
whale is coming, also his size and distance 
from the land ; for the attack differs 
according to these three things. The 
species of the whale is known in most 
cases by the manner in which the water 
is spouted up. The first thing to be done 
when the boats move out, is to put down 
the nets across the path of the whale. 
This is rather difiicult to do correctly, for 
in the first jilace they must be arranged 
according to the species of the whale. 
Another thing to be calculated on is the 
strength and course of the tide. One 
fighting boat goes to each net boat, to 
assist in arranging the nets in their proper 
order. Not all of the nets are put down 
at first. The nets that are put down are 
placed one after the other in parallels, with 
slight cuives, with short spaces inter- 
vening. After the first net is laid, the 
others are all arranged a little to the 
right or left, so that when all the nets 
are down they slant off' to one side or the 
other, and thus cover a broader space 
across the path of the whale. As soon as 
the nets are arranged the net boats draw 
off on each side and look on. Then some 
of the fighting boats go around behind 
the whale to attack from that point, 
while others arrange themselves on the 
sides so as to drive the whale into the 
nets. Those from behind strike with the 
hai-poons and run the lines out. The 
whale then rushes forward, and must be 
driven into the nets. Then a wild scene 
ensues, and every eflbrt is made to sur- 
round the whale that is making frantic 
efforts to escape. He often does escape; 
but if he does not, he is soon surrounded 
by nearly three hundred naked yelling 
men, who throw harpoons and stones 
in such numbers that the huge prey 
is overcome. It is really an awful as 


Boide ^liS.—By Simmer from Yokohama to Kobe 

well as pitiable sight; for the noble 
animal uutll very weak makes furious 
efforts to escape, rushing forward and 
coming up again to beat the sea into a 
bloody foam, at times smashing the boats 
or overturning them ; and above all the 
din and yelling of the men, can often be 
heard the plaintive cry of the whale as 
the deadly weapons sink deep into his 
flesh. Before the whale is dead, and 
while he is rushing forward, a man with 
a very sharp knife leaps on his back near 
the head, and slashes two great gashes 
into the flesh, and passes a large rope 
several times around in the flesh, leaving 
a loop on the outside : the same kind of 
loops are made in the flesh nearer the tail. 
This is done in order that the whale may be 
tied up between two large boats to beams 
stretched across, and thus kept from 
sinking when he dies. In this way he is 
carried in triumjih to the shore. The 
operation of cutting the holes and putting 
in the ropes is only done by the bravest 
and most skilful men {nazashi). While 
the holes are being cut and the ropes 
passed in the man must hold on to the 
whale, and even go down with him into 
the water if he dives : for if he lets go, 
he is liable to be struck by the whale's 
tail and killed. The only thdng to do is to 
tuck his head down and cling to the 
animal by the holes he has cut. He 
cannot raise his head, because he will at 
once be blinded by the water being driven 
into his eyes. When the fight draws to a 
close and the huge mammal is dying, all 
the whalers pray for the ease of the 
departing spirit by calling out Jbraku! 
Joraku! Joraku! in alow deep tone of 
voice. Again, on the third day after the 
whale is taken, a memorial service is held 
and jirayers oifered for the repose of the 
departed soul. If a baby whale is captur- 
ed, a special maUuri is held on the ninth 
day afterwards . As soon as the whale is 
landed he is cut up, and it is a fearful 
sight ; for the men strip themselves of all 
clothing, and hack and cut like madmen, 
all yelling .at the same time with the 
greatest excitement. Some men even cut 
holes and go bodily into the whale, and, 
coming out all covered with blood, look ■ 
like horrid red devils. Most of the 
whales taken are about 50 ft. long." 

From 16 hrs. to 29 hrs. is the 
most enjoyable jiart of the run 
from Yokohama to Kobe. Round- 
ing Oshima, which is marked by a 
white revoMng light visible 18 
mUes at 20 hrs., the vessel is close 
enough to the shore to note the 
thickly studded fishing villages, 
whose fleets of boats cover the 
water for miles^ Half an hour's 
steaming from Oshima brings us to 

Shio-MisaM, on which is a light 
visible 20 m. From Shio-ilisaki the 
track lies close along the shore — 
sometimes within 2 m., seldom 
more than -4 m. — to Hiino-Misaki, 
a run of 47 m., which, if made in 
daylight, will be even more enjoy- 
able than the 70 m. mentioned 
above. The bold hills to the r. are 
those of the i^rovince of Kishxi. 
The land to the 1. is the E. coast 
of the Island of Shikoku. At 2.5 
hrs., the ship is ofE Hiino-]\'Iisald, 
and after steering due north for 26 
m., will pass through Izumi or 
Yura Strait, which is about 6 m. 
wide, the passage for ships being 
narrowed to 2 m. by two islands 
called Ji-no-shima and OM-no- 
shima, on the W. side of which 
latter is a lighthotise. Observe 
both r. and 1. how the heights have 
been levelled for the erection of 
forts, to protect this approach to 
Osaka and Kobe. From the light 
on the islet in Y'ura Strait to Kobe 
is a run of 26 m. across a com- 
pletely landlocked bay, with the 
large Island of Awaji on the left. 
Kobe is generally reached at from 
28 to 30 hrs. The highest hill seen 
to the r., vdiYs. white temple build- 
ings sparkling in the sun, is Maya- 
san ; the highest away to the 1. be- 
hind Hyogo is Takatori. 

Passenger steamers usually re- 
main 24 hrs. at Kobe, which affords 
an opportunity to visit Ky5to. 

The chief ^stances of the run 
between Y'okohama and Kobe, as 
made by the Nippon Yusen Kwai- 
sha steamers, are as follows : — 

Yokohama to : — MUes. 

Lightship 2 

Kwannon-zaki 14 

Cape Sagami 23 

Rock Island 74 

Oshima 244 

Hiino-Misaki 297 

Oki-no-shima 322 

Hyogo Point 346 

Company's Buoy 348 



Routes 26 — 42. 

Route 26. — Karuizawa-Naoetsu-Niigata Railway. 2.^9 

ROUTE 26. 


matsumoto. temple of zenkoji. 

excubsions fbom na gang. lake 

nojiki. ascent of myoko- 

zan. island of sado. 

0, 1 




toil P 



■ Tokyo to Ka- 


). niizawa (see 
( Rte. 12). 









( Alight for Na- 

( -kasendo. • 



, Eoad to Ma- 
1 taumioto. 











1 Road to Kuea- 



j tsu over the 





I Alight for 
' Lake Nojiri. 



( Alight for 
* Akakuia. 










Kasuga Shinden 



























( Alight for 
t Yahiko. 













This line, starting from an ele- 
vation of 3,080 ft. at Karuizawa, 
descends to the sea-coast at Nao- 
etsn, and so far is the most pic- 
turesque railway route in Japan. 
The second section, fi-om Naoetsu 
to Niigata, is vastly inferior. The 
first five or six miles are over a 
fairly level plain ; but the condi- 
tions are changed when the south- 
ern slope of Asama-yama has to 
be rounded. Here lies a water-shed 
whence flow large rivers north and 
south, towards the Sea of Japan 
and the Pacific respectively. All 
the di'ainage of the great volcano 
pours down through deep gullies 
into the channel of one or other 
of these rivers. The soil, a loosely 
packed volcanic ash and gravel of 
light colour, is easily scooped away, 
and large chasms are left whose 
sides the highway descends and 
ascends in zigzags. Throughout 
most of this section, the traveller 
looks down fi"om a giddy height on 
rice-fields far below. From a point 
near Oiwake, where the Nakasendo 
is left behind, on to Komoro, 
opportunities are afforded of seeing 
to advantage the Iwamurata plain, 
backed by the imposing range of 
Yatsu-ga-take. Asama-yama has a 
less smiling aspect on this side ; the 
flat top of the cone lengthens out, 
the pinky brown colour of the sides 
assumes a blackish hue, and chasms 
rough with indurated lava break the 
regularity of the slopes. Before 
Komoro is reached, a long volcanic 
ridge, dominating the valley of 
the river Chikuma as far as Ueda. 
reveals the fact that Asama is not 
an isolated cone, but the last and 
highest of a range of mountains. 
A former crater, which has dis- 
charged itself into this valley and 
is now extinct, displays a row of 
black jagged rocks in the hollow 
between Asama and the next peak 
of the range, — a striking feature as 
seen from Komoro. 

Komoro (Inn, Tsuru-ya; Tea- 
house, in public garden with pretty 
view) is a busy commercial centre. 


Route 26. — Kariiizawa-NaoetsiL'2^iigata Railway. 

Pormerly the seat of a Daimyo, it 
has turned its picturesque castle- 
ground overhanging the river, into 
a public garden. Saddlery, vehi- 
cles, and tools for the surrounding 
district are manufactured here. A 
short description of the old 
Monastery of 8hakusonji, vrhich lies 
1 ri from the station, will be found 
on p. 184. 

From Komoro to Ueda the rail- 
way runs down the valley of the 
Chihmna-gatca, whose 8. bank is 
here formed by a series of bold 
bluffs, in many places descending 
sheer into the water. This river, 
also called the Shinano-gawa, flow- 
ing towards the N., becomes one of 
the great rivers of Japan, and falls 
into the sea at Niigata. The massive 
Shinshu-Hida range is now also in 
sight, its mountains, even in the 
height of summer, being streaked 
with snow. A few miles before 
Ueda, the valley opens out into a 
chcular j)lain of which that town 
is the centre. 

Oya [Inn, Oya-kwan, at station), 
though a tiny place, has some 
importance for travellers as having 
become, since 1891, the starting- 
point for the journey down the 
Nakasendo (see Route 24). 

Ueda [Inns, Uemura-ya, Tsuzuki- 
ya, both wdth branches at station) 
possesses few attractions. White 
and other silks of a durable quality 
are the principal products of the 
district. It is specially noted for a 
stout striped silk fabric called TJeda- 

[The important town of Matsu- 
moto may be reached from 
Ueda by jinrikisha (2 men 
necessary) over the Hofukuji- 
ioge, 4,400 ft. high, the distance 
being 11 ri 25 cho (280- m.). 
The summit of the pass affords 
a comparatively narrow pros- 
pect in the direction of Matsu- 
moto, but commands, on look- 
ing backwards, a fine mountain 
panorama, including Asama- 
yama and Shirane-san. Before 

descending into the plain, one 
of the grandest views in 
Japan discloses itself. The 
whole Hida range spreads out 
before the spectator, Yari-ga- 
take being specially conspi- 
cuous by its spear-shaped 
peak which resembles the Mat- 
terhorn. In the foregi'ound 
are well-wooded hills, in 
the distance the river winds 
like a sUver thread. A branch 
railway is in course of con- 
struction from Shinonoi near 
Nagano, which, passing 
through Inari-yama and Omi, 
will strike across to the valley 
of the Saigawa at Kawate, and 
reach Matsiimoto. The project 
inchides an extension from 
Matsumoto to Shiojiri on the 

Matsumoto [Inns, Maru-mo 
at Hitotsu-bashi, and Mangiku 
in Uramachi) is the centre of 
trade between the southern 
part of this province and the 
province of Echigo. It stands 
in the midst of a wide, fertile 
plain, bordered on all sides by 
magnificent mountain ranges. 
A picturesque portion of the 
castle of the former Daimyo 
stni remains. The principal 
local products are silk (though 
not the finest quality), candied 
fruits, socks, and baskets and 
boxes of bamboo work. The 
largest filature, called Eaimei- 
sha, is situated at Shimizu, a 
short distance S. E. of the 

Rather than stop at Matsu- 
moto, those in search of pure 
air and the picturesque should 
repair to the spruce little \Tli. 
of Asama, 30 did to the N.E., 
noted for its hot springs. Of 
the numerous inns, the best is 
the * Me-no-yu. 

Bnsha run from Matsumoto 
to Seba on the Nakasendo, 4 j-i 
17 cho (11 m.). 

Matsumoto forms convenient 
headquarters for expeditions 

Matsumoto and No/jano. 


among the great mountains 
described in Route 31. A 
pleasant river trip can also be 
made hence down the Saigawa 
to Shimmachi, the cheap public 
boat leaving Matsumoto every 
morning and arriving about 3 
P. M. A jjiivate boat (1900) 
costs 15 yen. The Sanseiji 
gorge, which is passed about 
half-way, offers fine rocky 
landscapes. There are num- 
bers of floating rice-mills of a 
primitive type, consisting of a 
house-boat moored in the cur- 
rent, and having a paddle-wheel 
on each side actuated by the 
passing water. They look like 
a fleet of paddle-boats continu- 
ally going against the stream, 
but making no headway. From 
Shimmachi it is 4 ri over a hiUy 
road to Shinonoi, whence train 
to Nagano. The head waters 
of the Saigawa are near Lake 
Suwa. It joins the Chikuma- 
gawa a short distance to the 
S.E. of Nagano, combining with 
this latter to form the great 

The old castle of Ueda, of which 
•one watch-tower stiU remains in- 
tact, stands on the river bank be- 
yond the town. The exit from 
the amphitheatre of hills enclosing 
Ueda is narrow and hidden from 
view. Just before the hne ap- 
proaches it, a curious bluff with 
a cave in its face is noticeable on 
the other side of the river. 

Before reaching Yashiro, there is, 
on the other side of the river, a hill 
with the curious name of Oba-sute- 
yama, that is, " the Hill where the 
Aunt was Abandoned." 

It is explained by a legend which tells 
us that the abandoned one was Oyama- 
bime, aunt to Ko-no-hana-saku-ya-Hime, 
the lovely goddess of Fuji, who married 
Ninigi-no-,\likoto, the first ancestor of the 
Imperial family of Japan. This Oyama- 
bime was so ugly, ill-tempered, envious, 
and malicious that none of the gods 
would take her in marriage. Her nephew 
and niece, in despair thut her evil disposi- 
tion should thus stand in the way of her 

happiness, entreated her to reform, but 
in vain. At last the younger goddess 
suggested that a tour through the beauti- 
ful scenery of Shinano, where she might 
contemplate the moon from some lofty 
mountain-top, would be likely to have "a 
softening eflect. So they set out together, 
and after surmounting innumerable 
peaks, at length reached this place. 
Saku-ya-Hime mounted a stone, and 
pointing with her finger, said to her 
aunt, "Yonder is a rock. Climb up it 
and look calmly round, and your heart 
will be purified." The aunt, tired with 
her long .iourney, melted under the 
gentle influences of the harvest moon. 
Turning to her niece, she said, "I will 
dwell forever on this hill-top, and join 
with the God of Suwa in watching over 
the land." And with these words, she 
vanished in the moonbeams. — This 
legend, though told of Shinto divinities, 
is probably of Buddhist origin. 

At Yashiro a road branches off 
to the important town of Matsu- 
shiro, and down the r. bank of the 
Chikuma-gawa to Niigata. Before 
reaching Nagano, both the Chiku- 
ma and the Saigawa are crossed. 
One of the spans of the Saigawa 
viaduct is 200 ft. long. 

Nagano {Inns, Fuji-ya, semi- 
foreign; Ogi-ya; Europ. Restt., Seiyo- 
ken), is the capital of the prefecture 
of Nagano, which comprises the 
whole province of Shinshu. It is 
beautifully situated at the foot of 
lofty mountains, which form an im- 
posing background and almost sur- 
round it. A considerable trade is 
done in woven goods and agricul- 
tural implements. Numerous fine 
bifildings in foreign style, and 
crowds of pilgrims thronging the 
streets, give the town an air of ex- 
ceptional prosperity. The Japanese 
Club, called Jdzan-ktcan, which has 
a room of 144 mats, commands a 
fine prospect. The Buddhist Temple 
of Zenkdji, belonging to the Tendai 
sect, is one of the most celebrated 
in the whole empire, and was found- 
ed as far back as A.D. 670, though 
the oldest portion of the present 
buildings dates only from the latter 
half of the l&th century. It is de- 
dicated to Amida and his two fol- 
lowers, Kwannon and Daiseishi, a 
gi'oup of whose images is here en- 

262 Route 26. — Karuizawa-Naoetsu-Niiyata Railway. 

shrined ; also to Honda Yoshimitsu 
and his wife and son, Yayoi-no-Mae 
and Yoshisiike, who are worshipped 
as the pious fo^inders. 

The sacred group is said to have been 
made by Shaka Muni himself out of gold 
found on Mount Shumi, the centre of the 
Universe. After various vicissitudes in 
China and Korea, it v, as brought to Japan 
in A.D. 552. as a present from the King of 
Korea to the Mikado on the first intro- 
ductiou of Buddhism into Japan. All the 
efforts of the Japanese enemies of Bud- 
dhism to make away with the image were 
in vain. Thrown into rivers, hacked at, 
burnt, it survived all, and finally found a 
resting-place at Zeukoji in A.D. 602. 

The popular Japanese proverb " Ushi ni 
hikareti; Zenkoji-inaiH," lit. " to be led to 
the Zenkoji pilgrimage by a cow " refers 
to an old legend. A cow, so the story 
goes, ran off one day with a piece of cloth 
which a wicked old woman had set out to 
dry, and was pursued by her to the 
temple, where Buddha, appearing in a 
halo of light, softened her heart and re- 
warded her even in this world by restor- 
ing her washing to her when she reached 
home again. The proverb applies to good 
coming out of evil. 

Rows of shops for the sale of 
rosaries and pictures of the sacred 
triad line the court. Behind the 
shops are the houses of the priests, 
each in its own trimly laid-out 
garden. At the end of this coiu't 
is the chief gateway, with images 
of Monju and the Shi-Tenno, which 
are exhibited only on New Y^ear's 
day. The building 1. of the entrance, 
called Dai-Hongican, is the resi- 
dence of an abbess belonging to the 
Imperial family {Ama Miya Sama), 
and of a sisterhood of nuns. It 
was rebuilt in the old style during 
the years 1890-1900, and glitters 
with gold. The gaUeiy behind is 
used to exhibit pictures and other 
works of art on special occasions, 
whence the visitor passes to the 
princess's private oratory and her 
reception room. Higher up and 
also to the 1., is the Dai-Eanshin, 
the residence of the abbot, now in 
process of reconstruction. Both 
sets I of buildings have pretty 
gardens. At one or other, accord- 
ing to ckcumstances, rehgious pic- 
tures and charms are sold, also 

shirts called kt/d-kafabira, Ut. 
"sutra shirts." Each pilgrim pur- 
chases one. and keeps it by him 
till the hour of death, to be dressed 
in it for burial. At the same time, 
what is called a kechi-myaku — a par- 
ticular kind of charm — is placed in 
the corpse's hand. 

The Main Temple, erected in 
1701, is a two-storied building 198 
ft. in depth by 108 ft. in width, 
with a huge three-gabled roof, so 
that the ridge is T-shaped. This 
form is called shumoku-zukuri, 
from its resemblance to the sh'w- 
moku, a wooden hammer "svith 
which the Budtlhists strike the 
small bell used by them in their 
religious serTices. The roof is 
supported by 136 pillars, and there 
are said to be 69,384 rafters, the 
same ntunber as that of the written 
characters contained in the Chin- 
ese version of the Buddhist scrip- 
tures. The sacred golden group, 
standing in a shrine on the W. 
side, is kept in a reliquary dating 
from A. D. 1369, shrouded by a 
CTirtain ot gorgeous brocade. For 
a moderate fee, the curtain is raised 
so as to show the outermost of the 
seven boxes in which the image is 
enclosed. A space of 88 mats 
(about 1,600 sq. ft.) is set apart for 
the worshippers. On the E. side of 
the main hall is an entrance to a 
dark gallery which runs round 
below the floor of the chancel 
{naijin), issuing again by the same 
door. To complete this circuit 
{kaiclan-maicari or tai-nai-^meguri) 
thrice, is believed to save the 
pilgrim from the peril of eternal 
damnation, ilore thsm '200 bronze 
and stone lanterns crowd the space 
in front of the main hall. 

In front of the Kyozo, or Sacred 
Library, on the 1. of the main 
building, are two praying- wheels in 
stone, fixed in pedestals 7 ft. high, 
and bearing the invocation " Namv. 
Amida Bvtsu.' 

The principal festivals are the 
Dai Nemhuisii, or (Jreat Invocation 
of Buddha, held on the 31st 

Ascent of Togakushi-san S Izuna-san. 


July, those held at the vernal and 
autumnal equinoxes, and one on 
the 14th March, in commemoration 
of the terrible earthquake which 
shook this region in 1847. The 
13th July is a civic gala day. A 
specially grand festival is held once 
every seven years in April and 
May ; the last of these occurred in 

On the r. of the temple enclosure 
is the Public Garden, which com- 
mands a good view of the valley. 

Excursions from Nagano. 

1. Burando Yakushi, 1 ri N.E. 
of the town, a shrine dedicated to 
the Buddhist god of medicine, is 
perched high above the path in a 
large tree growing out of the 
rock. Close by are some petroleum 

2. Tog-akuslxi-san and Ken- 
no-mine. Five ri from Nagano 
stands the temple of Togakushi-san, 
whither the god Tajikara-o-no- 
Mikoto is said to have hurled 
the rocky door of the cavern in 
which the Sun-Goddess had hidden 
herself (see the legend as given on 
p. 45). The road, which is passable 
for jinrikishas, leaves the town on 
the 1. side of the temple of Zenkdji, 
and winds up a narrow ravine to the 
hamlet of Arayasu, whence, lead- 
ing over low hills, it reaches the 
rest-house called Nyuzaka in 45 
min., and then issues on to the 
moor which encircles the base of 
Izuna-san at a height of 3,750 ft. 
above the sea. In 15 min. more 
we come to two tea-houses known 
as Okubo. The path then descends 
for about 1 m. to a point where it 
divides, the r. branch proceeding 
direct to the vill. of Togakusld 
(Inn, Kambara), at the upper end of 
which the Chursha temple is situa- 
ted, the 1. reaching the Hoko-sha 
after 12 cho more. The latter 
temple, standing at the top of 
a long flight of steps Hned with 
old cryptomerias, is a spacious 
building decorated with carvings 

of some merit. From the Hoko- 
sha to the village is a pleasant 
walk of 12 cho through a wood. 
Except for their beautiful sur- 
roundings, little remains about the 
temples to attract the visitor ; 
a fine modern bronze water-basin 
in the lower court of the Chu-sha, 
and the sepia drawing on the 
roof of the main hall are, however, 
worth inspection. The road to the 
Oku-sha (30 cho) is almost level 
the whole way, except during the 
last few hundred yards. It stands 
at the head of a romantic ravine, 
and commands a tine view in- 
cluding the summits of Fuji and 

Those who intend to climb Ken- 
no-mine (8,080 ft.) will do best to 
pass the night at Togakushi. Whe- 
ther one ascends via Omoie-yama 
(6,000 ft.), and passes thence along 
the rTigged ridge to Ura-yama in 
order to make the complete circuit, 
or takes the latter only, a long day 
should be allowed for the expedi- 
tion. The path up Omote-yama 
leads directly behind the priest's 
house at the Oku-sha, and is so 
precipitous in parts that chains 
have been affixed to the trees 
and rocks for the benefit of pil- 
grims. Waraji are indisi^ensable. 
To ascend Ura-yama only, one does 
not touch the Oku-sha, but takes 
the path which ch verges from the 
main road to Kashiwahara at about 
1 ri from Togakushi. The distance 
to the summit is variously estimat- 
ed at from 4 to 5 ri. A Httle below 
stands a hut where pilgrims pass 
the night, in order to -witness 
sunrise from the peak, whence 
Amida is supposed to be \isible 
riding on a cloud of manv colom-s. 

3. Izuna-san (6,080 ft.) should 
be ascended fiom the vill. of Toga- 
kushi, whence the summit may be 
gained in 2 hrs. easy walking up a 
long spur. Another path, by wluch 
the descent is usually made, strikes 
up from the moor on the Nagano 
side, 20 min. beyond the Nyiizaka 
tea-hoiLse mentioned above ; but it 

264 Itoule 26. — Karuizawa-Naoetsu'Niigata Railway. 

is exceedingly steep .and covered 
with dense undergrowth. A hut, 
in which pUgiims sleep, occupies 
one side of the summit. The "view 
is Yery extensive in every direction. 
The descent takes rather less than 
2 hrs., and emerges on the moor at 
a point where the traveller may 
either return to Arayasu, or strike 
away to the 1. by a path leading 
over the moor to Kashiwahara 
station, — a 3 hrs. walk. 

The railway from Nagano con- 
tinues along the plain as far as 

Toyono {Inn, Sakamoto-ya). 
Here it enters a naiTow valley, 
which it follows up until Kashiwa- 
hara is reached at a height of 2,200 
ft. At Toyono, a road leads over 
the Shibu-toge to Kusatsu (see j). 
192). A fine view is obtained of 
Izuna-san on the 1. as 

Kashiwabara is approached. 
This section of the line traverses a 
region where the snowfall is pecu- 
liarly heavy, drifts occasionally ac- 
cumulating to a depth of over 
10 ft., and stopping all traffic for 
weeks at a time. 

[The traveller with time to spare 
should alight here to visit the 
beautiful little lake called No- 
jiri-ko, 1 ri distant, and then 
proceed to the hamlet of Aka- 
kura, 3 rl further, lying on the 
side of Myoko-zan, and noted 
for its hot springs. Jinrikishas 
can be taken all the way. 
Those going direct to Akakura 
ahght at the next station, 
Taguchi, from which the baths 
are 34 cho distant by jinilkisha. 
The way from Kashiwabara is 
through a pleasant oak-wood, 
whence it descends slightly to 
Nojiri (small inn), situated 
on the shores of the lake, 
which is suiTounded by low 
hills covered with thickets. On 
a densely wooded islet is a 
temple called Uga-no-Jinja. In 
front of the temple stand two 
magnificent cryptomerias, one 
of which measures 27 ft. in 

circumference. The view of 
the giant masses of Izuna,. 
Kurohime, and Myoko-zan, as 
seen from the island, is ex- 
ceptionally fine. The waters 
of the lake find an outlet into 
the Sekigawa, which, flowing 
from sources on Togakushi- 
san and Yakeyama, falls into 
the sea at Naoetsu. 

Akakura is a favourite 
stimmer resort of the inhabi- 
tants of Takata and other 
places on the plain. It posses- 
ses many Inns, the *Kogaku-r6 
best, with European food, open 
from June to October inclusive, 
and numerous baths, public and 
private, which are supplied 
with hot water brought in pipes 
from sources 2 ri further up 
the mountain. From the ham- 
let nothing obstructs the glori- 
ous prospect of the rich plain 
extending down to Naoetsu on 
the Sea of Japan, and of the 
island of Sado on the dim 
horizon. About 3 ri off, be- 
tween Kurohime and My6k5- 
zan, is a large waterfall called 
Nae no taki. Akakura is the 
most convenient point from 
which to ascend 

Myoko-zan (8,180 ft.). This 
mountain is not free from snow 
until July. The ascent can be 
made by a good walker in 3 
hours. There are two paths,, 
passing respectively by Slina- 
mi Jigoku-dani and Kita 
Jigoku-dani. Traversing the 
httle public garden at the top 
of the village street, the last- 
mentioned goes straight on, 
while the former bears to the 1. 
This has more varied scenery, 
and is somewhat shorter. The 
path leads through the long 
grass for some distance, and 
then climbs steeply to a point 
whence Fuji is seen, — 50 cho 
from Akakura. At about 2 ri, 
the hut of the sulphur workers 
beloAv Minami Jigoku-dani is 
reached, whence, for about 10 

Ascent. <>/' Myoko-zan. Naoetsu. 


cho, the path ascends the steep 
course of a rivulet under the 
cane-brake ; and soon after, at 
a small shrine, the path from 
the Kita Jigoku-dani joins it 
from the r. A little above this 
is the Eokudo-no-ike, whence 
to the top is a steep but 
nowhere dangerous climb of 
20 cho, partly assisted by 
chains. On the summit stands 
a small wooden shrine dedicat- 
ed to Amida, near which tepid 
water oozes out drop by drop. 
Myoko-zan forms part of an ex- 
tinct volcano. The mountains 
immediately surrounding it are 
the long semi-circular ridge 
called Myoko-zan-no-Urayama 
on the S.E., and Kanayama on 
the N. The view to the H.E. 
includes Asama and Fuji. 
Directly S. rises Kiu'ohime 
with its two peaks, between 
which is seen the top of IzTina- 
san. Ken-no-mine bears about 
S.S.W., while the round-topped 
moTintain bearing W.N.W. is 
Yakeyama, an extinct volcano. 
To the N.E. the view extends 
over the plain of Echigo to the 
Sea of Japan and the Island of 
Sado. — In descending, the path 
to the 1. at the hut below 
the Ilola;d5-no-ike and via 
the Kita Jigoku-dani solfatara 
may be taken. It is in parts, 
however, very narrow, and 
overhung with tall grass and 
weeds. The mountain is much 
frequented by pilgrims, espe- 
cially on the 28rd night of the 
6th moon, old style, when 
they go Tip in great numbers 
by torchlight, but do not pass 
through AJjakura.] 
There is a falling gradient of 
about fiOO ft. in the 4|V m. traversed 
between Taguchi and Sekiyamn. 
The ascent of Myoko-zan may also 
be made from here, but it involves 
a longer walk over the moor than 
from Akakura. The gradient is still 
heavy until Aral is reached, where 
the country becomes flatter. 

Aral is a flourishing town noted 
for tobacco, pueraria starch (kuzu), 
and petroleum, the spiings being 
in the immediate neighbourhood. 
Here is first seen the custom pe- 
culiar to most of the towns in 
Echigo, of having covered ways 
along the house-fronts, for use when 
the snow lies deep in the streets. 

Takata {Inn, Koyo-kwan) is a 
large place, formerly the castle- 
town of a Dainiyo named Sakaki- 
bara, one of the four families who 
enjoyed the privilege of providing 
a regent during the minority of a 
Shogun. The town is traversed by 
a long slTeet, which bends repeated- 
ly at right angles. Cotton-weaving 
is extensively carried on. The Hok- 
koku Kaido branches off 1. near 
here to the provinces of Kaga, Echi- 
zen, etc. (see Route 42). 

Naoetsu (Inns, Ika-gon, Matsu- 
ba-kwan), near the mouth of the 
Seldgawa, is a port of call for 
steamers to FushiM (10 hrs.), and 
other places on the West coast. 
Naoetsu produces a jelly called 
awa-ame, made fi'om millet, and 
appreciated by both Japanese and 
Europeans. A great annual horse 
—or, to be quite correct, mare — • 
fair is held dui'ing the month of 
July in the siiburb of Kasuga 
Shinden. The animals are brought 
from Shiiya and other locahties in 
the province of Echigo. 

Half a 7-t to the S. of Naoetsu 
lies the viU. of Gochi (Inn, Shimizu- 
ya), a favourite resort during the 
hot weather, where several good 
tea-houses have been built on chifs 
overlooking the sea. Excellent 
bathing may be had on the long 
stretch of sandy beach immediate- 
ly below, so that altogether those 
compelled to remain over-night in 
this neighbourhood will iind it a 
pleasanter resting-place than stuf- 
fy, uninteresting Naoetsu. 

[Travellers desirous of folloMdng 
the coast line southward to To- 
yama, wUl find the itinerary at 
the end of Route 42. Except 
the first day of bold cliffs, it is 

206 Route 26. — Karuizoiva-Naoetsu-Niigata Railway. 

mostly dull travelling, partly 
along the beach, and partly 
through rice-fields. Mr. Per- 
cival LoweU thus describes it : — 
" Every few hundred feet, we 
passed a farm-house screened 
by cHpped hedgerows and 
bosomed in trees; and at longer 
intervals we rolled through 
some village, the country piie 
becoming for the time the vill- 
age street. The land was an 
archipelago of homestead in a 
sea of rice."] 

Lea^'ing Naoetsu, the line riuis 
through pine-trees, follomng the 
coast which at first is flat and 
sandy. There is considerable tun- 
nelling between Hassaki and 
Kashiwa-zaM through the lower 
spiu's of Yoneyama, which here 
actually come down to the sea, 
helping to form the only pictur- 
esque portion of this section of the 

All this cuast district, as far as a town 
called Tera-domari. is jiihabited by a 
population of hardy fishermen : and the 
sea yields bream (tai), plaice {/caret), and 
a kind of brill (hirann), in large quantities 
and of great size. The tish caught here 
are considered much superior in flavour 
to those taken off the coast of Etchu fur- 
ther west. The women are sturdy and 
capable of the hardest toil. They usually 
perform the labour of porters, and even 
drag carts. Muslin made of hemp, and 
called Echigo rliijimi, is woven in the 
villages, and generally dyed indigo colour 
with a faint pattern in white. The 
Japanese esteem it highly as material for 
summer clothing. 

At the large town of Kashiwa- 
zaki {Inn, Tenkyo) the railway 
leaves the coast, turning eastwards 
to tap the commercial cities in the 
valley of the Shinano-gawa. It 
traverses the vdAe plain of Echigo, 
whose rice yield loakes this prov- 
ince extremely rich. The flatness 
of the near ju-osiject is relieved by 
fine views of distant mountain 
ranges. The line crosses the 
Shinano-gawa before reaching 

Nagaoka [Inn, Masumi-tei), a 
large and prosperous place with 
streets laid out at right angles. 

The river is a source of danger, as 
it frequently overflo'ws its banks 
duiing the autumn rains. The 
water at Nagaoka is very bad, ow- 
ing to the soil being permeated 
with oil. Extensive petroleum re- 
fineries occupy one of the siiburbs. 
The wells are at Urase, Hire, and 
Katsuho, which places lie close 
together in the range of low hills 
called Higashi-yama, some 3 ri to 
the E. of the city. 

Althoutrh the discovery of oil in the 
province of Echigo dates from a very 
early period, the development of the 
industry itself is of quite recent origin, the 
first serious attempts to work the fields 
near Nagaoka dating only from 1889. 
There are now over 200 wells at Urase, 
aud some 70 at Katsubo. Their depth 
ranges between 500 and 700 feet. Most of 
the digging is done by hand ; and though 
some machine pumps have been set up, 
the miners prefer to bring the oil to the 
surface by hand-pulleys. Iron conduits 
leading from the works convey the cnide 
oil into the refineries at Nagaoka. The 
refined product enjoys a good reputation 
in the trade. 

In the same direction, but 3 n 
further E., stands the small town of 
Tochio, which produces the best 
isumu()i in the proAince. Uesugi 
Kenshin (see p. 85) was born here, 
and various rehcs of him are pre- 
served at the temple of Joanji. 

Sanjo (Inn, Echizen-ya). A stay 
at this place might be availed of for 
two expeditions. The first is S.E. 
up a tributary stream, the Igarashi- 
gawa, to a spot some 6 ri distant, 
where the torrent flows between 
cliffs 70 ft. high. There are several 
tea-houses at this cool summer 
resort, which is called Yagi. Eour 
or five ri further on, at Yosld-ga- 
hira (1,350 ft. above sea-level), is a 
lake with a hot spring in the mid- 
dle. At Nyohoji, about 1 ri from 
Sanjo in this direction, natural gas 
issues from the ground, and is 
utilised by the peasants for heat- 
ing and lighting. 

The other long expedition from 
Sanjd is to Yahiko, where, on a high 
lull on the coast (2,100 ft.), stands 
a Shinto temple resorted to by 

Niigata. Island of Sado. 


worshippers from the whole prov- 
ince. This eminence affords a 
splendid panorama, bounded on 
the E. and 8. by lofty mountain 
ranges, with Ede-san due E. tower- 
ing above its attendant peaks. 

The country continues flat for 
the whole of the rest of the way. 

Niitsu is noted for its kerosene 

WTuttari, the terminus of the 
railway, is a suburb of Niigata, ly- 
ing on the opposite or E. side of 
the river. 

Niig-ata (Hotel by Miola, called 
Restaurant International ; Inns, 
*Yoshi-kwan, Kushi-sei), capital of 
the prefecture of the same name, is 
situated on a naiTOW, sandy strip 
of land between the Shinano-gawa 
and the sea. 

Niigata was opened to foreign trade 
in 1869 : but the commercial expectations 
entertaiiied with regard to it have uot been 
fulfllled. and almost the only foreigners 
now residing there are a few missionaries. 
Owing to the bar at tlie mouth of the 
river, vessels of foreign build cannot enter 
the port, but are compelled to anctior in 
the roadstead outside. A supplementary 
port in the Island of Sado, called Ehisu 
Minnto, is open to foreign vessels to talie 
refuge in when the direction of the jire- 
vailiug wind renders it dangerous to 
anchor oCf >fiigata ; but trade is not per- 
mitted there. 

Not many centuries ago, the site of 
Niigata was 8 or 10 m. out at sea. \ 
curious map, about 800 old, shows 
Sanjo as a sea-port town, and there exists 
confirmatory evidence that the whole of 
the rich alluvial plain here extending 
between the mountains and the sea — 100 
square miles or more — has become dry 
land within historical times, partly by 
the silting up of rivers, partly by up- 
heaval of the land. 

The tt)wn, which covers an area 
of rather more than 1 sq. mile, 
consists of five parallel streets 
intersected by other streets and 
canals. A line of low sand-hills 
shuts out all view of the sea. The 
cUmate of Niigata is very ti-yiug, — 
hot in summer and terribly cold in 
winter, snow falhng to a depth of 2 
or 3 ft., and lying for a considerable 
time. The houses are built with 

their gable-ends towards the street, 
and the roofs are prolonged beyond 
the walls in order to prevent 
the snow from blocking up the 
Avindows. An enormous quantity 
of coarse lacquer- ware is mamifae- 
tured at Niigata ; and articles of 
a pecuiliar pattern called mokusa- 
nuri, or "sea- weed lacquer," are 
brought for sale from the district of 
.\izu where they are produced. In 
the suburbs of the city, Echigo chi- 
jimi is manufactured from hemp. 
The small public garden svvr- 
rounding the Shinto temple of 
Kakii-san, affords a fine ijrospect of 
the river and of the lofty range of 
mountains some 10 ri distant to 
the E. 

Travellers intending to proceed 
north from Niigata, are advised to 
take steamer to Sakata, Tsuchizald 
(Akita), Noshiro, or Hakodate ; or 
else they may cut across country to 
Wakamatsu, and join the Northern 
Eailwav at Korivauja (see Routes 
68, 69, and 65). 

Island of Sado. 

The Island of Sado, which lies 32 
miles W. of Niigata and is includ- 
ed in the same prefecture, can be 
reached by small steamer from the 
latter place in about 5 hrs. Steam- 
ers run daily fi'om May to October ; 
for the rest of the year the saihngs 
are irregular, t)n a(;count of the fre- 
quent storms that prevail on this 
bleak coast. The island is hilly 
and picturesque, consisting of two 
groups of mountains, separated by 
a cultivated plain. The principal 
formation is Umestone. Sado has 
a population of 115,000, and is 
principally noted for its (jokJ and 
silver viines situated close to the 
town of Aikawa. which have been 
worked from tlie earliest times. 
During the middle ages, Sado was 
used as a place of exile for crimi- 
nals. Among those who were re- 
legated to its inhospitable shores, 
Mas the Buddhist saint, Nichiren. 

Aikawa {Inn, Takada-ya) is a 


Route 27. — TFa^s to and from Kofv^ 

poor-looking place, though it has a 
population of 15,500, and though 
the gold and sUyer mines are so 
near at hand. 

Ebisu Minato {Inn by Ito Sei- 
emon), where passengers from Nii- 
gata generally land, is a large but 
"wretched "village, situated on a nar- 
ro"w strip of beach bet"ween the sea 
and a lagoon. The distance from 
Ebisu ilinato to Aika"wa is 6 ri 29 
cho (I62 m.), — a pretty "walk. 

ROUTE 27. 

"Ways to and feom Kof'u. 

1. koftj and neighbo"dkhood. 2. 
tokyo to kopu by the koshtj 




do. 5. kofu to shimo-no-stjwa. 

6. from kofu oveb the misaka- 
toge to yoshida and gotemba. 

7. from komoeo to kofu by the 

K5fu is a pleasant resting-place 
after arduous travel, — its central 
situation in the beautiful pro\-ince 
of Kdshu, and its proximity to 
places of such peculiar interest as 
iiitake, Fuji, Minobu, the Eapids 
of the Fujikawa, etc., causing it to 
be included in so many different 
tours as to render a description of 
the several ways to and from it 

1. — KoFU AND Neighboubhood : 


Kofu (Inns, Choyo-tei, with 
Europ. restt., and *B6sen-kaku 

in the public garden, Yonelcura in 
Yanagi-machi ; Sadoko), capital 
of the pro"vince of Koshu and of 
the prefecture of Yamanashi. is 
noted for the progressive spirit of 
its people. For its size, it has more 
buildings in European style than 
any other provincial town in Japan. 
Conspicuous amongst these are the 
Prefecture, the Normal School, the 
Banks, the Court-houses, the Town 
Hall, the Industrial School, and 
the silk iilatures. 

The silk industry has advanced by 
leaps and bounds during the last few 
years, so that Kofu now boasts several 
reeling and weaving establishments, em- 
ploying each from 100 to 400 hands, most- 
ly females, whose work-hours are from 
5 A.^I. to S and sometimes 11, with- 
out any interval for meals or any Sunday 
rest ! This goes on all the year round, 
with the exception of a couijle of mouths 
in winter. It should be added, in justice 
to the employers, that the workers appear 
healthy and contented. Perhaps the 
practice is not so bad as the theory. 
Almost ail the silk of this district is ex- 

The castle grounds were many 
years ago turned into an experimen- 
tal garden. The platform, where 
the keep formerly stood, aifortls a 
fine "view of the town and surround- 
ing country. The grounds of the 
public garden formerly belonged to 
the Buddhist temple of Ichlrenji : 
— notice the twelve stone lanterns 
carved each with one of the signs 
of the zodiac. Kofu is noted for 
its haiki, a thia sUken fabric used 
for the linings of dresses and for 
bed-qrrilts ; also for a sweetmeat 
called tsuki no shizuku, that is 
" moon-drops," consisting of grapes 
coated with sugar. The province 
of Koshu produces excellent grapes, 
which are in their prime about the 
end of September or mid-October. 
Crystals are found at Mitake in the 
neighbourhood. A gi-eat festival, 
called Mlyuki no Matsurl, is held in 
Kofu on the 15th April, "with the 
pious object of averting the Hoods 
of the Fuefuki-gawa. 

From Kofu a dehghtful day's ex- 
cursion may be made to the temples 

Milake d Kimpu-zan. Koshu Kaido. 


of Mitake, distant about 4^ n. 
Jinrildshas should be taken over 
the first fiat bit as far as Chizyka 
(1 ri), or with two men even to 
Kissaioa (2 ri from Kofu). At 
Kissawa a local guide should be 
engaged, who will lead the pedes- 
trian up along the Shindo, or New 
Road, in the romantic gorge of the 
Arakawa, a torrent forcing its way 
between gaunt gi'anite walls, with 
pines and other trees and flowering 
shrubs perched on every ledge of 
the lofty rocks. The valley widens 
out at Ikari, a hamlet 10 cho below 
Mitake, and thenceforward the 
scenery becomes less wild. The 
vill. of Mitake has several decent 
inns. Specimens of rock crystal 
are sold in the ■village, being 
brought from mines in the neigh- 
bourhood ot Kurobera on the way 
to Kimpu-zan. As for the temples, 
once so magnificent and still far- 
famed, modern Shinto iconoclasm. 
abetted by neglect and scarcity of 
funds, has wrought sad havoc. 
Their site, and the gi-ove of giant 
trees that shades them, still remain 
impressive ; otherwise there is little 
to go so far to see. The yearly 
festival at Mitake is held on the 
10th to 15th of the 3rd moon, old 
style, when azaleas and kerria-blos- 
soms adorn the scene. 

On returning, one should take 
the Gedo, or Lower lload, which 
offers beautiful contrasts of upland 
and forest scenery with that of 
rocks inferior only to those of 
the Arakawa gorge. Shirane-san, 
Koma-ga-take, Fuji, and numerous 
other mountains are seen to great 

An alternative way to Mitake 
leads by the vill. of Wada, lU cho 
out of Koto, wlience walk. 

Kimpu-zan. The climb up and 
down this gi'anite mountain, 8,300 
ft. high, can be acc-omplished in 
one day from Mitake by maldng 
an early start. The way hes 
through the vill. of Kuvobfrit, whose 
neighbonrhoo<i furnishes those 

crystals for which the province of 
K5shti is celebrated. Near a Shinto 
shrine 2\ hrs. beyond Kurobera, 
there is a good-sized hut for the 
accommodation of pilgrims ; and 
here the real ascent begins, the 
distance hence to the summit being 
about 2,000 ft. The way hes over 
a heap of large boulders. At two 
places, ladders are fixed to assist 
the cUmber over difficult gaps, and 
at two others chains give adchtiontil 
security ; but even without the help 
of these, there wotdd be no danger. 
The top is crowned by a huge 
inaccessible mass of gi'anite, rising 
to a height of some 50 ft., and 
forming a landmark by which the 
mountain can be recognised at a 
great distance. The view includes 
Asama-yama on the N., Yatsu-ga- 
take almost due W., Fuji to the 
S., and the lofty mountain range 
on the western boundary of the 
pro'vince of Kdshu. 

2. — Feom Tokyo to Kofc by the 
KosHu Kaido. [Fbom Saeu- 


The line of railway now in course 
of construction along this ancient 
and picturesque highway wiU, when 
completed, afford the quickest 
means of reaching Kofu. But 
Koshu, the province from which 
the roi'xl takes its name, is encircled 
by such a barrier of mountains that 
the engineers have no easy task, 
and it may be two or three years 
yet before the older metho<te of 
travel can be abandoned. At pre- 
sent the first stage of this journey, 
viz. as far as llat-hioji, is by triiin 
fi'om either Sliimbashi or Shinjiku 
station, 1\ hi', from the latter (see 
p. 144). The Itinerary of the rest 
of the route is as under. The 
road is often heavy in imrts, ex- 
cept close to the larger villages ; 
and continuid endeavours to im- 
prove it l)y avoiding hills, etc., make 
some of the distances vary slightly 
from time to time. 


Boute 27. — Ways to and fr<ym Kofu. 

HACHIOJI to :— Fd Cho M. 

Komagino 2 19 Q\ 

Yose 2 30 

Yoshino 33 

Ueno-hara 1 1^7 

Tomiiiama 3 In 

Sarnhashi 1 — 

OzTiki 1 2 

Kuronota 2 29 

Eatsiinnma 3 15 

KOFU 4 2 

Total 24 2 58J 




The whole ground may be cover- 
ed in 2 days, by taking jinriMshas 
from Hachioji to Kofu. and sleep- 
ing the first night at Sarnhashi. 
Carriages of the usual springless 
kind run the whole way. From 

Hachioji {Inn, Kado-ya), the 
road Hes along the flat to Komagino, 
"beyond which vill. a gradual rise 
leads up the Kohotoke-ioge. The 
modern highway, avoiding as it does 
the summit of the pass (1,850 ft.), 
misses the extensive view over the 
plain of Toky5 and the sea, for 
which this portion of the journey 
was formerly noted ; but on the 
way down on the other side, there 
is a fine prospect of the Koshu 
mountains. Soon the fertile valley 
of the l>anyu-gawa, also called Ka- 
tsura-gawa, comes in sight. This 
river flows at the bottom of a deep 
ravine, and remaijis a constant com- 
panion as far as Ozuld. Some poor 
hamlets are passed before reaching 

Yosh.ino [Inn, Sakamoto-ya). 

TJeno-liara (Inn, Uehara) Hes on 
a plateau, and has no wells. All the 
water has to be brought from a 
distance in wooden pipes, and is 
consequently foul. From Ueno- 
hara, the road plunges down to the 
bed of the Tsurukawa, a tributary 
of the Katsura-gawa. The scenery 
becomes very pretty before reaching 

Saruh.ashi (Inns, Dailvoku-ya, 

that ia, the "Monkey's Bridge,"' also 
■called Enkyo, the latter name being but 

the Chinese pronunciation of the Bame 
ideographs which in pure Japanese read 
Sarukashi. The place derives its name 
from the bridge having formerly been 
a mere crazy plank, such as monkeys 
alone might be supposed likely to venture 

Perpendicular cliffs frown down 
upon the dark emerald stream, 
which is naiTow and deep at this 
point. The present bridge is of 
the cantilever sort, having the ends 
of the horizontal beams planted 
deep in the soil that covers the 
rock. Saruhashi, though an in- 
considerable place, claims a certain 
importance as a market-town for 
the surrounding villages, and also 
manufactures kaiki. Another 
cheaper fabric called tsumugi, spun 
from refuse silk, is manufactured 
in several of the neighbouring 

The scenery continues lovely 
after passing Saruhaslii. There is 
a celebrated view at a point where 
the Katsm-a-gawa is joined by one 
of its affluents, the "Wata-gawa, 
between Saruhashi and Koma- 

Ozuki is badly situated, as a hill 
rising behind it shuts out the stin- 
light and the view of Fuji. 

[A road to Yoshida, fi'om which 
place Fuji may be ascended (see 
p. 172), branches off here to the 
1., following up the valley of 
the Katsiira-gawa, and passing 
through the cleanly and thriv- 
ing town of Yamura (Inn, 
Susuki-tei). At Toka-ichiba 
there is a pretty cascade, which 
is seen to best advantage from 
the verandah of the tea-house 
close by. The distance fi-om 
Ozuki to Kami-Yoshida 
(Inns, Osakabe, Kogiku) is just 
under 6 ri. The whole road is 
in a manner dominated by 
Fuji, beginning near Ozuki, 
where the great volcano ap- 
pears en vignette, and then 
grows and grows till it fills up 
the entire foreground. It is 
also interesting to observe the 

Tne Koshu Kaido. Tamagawa Valley. 


gradual conversion of the lava 
into arable land, partly by 
weathering, partly by human 

From OzuM the road proceeds up 
the valley of the HanasaM-gawa, 
through villages devoted to the 
breeding of silkworms. The diver- 
sified forms of the mountains lend 
an unusual charm to the scene. 
After passing 

Kuronota (Inn, Miyoshi-ya), we 
ascend the Sa.sago-toge, 3,500 ft. 
above the sea. The longest railway 
tunnel in Japan is being pierced 
through this mountain. 

Katsunuma (Lm, Ikeda-ya) is 
the chief centre of the grape-grow- 
ing industry. The fertile plain of 
Koshu now stretches out before us, 
surrounded on every side by a wall 
of high mountains. The principal 
summits to the W. are Koma-ga- 
take, H6-o-zan, -Jizo-dake, Kwan- 
non, and Yakushi, backed by a 
long chain collectively known under 
the name of Shirane-san. Fuji 
also is visible now and then over 
the tops of a range boiimhng the 
plain on the S. From the vill. of 
Todoroki to Shimo-Knrihara, the 
road is lined with peach-trees, dou- 
ble cherry-trees, and kaido (Fyrus 
spectabilis), which are in full blos- 
som about the middle of April. 
The road runs along the plain from 
this point into Kofu. 


-Fkom Tokyo to Kofu by the 
Valley of the Tamagaw.a.. 

This exceptionally pretty route is 
much to be recommended in the 
spring-time, when the trees are in 
flower. Kofu can be reached by 
it in 2J days. Fair accommodation 
is to be had at K6chi-no-yu and at 
Ofuji ; but the food is ever5rwhere 
poor. Train across the plain of 
Tokyo in about 3 hrs. to Ome, 
and the rest of the journey on 
foot, excepting a possible 2 or 3 
ri of jinrilashrt at either end. 

* n 


a aa 






TOKYO (Shin- 


jiku Jet.) 











iFor Kawagoe, 


Kokubunji Jet.. 

\ a dull country 


Tachikawa Jet.. 

( Change for 











Itinerary by road. 
(distances approximate) 

OME to :— Ei M. 

Sawai 2^- 6^ 

Kotaba 1^ 3f 

Hikawa 2 5 

K6chi-no-yu (Yuba). 3 7 J 

Kamozawa 2 5 

Tabayama 2J 6J 

Ochiai ^ ^ 

Yanagizawa-toge 1 2J 

Kamikane li 3| 

Ofuji I 1\ 

Kusakabe 1 J 3| 

Hirashina 1 2 J 

SatogaM 2 5 

KOFU 1 2J 

Total 29 70f 

The firet portion of this journey 
over the Tokyo plain is briefly 
described on p. 144. At Hamura, 
the water of the Tamagawa is 
diverted into an aqueduct which, 
supplies the capital. 

Ome {Inn, by Sakanoe Einzo ; 
Resit., Wakasa-ya) consists of a 
single long street lined with old 
gnarled fruit-trees, maples, crape 
myrtle, and pines, which give it a 
pleasing aspect. Komptra-san, the 
small hill rising directly behind 


Route 27. — Ways to and from Kqfu. 

the station, commands a fine view 
of the plain \s-ith the Tamagawa 
running through it. On leaTing 
this town, the road at once enters 
the Valley of ihe Tamagaica, ascend- 
ing along its 1. bank. The valley 
is here rather wide and weU- 
cultivated. Passing through the 
peach orchards of Mitamura, the 
bridge at the entrance of 

Sawai {Inn, Yamaguchi-ya) is 
crossed, beyond which place the 
Yalley contracts and winds, and 
the hills on either side increase in 
height, while in front rises the 
tiiple summit of Mitake (see p. 14:5). 

Kotaba is the highest point 
fi'om which rafts descend the river. 
Further up, single logs are thrown 
into the water and left to float 
down with the current. The sce- 
nery continues charming ; the path 
constantly ascends and descends, 
sometimes rising to a great eleva- 
tion above the stream. Maize, 
millet, and potatoes constitute the 
chief crops gi-own in the district. 
Passing through the remains of 
a cryptomeria gi'ove, we cross the 
Nippara-gawa, and reach the 
village of 

Hikawa {Inn, Hikawa-ya.) 

At this place, and elsewhere in the 
valley, may be observed bevelled water- 
wheels, used where the bank is too high 
for the ordinary undershot wheel. The 
floats are small and placed wide apart, 
and the axle is inclined at an angle in 
order to admit of the wheel dipping into 
the stream. 

Thi-ee ri up the valley of the 
Xippara-gawa are some remarkable 
caves in the limestone rock. The 
next stage beyond Hikawa is 
extremely picturesque and but 
sparsely populated. Below the 
path, which winds up and down 
the flank of the mountain, the 
stream dashes along a rocky chan- 
nel ; while above, on either hand, 
rise steep lofty hills, mostly cover- 
ed with timber, but wherever the 
•exposure is favourable, ciiltivated 
up to the highest possible limit. 
. Kochi-no-yu {Irm, Shimizu-ya), 

1,350 ft. above the sea, possesses 
tepid sulphitr springs, which are re- 
sorted to by the people of the neigh- 
bouring hamlets. Half a mile fur- 
ther we cross a tribiitary stream to 
the vill. of Kochi, and pass in 
succession through Miifjiynma and 
Kawano to the hamlet of Kamozawa, 
on the boundary between the prov- 
inces of Musashi and Koshu. 

Kamozawa (no inns) stands in 
a striking situation on the hillside. 
Fx'om a point a short distance 
beyond, the road winds up the side 
of a magnificent wooded gorge 
for 4 or .5 m., the river flowing 
away below, shut out by the shade 
of deciduous trees. At last we 
come in sight of the spacious 
upland valley in which lie 

Tabayama {Inn, Mori-ya), 2,000 
ft. above the sea, and one or two 
other hamlets. Beyond this, the 
scenery becomes even more re- 
markable. Str ikin g views of deep 
ravines and rockj'' precipices occiu: 
a short way above Tabayama, 
where grey, fir-clad cliffs tower up 
to a height of over 2,000 ft. fi'om 
the river-bed. But the grandest 
prospect of all is about I5 m. 
below Ochiai, where the road winds 
round the face of a lofty precipice 
commanding a view up a densely 
wooded gorge. From this point to 
Ochiai, which is a mere cluster 
of huts, and for 1 ri further to the 
top of the Yanagizaica-toge (4,600 
ft.), is a walk of about 2 hrs. 
The top of the pass affords a fine 
view of Fuji rising above an inter- 
vening range of mountains. De- 
scending on the Kof u side, the road 
follows the course of the Omogawa 
to the vill. of 

Eamikaue (poor accommoda- 
tion). Here, for the first time, the 
great range dividing the provinces 
of Koshii and Shinshu opens out 
in fall view. The chief peaks 
from r. to 1. are Koma-ga-take, 
H6-6-zan, and Jizo-dake, with the 
triple peaks of Shirane-san behind, 
all rising beyond a nearer and 
lesser chain. The small wooded 

Rapids of the Fujikaica. 


hill in front is Enzan, noted for a 
cold sulphiu- spring (good imi). 

Ofuji {Inn. Fuji-ya), the main 
road descends straight into the 
plain of K5fu, and jaasses through 
Kusakabe, with its avenue of pines 
and flowering trees. At SasliMe, 
jinrikishas or carriages of sorts 
may be engaged to Kofu. 

4. — From Koftt down the Rapids 
OF THE Fujikawa to Minobu 


This beautiful trip is recom- 
mended alike for its scenery 
throughout, and for the architec- 
tural splendoxurs of Minobu. 

A tram (4 ri 26 cho) takes one in 
2 hrs. across the mountain-girt 
plain from Kofu to 

Kajika-zawa (Inns, Yorozu-ya; 
Kona-ya, near the boat-house), 
where one embarks for the descent 
of the Eapids of the Fujikawa. The 
charge (1900) is 5 yen for a private 
boat (kai-kiri) with four men, 
weather being favourable ; seat in 
post or passenger boat {yuhin-hune 
or jikan-bune) 50 sen or 1 yen for 
reserved place. But remember that 
prices constantly tend upwards. 
With the river in its ordinary state, 
the times taken are as follows : — 

KAJIKA-ZAWA to :— Ilour.'i. 

Haldi 2] 

Nambu 11- 


Total 7^ 

In flood-time police regulations 
prohibit all boats from starting till 
the water falls to a certain level. 
In such circumstances of unavoid- 
able delay, the time may be spent 
in visiting the temple of Myohdji 
at Komuro, about 1 rl from Kajika- 
zawa ; or Lake l^liihiri, 3 ri distant, 
popularly believed to be tenanted 
by a demon (nushi), who permits 
neither boat nor human being to 
disturb the water. 

There is considerable traflic on 
the Fujikawa, nearly 300 boats 
being engaged in it ; and as we 
course swiftly down, we meet boat 
after boat towed up by coolies 
bending double over their toilsome 
task. Placid at first, the river flows 
between green hills intersected by 
valleys that disclose glimpses of 
the Shirane range, Yatsu-ga-take, 
and other distant mountains. 
Opposite the confluence of the Ha- 
yakawa there juts out 1. a remark- 
able rock called Byohu-iwa ; and 
here the river, whose course has 
already been interrupted by several 
rapids, becomes larger and the cur- 
rent swifter. Fuji's snow-covered 
cone first comes in view ahead 
below Manzawa. where the stream 
turns northward for a short time. 
The biggest rapid occurs not far 
fi'om where the river divides, and 
where on the 1. bank stands the 
celebrated Tsuri-bashi, or " Hanging 
Bridge," joining an islet to the 

Formerly this bridge was suspended to 
precipitous rocks on either side by means 
of stout ropes of bamboos split and twisted 
together, and consisted of small bundles of 
split bamboos some 6 or 7 ft. long, lashed 
close together and supporting a single 
row of planks laid along the middle as a 
pathway. It had no hand-rail. It used 
to be renewed every autumn. Since 
1897, the bamboo roping has been replaced 
by telegraph wire, and a low hand-rail 
has been added. The bridge, a type of 
many scattered over the wilder regions 
of Central Japan, has a single span and 
is altogether 1(3.5 ft. long, its height in the 
centre being about '20 ft., and at the bank 
:J5 ft. The whole structure shakes and 
sways consideralily, though there is no 
real danger. 

Immediately after passing it, 
Fuji again towers up graniUy to 
the 1., and then the river Shiba- 
kawa from Shira-ito-no-taki (see 
p. 176) falls in idso 1. 

On Hearing Matsuno, some 
interesting hexagonal andesite 
columns yvHl be noticed on the 
r. banlv. The cuiTent remains 
strong, and small rapids occur from 
time to time, the whole way to the 
riyer's mouth at 


Route 27. — Ways to o/adfrom Kqfu, 

Iwabuchi. Here the boat is 
taken along the canal to the land- 
ing-place close by the railway 
station {Inn, *Tani-ya), which 
stands f m. from the old town. 

On the way down the river, those 
with an extra day to spare should 
not fail to visit !Minobu. _ This 
entails lea^sing the boat at Quo or 
Hakii, where it is rejoined next 
day, the walk from the river to the 
vill. of Minobu occupying f hr. 

Minobu (l7wis,Tanaka-ya, Tama- 
ya) consists of a single hilly street 
lined with shops for the sale of 
rosaries. It is prettily situated in 
a valley surrounded by mountains 
still fairly well-wooded, among the 
most prominent being Okn-no-in 
which rises immediately behind the 
temples, and Shichimen-zan at the 
head of the valley. The village 
owes its existence to the great 
Monastery of Euenji, founded in the 
13th century by the celebrated 
Buddhist saint, Nichiren (see p. 80), 
a portion of whose body is here 
enshrined. This monastery is the 
headquarters of the Nichiren sect, 
and the new temples now in process 
of erection to replace the former 
buildings destroyed by lire in 1875, 
are choice specimens of Buddhistic 

On entering the grounds of the 
monastery, the traveller crosses a 
coru-tyard, whence either a very 
steep flight of steps — the Otoko- 
zaka — or a more gently inclined 
slope — the Onna-zaka — may be 
ascended to the actual temples. On 
reaching the top of the steps, and 
passing r. the belfry, 1. the double- 
roofed little Nokotsxi-do — a recep- 
tacle for behevers' bones — the tra- 
veller vnil find himself in front of 
the Founder's Temple (Kaisan-do), 
from which a set of galleries leads to 
the Temple of the True Bones {!<hin- 
kotsa-(Jd), to the Shaka-<ld, which is 
hung round with pictures, to the 
Temple of the Posthumous Tablets 
{Ihai-do), containing the tablets of 
aristocratic believers, to the Pil- 

grims' Resting-place (Kyaku-den), to 
the Keception Rooms {Taimen-jo), 
and finally 1. to the residence of 
the archbishop (0 Tma) and r. to 
the business offices of the sect 
(Jimusho). The interior dimensions 
of the main hall of the Founder's 
Temple are : length 75 ft., depth 
120 ft., height 26 ft. fi-om floor to 
ceiling, while the altar is 24 ft. long 
by 15 ft. in depth. The porch has 
carvings of dragons, storks, birds 
flitting over the waves of the sea, 
and tortoises swimming through it. 
The ventilating panels over the 
grated doors contain angels and 
phoenixes brightly painted. The 
framework of the building and the 
pillars which support the ceiling 
are lacquered red and black, pro- 
ducing a noble effect. In the centre 
of the nave (gejin), hangs a magnifi- 
cent gilt baldachin,_ presented by 
the merchants of Osaka. Gilded 
pillars mark off the space in front 
of the main altar, which is lacquer- 
ed red and decorated with gilt 
carvings of lions and peonies. The 
two porcelain lanterns about 8 ft. 
high, in front of the altar, are fi'om 
the famous potteries of Hizen. The 
handsomely carved and gilded 
shiine contains a good life-size 
effigy of Nichiien, presented by the 
inhabitants of Tdkyo. The coffered 
ceiling of the chancel {7Uiijin) is 
plainly gUt, while the part of it 
immediately over the altar has gilt 
dragons, touched up with red on a 
gilt ground. To the wall behind 
the altar are affixed modem paint- 
ings of Rakan. The colours of the 
square brackets in the cornices are 
green, blue, red, and chocolate, 
often with an outline in white or a 
lighter shade of the principal 
colotu", and gohl arabesques on the 
flat surfaces. The gem of llinobu, 
however, is the Temple of the True 
Bones, comjileted in 1880, where 
the lover of Oriental decorative art 
will find in contemporary freshness 
aU those beauties which, in most 
of the religious edifices of Japan, 
have already been too much tar- 

Temple of Minobu. 


nished by the hand of time. A 
small fee is charged for admission. 
The exterior is unpretentious ; but 
on entering the oratory, the visitor 
should observe the lifelike paint- 
ings of cranes on the ceiling. A 
plain gallery leads hence to the 
sanctum sanctorum, where Nichi- 
ren's remains are enshrined. It is 
a small octagonal building, elabo- 
rately decorated and all ablaze with 
colours and gold. Round the walls, 
on a gold ground, are full-sized re- 
presentations of the white lotus- 
flower, the emblem of purity and 
of the Buddhist faith. The hori- 
zontal beams above have coloured 
diapers and geometrical patterns, 
the brilliant effect of which is toned 
down by the black, mixed with 
gold, of the rafters. Black and 
gold are likewise the colours 
used in the ceiling, which is se- 
ciired by admirably worked metal 
fastenings. In the ramma are 
carvings of the Sixteen Rakan, and 
on the doors ai'e paintings of mu- 
sical instruments. Bright indivi- 
dually as are the many colours in 
this temple, all are so cimningly 
blended and harmonised that the 
general eSect is one of exceeding 
softness and richness. The shrine 
{hoto), which was presented by the 
faithful of the province of Owari, is 
of gold lacquer and shaped like a 
two-storied pagoda. In it rests the 
crystal rehquary or casket contain- 
ing the bones of Nichiren, which is 
in the shape of a tiny octagonal 
pagoda, standing on a base of 
silver formed of an upturned lotus- 
blossom, which itself rests on a 
reversed lotus of jade. Its frame- 
work is of the alloy called shakudo, 
and one of the pillars bears an in- 
scription in silver damascening, 
which, among sundry particulars, 
gives a date coiTesponding to A.D. 
158(1. The other pillars are de- 
corated with silver tracery attached 
to the surface of the shakudo. The 
top is hung with strings of coral, 
pearls, and glass beads. The height 
of the whole is a little over '2 ft. 

Above hangs a baldjichin presented 
by the inhabitants of Nagasaki. 
The only European innovation in 
the place is the introduction of two 
glass windows, which permit of a 
much better examination of the 
building than is generally obtain- 
able in the " dim religious light " of 
Japanese sacred edifices. The room 
in the archbishop's residence where 
he receives the faithful, is a beauti- 
ful specimen of Japanese house' 
decoration in the old style. Note 
the exquisite modern open-work 
carvings of cranes and wild-geese, 
and the fine paintings by Kano 
Motonobu in the alcoves {tokonoma) 
of the Reception Rooms. For a 
small fee the priests officiating at 
the Kaisandd will display the image 
on the altar, and perform a short 
service (kaicho) in its honour. The 
chief annual festival takes place on 
the 12th and 13th days of the 10th 
moon, old style (some time in 
November). There is another great 
festival in the month of May. 

The ascent to the Oku-no-in winds 
up Ue-no-yama, the hill imme- 
diately behind the Founder's Tem- 
ple, and is an easy climb of 50 cho. 
After passing the small temple of 
Sanko-do, the road ascends through 
a forest of cryptomerias, and near 
the summit commands an extensive 
view, including Fuji, part of the 
Gulf of Suruga, and the peninsula 
of Izu. On the top stands a plain 
little temple dedicated to Nichiren, 
whose crest of orange-blossom is 
prominently markefl on various ob- 
jects within the enclosure. 

A spare day at Minobu may be de- 
voted to the ascent of Shicliiinen- 
zan, whose summit is not quite 5 
)-i distant. The best place to halt 
on the way is Akasawa (fair inn), 3 
rl 2 cho from JMinobu. There is a 
good path all the way up. The 
last 50 cho are marked by stone 
lanterns, numbered from 1 to 50. 
No. 36 affords the best view, which 
includes the full sweep of Suruga 
Bay, ^vith the peninsula of Izu 
stretching far out to sea, a magnili- 


Route 27. — Ways to and from Kqfu. 

cent prospect of Fuji, the fertile 
plain of Kofu intersected by the 
various streams that unite to form 
the Fujikawa, the valley of the Ha- 
yakawa below to the 1., beyond 
which are seen Shirane-san and the 
Koma-ga-take of Koshu, while 
Yatsu-ga-take, Kiiupu-zan, and 
distant ranges bound the prospect 
on the N. On the top, which the 
forest deprives of all ^iew, stands 
a plain building dedicated to the 
goddess of the mountain. 

According to the legend, as Nichiren 
was one day preachiug in the open air at 
Minobu, a beautiful woman suddenly 
made her appearance, and greatly excited 
the curiosity of his auditors. On Nichi- 
ren bidding her assume her true form, 
she explained that she dwelt among the 
mountains to the west, and that seated 
on one of the eight points of the compass, 
she dispensed blessings to the other 
seven. She then begged for water, which 
was given to her in a vase, and at once 
the beautiful woman was transformed 
into a serisent twenty feet long, covered 
with golden scales and armed with iron 
teeth. A terrible blast swept down from 
the mountains, and she disappeared in a 
whirlwind towards the point of the com- 
pass indicated. The words " seven points- 
of-the-compass " (ahichi-men) also mean 
" seven faces ; " and by an equivoque the 
popular belief has arisen that a serpent 
with seven heads had appeared to the 
saint, whom he deified under the name 
of Skichi-men Daimyojin. Buddhist writers 
identify her with Srimahadeva, the god 
of lucky omen, another name for the 
Hindu god Siva. 

Grame is plentiful on the hills 
surrounding Minobu. Deer and 
bears are occasionally seen. Shoot- 
ing, however, is strictly prohibited, 
as contrary to the tenets of the 
Buddhist faith. 

From Minobu, and even fi'om 
Kajika-zawa, a road mostly by the 
river bank practicable for jinriki- 
shas may be availed of in case of 
flood. It passes through Namhu 
and Manzawa (fair accommodation 
at both), and reaches the Tokaido 
EaUway at Iwabuchi. The distance 
from Minobu to Nambu is 3 ri, 
thence on to the T5kaid5 10 ri, 
making 13 ri in all. 

Another way from Minobu to the 
Tokaidd, also 13 ri and feasible for 

jiniikishas, leads via Nambu, Shi- 
shihara, and Ojinia, over the Hira- 
yama-toge to Okitsu, two or three 
stations further west. 

5. — ^Fbom Kofu to Shimo-no-Suwa 



KOFU to:— Ri Cho M. 

NirazaM 3 5 7i| 

Tsubai-ai 2 — 5 

Dai-ga-hara 2 9 5o 

Kyoraishi 1 16 2,1 

Tsutaki 1 6 2| 

Kanazawa 3 8 7 J 

Kami-no-Suwa 3 19 8i 

SHIMO-NaSUWA 1 4 2| 

Total 17 31 43^ 

This road is a continuation of 
the Koshu Kaido, the first section 
of which, from Tokyo to Kofu, has 
been described on pp. 270 — ^1. It is 
practicable for jiniikishas the whole 

Leaving Kofu and crossing the 
Shiogawa, an affluent of the Fuji- 
kawa, we reach 

Nirazaki {Inn, Ebisu-ya) and 
Tsubarai. Fi'om a grove of trees 
just beyond the latter there is a 
grand \iew of Koma-ga-take, the 
whole sweep to the sharp summit 
of the precipitous rocky mass being 
seen to rare advantage. The road 
now ascends the valley of the 
Kamanashi-gawa, the greater part 
of it as far as Dai-ga-hara being 
built up on the stony beds of various 
streams. The scenery of the valley 
is very pretty, and in many places 
quite striking. The r. side is lined 
with remarkable castellated cliffs 
of brown conglomerate, riddled 
with caves and streaked with oc- 
casional waterfalls like silver 
threads. This rocky formation is 
called Shichi-ri-ga-iwa, fi"om the 
fact of its extending for a distance 
of 7 ri from Nirazaki to the fi'ontier 
of the province. To the 1. rises the 
high range of which Jiz5-dake and 
Koma-ga-take are the principal 

Koshu Kaido. Kqfu to Gotemha. 


features, — the former recognisable 
by a statue-like knob at the top, 
supposed to represent the Buddhist 
god Jizo, the latter somewhat 
higher and more pointed, both of 
them grand jagged masses of gran- 
ite. Fiu'ther on Yatsu-ga-take ap- 
pears to the r., while on looking 
back, beautiful and varied views of 
Fuji are to be seen. We next reach 

Dai-ga-hara (Inn, Take-ya), 
whence the ascent of the Koshu 
Koma-ga-take can best be made 
(see p. 283). Beyond Dai-ga-hara 
the road enters a fine grove of red 
pine-trees, which shuts out the 
view of the river as far as Kybraishi. 
This grove is celebrated for its 
mushrooms (ki-no-ko). Deer also, 
now in most parts of Japan well- 
nigh exterminated, are still fairly 
plentiful in this district. Half-way 
through the wood we cross the 
Nigori-gawa, whose dazzlingly white 
bed is formed of granite dust wash- 
ed down fi'om Koma-ga-take. The 
other rivers hereabouts show the 
same characteristic, but not quite so 
strongly marked. A hamlet near 
Dai-ga-hara boasts the oldest and 
largest cherry-tree in all Japan. At 
the boimdary of the provinces of 
Koshu and Shinshu, the road cross- 
es to the 1. bank of the Kamana- 
shi-gawa, and passing through the 
insignificant vill. of SMmo Tsutaki, 
reaches _ 

Kami Tsutaki (Inn, Osaka-ya), 
after which it becomes hilly. 
Thence we descend to 

Kanazawa (Inn, Maru-ya), and 
down the valley of the Miya-gawa, 
where the waters of Lake Suwa 
soon come in sight. From several 
points further on, fine views are 
obtained of the mountains on the 
borders of Hida, the most con- 
spicuous summits being Iwasu-ga- 
take and Yari-ga-take. The lofty 
mountain in the distance to the 1. 
of the lake is the Shinshu Koma- 

Kami-no-Suwa (Inn, * Botan- 
ya, with private hot spring) is a 
busy town on the borders of 

the lake. About 1^ ri distant 
stands the Ichi no Miya, or chief 
Shinto temple of the province of 
Shinshu, which contains some 
excellent wood-carvings. The an- 
nual festival is held on the 15th 
April. The road now skirts the 
slopes on the N.E. shore of the lake, 
and^ passing through the hamlets 
of Owa and Takaki, reaches Shimo- 
no-Suwa (see Koute 24). 

6. — Feom Kofu over the Misak4.- 

toge to y^oshida at the base 

OP Fuji, and to Gotemba on 



KOFU to :— Bi 

Isawa 1 

Wakamiya 2 

TonoM (vill.) 2 

Top TonoM Pass... 1 

Kawaguchi 1 

Funatsu 1 


Yamanaka .. 2 

Subashiri 2 
























Total 17 13 42^ 

Time required, 2 days, stopping 
at Yoshida the first night. Yoko- 
hama may easily be reached by 
train from Gotemba on the evening 
of the second day ; or else good 
walkers might cross over the 
Otome-toge to Miyanoshita. Basha 
are practicable fi'om Kofu to 
Wakamiya ; but the latter half 
of this stage is rough, and as it 
also mounts a good deal, the use of 
hasha in going from Kofu is not 
recommended lieyond Isawa. But 
those coming towards Kofu had 
better engage basha at Wakamiya. 

The road follows the Koshu Kai- 
do as far as 

Isawa (Intt Tsuchi-ya), where 
it turns off to the r., and soon 
enters a narrow valley. From Kami 
Kurogoma it rises rapidly to Tonoki, 
3,200 ft. above the sea. It then 
ascends for about 1 hr. through a 


Route 27. — Ways to and from Kqfu. 

forest to the hut on the summit of 
the Misaka-tofje, which is 5,120 ft. 
aboTe the sea. The view of Fuji 
from this point, as it rises fi'om 
Lake Kawaguchi, is justly celebrat- 
ed. Below is the vill. of Kawa- 
guchi ; on the opposite side of the 
lake are Funatsu and Kodachi ; 
further S. is Lake Yamanaka. The 
■view looking back towards the N. 
and W. includes Kimpu-zan, Yatsu- 
ga-take, Koma-ga-take, Jizo-dake, 
and in the plain below, the vill. of 
Isawa. It is 1 hr. descent down 
the bare hillside to Kawaguchi, a 
poor vill. lying a couple of hundred 
yards from the lake. Boats can be 
procured from here to Funatsu, the 
passage of a little over -^ hr. 
making an agreeable change in the 
day's work ; or else one may follow 
the road skirting the lake through 
the hamlet of Akasawa for about 
f hr., with steep mountains on every 
side. Funatsu produces white and 
coloured tsumugi, a coarse fabric 
woven from spun floss-silk. From 
Funatsu to Yoshida, and on to Su- 
bashiii and Gotemba, the road tra- 
verses the moor which forms the 
base of Fuji (see E-te. 10.). 

7. — Fkom Komoeo neak Kakuizawa 

to kofu by the hlkasawa- 



KOMORO to :— Ri Gho M. 

Iwamurata (about) 2 — 5 

Usuda 2 16 6 

Takano-machi 1 6 2f 

Toyosato 2 7 5^ 

Umijiri 1 21 4 

Umi-no-kuchi 1 10 3 

Hirasawa a 7 7| 

Tsugane 3 14 8^ 

Wakamiko 1 30 4J 

NirazaM 2 21 6^ 

K^FU 3 13 8| 

Total 25 1 61 

This route is not recommended, 
except to those whose object is 

mountain cUmbing. Exclusive of 
such climbing, the journey will oc- 
cupy 2 days, basha being available 
for the first part between Komoro 
and Usuda, and again for the last 
stage from NirazaM to Kofu. The 
rest must be done on foot. The 
accommodation at the villages on 
the way is poor, and the scenery 
mediocre, though the Ghikiima- 
gawa whose upper course is follow- 
ed for many miles, has some fine 
chfEs. The actual pass is a very 
easy climb. Its name of Hirasawa- 
Daimon-toge serves to distinguish 
it from another Daimon-toge fur- 
ther west. 

The hamlet of Hata, near Takano- 
machi, is the best place from which 
to ascend Tateshina-yama. This 
expedition requires the whole of a 
long day, but the climber is reward- 
ed by an extensive view. 

Fi'om Umijiri, at the end of the 
Iwasaki gorge, one may visit the 
sulphur springs of Inago (21 cho), 
and thence go up to the Honzawa 
baths (3 ri), situated at a height of 
3,200 ft. above Umijiri. The sum- 
mit of the Honzawa pass, some 40 
min. walk beyond the Honzawa 
baths, is 7,400 ft. above the sea. 
Fi'om this point a path leads to the 
summit of Mikahuri-yama, 8,450 ft. 
The whole expedition will occupy 
a day. 

Itabashi is the best starting- 
point for the ascent of Akadake, 
one of several peaks known under 
the collective name of Yatsu-ga- 
take ; but there is no path. 
Two ri across the moor from Ita- 
bashi is a wood-cutter's hut at the 
base of the spur where the ascent 
begins, and it is advisable to sleep 
there in order to make an early 
start. The hut stands about 5,300 
ft. above the sea, which leaves 
3,690 ft. to be done next day, the 
summit having an altitude of 8,990 
ft., and the chmb being very steep 
in parts. Guides cannot always be 
procured at Itabashi. In this case 
it will be necessary to proceed to 

Route 28. — Valley of the Hayakau:a. 


Hirasawa, where they can generally 
be had at any time. 

From Nagasawa it is an easy 
ehmb up Gongen-dake. Should there 
be any (Ufficulty in procuring guides, 
it ma}^ be best, as in the previous 
case, to make Hirasawa the starling- 
point. The ascent occupies about 
5 hrs., the descent to Nagasawa 3 
hrs., that to Hirasawa 4 hrs. The 
■view includes the whole of the Hi- 
da-Shinshu range, amongst which 
Yari-ga-take is conspicuoiis to the 
N. W., Fuji is seen towering aloft S. 
by E., the Koshu Koma-ga-take 
S.W. by S., Shirane a little to its 
S., Ho-o-zan S.S.W., distinguished 
by the monumental pile of rocks 
at its summit, and Kimpu-zan S.E. 
by E. 

ROUTE 28. 

The VAiiiiET OF the Hayakawa. 


MINOBU to :— Ri Cho M. 

Akasawa 3 — 7|- 

Gokamura 2^- — 6 

Kyo-ga-shima ... 2 — 5 

Hayakawa 1 — 22- 

Shimo Yujima ... 3| — 8|- 

Narada 2 — 5 

Ashikura 5 — 12J^ 

Arino 2 ■ — ^5 

Dodo 15 1 

Midai 10 | 

KJFU 2 — 5 

Total 23 25 58 

Tliese distances are approximate, 
and it is possible that some of the 
moimtain ri may be of 50 cho in- 
stead of only 36 cho, which would 
of course proportionately increase 
the mileage. An alternative plan 
for those starting from Shoji is to 
go down the Fujikawa as far as 

the hamlet of liomi, near the con- 
fluence of that river -with the Haya- 
kawa, and join the above itinerary 
near Gokamura, 3^ ri from Itomi. 

This route is a very rough one ; 
for though so close to civilisation, 
the country through which it 
leads lies in the heart of the 
great mountain mass dividing Ko- 
shu from Shinshti and Suruga, and 
both the people and the roads are 
in much the same state as they 
were in earlier centuries before rail- 
ways were known or foreigners 
heard of. The journey can only be 
accomplished on foot, and one 
should travel as lightly as possible, 
for all baggage has to be carried 
by coohes, who are often difficult 
to obtain. The traveller will meet 
with no regular inns, except one at 
Homura ; but the officials and 
headmen of the various hamlets 
are very civil, and ready to provide 
the best accommodation their places 
afford. It is possible to combine 
with this trip the ascent of the 
KoshCi Shirane-san and other lofty 
peaks, which form the subject of 
the next route. 

At Akasawa the path strikes r., in 
order to enter the valley of the 
Hayakawa, which it does near Oo- 
kamura. A short way beyond this, 
it descends to a pretty valley near 
the hamlet of Shio-no-ue, where the 
scenery is particularly striking. To 
the 1. rises Shichimen-zan, thickly 
wooded and seen to miich better ad- 
vantage here than from Minobu. 
Directly opposite is the bold round 
summit of Amebata-yama, also 
called Zarti-ga-take, through the 
deep ravine to the 1. of which flows 
tlie Amebata-gawa. Below is seen 
the Hayakawa winding down the 
valley on the r., and forming an 
almost complete circle as it bends 
round a low wooded promontory, 
which from this point has the ap- 
pearance of an island. The path 
now descends over a rough water- 
course to the bed of the river, and 
ascends the 1. bank to Kyo-ga-shi- 
ma. Eight cho further on, it crosses 


Route 28. — Valley of the Hayakawa. 

the stream on a tsuri-bashi, or 
"hanging bridge," to the hamlet of 
Momura in whose neighbourhood a 
gold mine is worked. 

For a description of the tsuri-bashi of 
the mountain districts of Eastern and 
Central Japan, see p. 273. Another primi- 
tivo kind of bridge, called mannen-bashi, 
has sometime.s to be crossed on this route. 
It consists of a long piece of timber, 
which is simply tied at the end to project- 
ing supports, such as are used in the 
hanging bridge. The span is not so great 
as that of the tsuri-bashi ; but the narrow- 
ness of the roadway, and the imperfect 
manner in which the projecting beams 
are supported, give the traveller a most 
uncomfortable feeling of insecurity. The 
.Japanese name is a hyperbole signifying 
" Bridge of a Myriad Years." 

Beyond Homura, the path leads 
over one of the lower spurs of Dai- 
koku-yama, and follows the steep 
side of the valley high above the 
stream. After passing the hamlet 
of Nishi-no-miya, the river is re- 
crossed to 

Hayakawa. Comfortable quar- 
ters may be obtained one mile 
further on at the house of the 
Soncho (M-ajot) of Misato, the "three 
villages" of which Hayakawa is one. 
Gold is found in the neighbourhood, 
while plantations of the paper-tree 
and of tobacco line this part of the 
valley. Higher up, beyond the 
hamlet of Arakawa, the scenery is 
charming. The river dashes iilong 
throiigh a tine rooky glen, and is 
spanned by one of the mannen-bashi 
at a highly picturesque spot. After 
crossing the bridge, the road 
divides. The route to Narada 
tiirns to the r., and ascends a very 
steep hUl for aboiit 1 ri, winds 
round its upper slope, and descends 
again to the river through wUd and 
rugged scenery, before reaching the 
hamlet of Shimo Yujinia. Beyond 
this place, the path crosses and re- 
crosses the river on mannen-bashi. 
About 40 cho on, and a Uttle way up 
the ravine I to the r., lies the hot 
spring of Kami Yujima (poor ac- 

Narada (accommodation at a 
Buddhist temple), the last in- 

habited place in the valley, consists 
of but a few households. All the 
inhabitants bear the same surname, 
and seldom marry outside the 
limits of their own village. They 
are a primitive folk of a peculiar 
type of countenance, who wear in 
summer a loose hempen dress, and 
deer and bear-skins in the winter. 
Their dialect is pecuHar, abound- 
ing in archaic words and obsolete 
grammatical forms. Owing to their 
practical isolation from the outer 
world, their ignorance is extreme, 
and they are content to hve in dirt 
and squalor. Bice, sake, and soy 
are with them luxuries to be in- 
dulged in on rare occasions, their 
ordinary food consisting only of 
millet and potatoes. Narada boasts 
" Seven Wonders " (Nayui Piishigi), 
amongst which are enumerated a 
brackish pool, the waters of which 
are said to have the property of 
dyeing black any article of clothing 
left to steep in them for forty-eight 
hours, and a reed whose leaves grow 
only on one side of the stem. 

More interesting to the deter- 
mined pedestrian than these village 
wonders will be the ascent of Shira- 
ne-san, which may be t:iken on the 
way to Ashikura, insteatl of pro- 
ceeding to the latter place by the 
usual path according to the itin- 
erary. For this ascent, see next 

The ordinary path from Narsxda 
to Ashikura winds up and down a 
succession of forest slopes, whose 
thick foUage almost entirely shuts 
out all view. Now and then, how- 
ever, glimpses are caught of Shi- 
rane-san and of the valleys of the 
Arakawa and Norokawa. Further 
on the path ^li^ddes, — r. to Kofu via 
Hira-bayashi, 1. to Kofu via Ashi- 
kura. The latter alternative is not 
practicable during heavy rains ; but 
the traveller is recommended to 
take it when it can be traversed, on 
account of its wild scenery. A 
portion of the way hes down a 
precipitous rocky ravine known as 
the Ide-zaioa, where the gorge is 

Boute 29. — Mountains between the Fujikaiva & Tenryu. 281 

in many places so narrow that its 
perpendicular sides seem almost to 
meet overhead. The path descends 
by the side of a torrent, crossing 
and re-crossing it on trunks of 
trees, and being occasionally carried 
over clefts and landslips on bridges 
of very primitive construction. 

Ashikura, which stands on the 
1. bank of the Midai-gawa, consists 
of four hamlets named Kutsiizawa 
(the highest up the valley), Ozori, 
Kozori, and Furu-yashiki lower 
down. Those who contemijlate 
making the ascent of H5-6-zan or 
of Kaigane should stay at Kozori. 
There is also fair accommodation 
at Furit-ynshiki. Jinrikishas may 
sometimes be found on entering the 
Kofn plain. 

ROUTE 29. 
The MotTNTAiNs between the Fu.ti- 


kaigane). 2. HO-O-ZAN. 3. THE 

The great mountain mass to the 
W. of Kofu, lying between the 
valleys of the Fujikawa, Oigawa, 
and Tenryu-gawa, is only second in 
orogi'aphical imiJortance to the 
Etchu-Hida mountains described 
in Koute 31. Climbing in this 
range involves no little hardship, for 
the reasons stated in the introduc- 
tion to the previous route, Avith 
which the greater part of this one 
may conveniently be combined. 
None but experienced mountaineers 
should attempt it. 

1 . — Sherane-san. 

In order to avoid confusion when 
arranging with peasant-guides and 

hunters, let it be understood that 
Shirane-san is not one individual 
peak, but a general name for the 
northern and more elevated portion 
of the range of which Nodori-san, 
Ai-no-take, and Kaigane are the 
chief peaks. 

There exists a somewhat amusing 
i rivalry between the inhabitants of Narada 
from whicli the first two peaks are as- 
cendocl, and those of .\shikura, the nearest 
point to the third, one village maintain- 
ing that Ai-no-take is the highest of the 
three and the tine Shirane, while the 
other claims that honour for Kaigane. An 
unprejudiced observer, looking at the 
range from the summit of H6-o-zan or 
from any other mountain top that com- 
mands a view of the two peaks, will 
adjudge the Ashikura people to be in the 
right about the question of altitude. 

Narada (see p. 280) is the start- 
ing point for the ascent, — not that 
there is any regularly markefl path 
thence to the top of the range, but 
that guides are there procurable 
who know the way up, and will 
carry whatever is necessary in the 
way of provisions and bedding. 
Those who pui-pose to ascend all of 
Shirane's peaks must be prepared 
to sleep out three nights, and, tak- 
ing Nodori-san first, to cross on the 
fourth day from the base of Kaigane 
to the vill. of Ashikm-a. Nodori 
and Ai-no-take involve sleeping out 
two nights and descending on the 
third da),^ — likewise to Ashikura. 
There is a hut at the E. base of 
Kaigane, but none on the top of 
the range. Ai-no-take cannot be 
ascended direct from Narada ; 
Nodori must first be climbed, and 
the track followed thence along the 

Prom Narada there is a choice of 
ways up Shirane, one leading along 
a ravine called Hiro-Kochi, the 
other up the Shira-Kochi a short 
way below it. To the top of 
the ridge is a stiff climb of !) hrs.. 
frequent rests being needetl by the 
guides who carry the baggage. The 
height is 8,4(10 ft. above the sea, or 
5,900 ft. above Narada, and snow 
often lies there as late as July. 
Once on the ridge, the rest of the 

282 Route 29. — Mountains betvDeen the Fvjikawa & Tenryu. 

ascent is easy. In 2 hrs. the first 
peak, nameless on the maps, is 
reached. The \ie-w includes W.S.W., 
the round top of Ena-san in 
Mino ; N.W. by W., Ontake ; and in 
front of the highest peak of a long 
ridge, the Koma-ga-take of Shinshu. 
Norikura bears N.W., and Yari-ga- 
take N.W. by N. In the far dis- 
tance N.E., the top of the Nikk5 
Shirane can just be descried, and 
the Chichibu mountains are well 
seen in the same direction. H6-6- 
zan is nearly N.N.E. ; then come 
Jiz5-ga-take, and Kwannon and 
Yakushi close together. Fuji, the 
basin of the Fujikawa, and the 
Kofu plain are distinctly visible. 

Half an hour more brings us to 
the top of Nodori, 9,970 ft., which 
commands much the same view as 
the previous summit, with the ad- 
dition of Ai-no-take and Kaigane, 
the latter of which now comes in 
sight for the first time. 

From the summit of Nddori to 
that of Ai-no-take (10,260 ft.) 
takes 2 hrs. The top consists of 
bare rock ; but a little below, every 
sheltered nook has a patch of grass, 
gay with the flowers that inhabit 
higher altitudes. Ten min. below 
the summit on the E. side, is an 
excellent camping-place. The view 
from the highest point includes, 
besides the mountains already 
mentioned, the following : — Koma- 
ga-take a little to the E. of N., 
Kaigane N.N.E., Y'atsu-ga-take just 
on the E. of Kaigane ; Kimpu-zan 
N.E. by E., and Senj5-ga-take, a 
much lower mountain on the 1. of 
the Norokawa, N.W. The source 
of this stream is perceived far down 
on the N.W. flank of Ai-no-take. 
Towards the S. and beyond Nodori- 
san, a long range of mountains is 
seen stretching down the frontier of 
Koshu, and getting gradiially lower 
as it approaches Minobu. Fuji 
rises between S.E. and E.S.E., 
while H6-5-zan and Jiz5-ga-take on 
the one side, and Ontake, Norilcura, 
and Yari-ga-take stand up perfectly 
clear on the other. The descent 

from Ai-no-take to Ashikura is 
fatiguing as far as a stream some 
4,200 ft. above sea-level. This 
stream is the Arakawa, one of the 
sources of the Hayakawa. If the 
day is too far spent to allow of 
AshilcTU-a being reached before 
nightfall, one may sleep at some 
wood-cutters' huts, IJ hr. before 
getting to that village. 

Kaigane (10,330 ft.) can best be 
ascended from Kozori, one of the 
hamlets of Ashikura. It is a day's 
cUmb to a smaU temple where a 
halt may be made for the night, 
whilst the remainder is said to 
take 6 hrs. The usual plan is to 
descend to the temple and spend 
the second night there, returning to 
Ashikura next day. Biat should the 
traveller wish to complete the round 
by ascending Ai-no-take and N5- 
dori-san, it will be necessary to 
sleep out one if not two nights 
more before descending either to 
Narada or to this temple. 

2. — H6-0-ZAN. 

The ascent of this mountain 
(9,550 ft.), which, like that of Kai- 
gane, is best made fi'om Ashikura, 
will occupy a good pedestrian about 
9 hrs., and the descent 5 hrs. in- 
cluding stoppages. Though it is 
possible, by making an early start, 
to complete the ascent and descent 
in one day, it is not lasual for pil- 
grims to do so. They generally, 
on the downward journey, halt for 
thenight at the M'ood-ciatters' hut 
of Omuro, 1^- i-i below the summit. 
The accommodation being rough, 
provisions and bedding should be 
taken. Those who wish to enjoy 
the morning yiew from the summit 
must either make a late start 
from Kozori and spend the rught 
at Omiu'o, ascending next morning 
at daybreak ; or start early, and 
bivouac in the hollow between the 
summits of Jizo and Ho-6-zan. In 
the latter case it will be necessary to 
take utensils for canying water, as 
no water can be got beyond Omuro 

Ho-o-zan. Koma-ga-take of Kdahv. 


The ascent commences beyond the 
hamlet of Kutsvzaica, 12 cho from 
Kozori. The view from Suna-harai, 
a rocky peak over which the path 
leads, includes in front Senj6-ga- 
take, over whose r. flank is seen 
the outline of the Bhinshti Koma- 
ga-take. On the 1. the ridge slopes 
down to the valley of the Norokawa, 
on the opposite side of which rises 
the sharp summit of Kaigane ; lower 
down the valley, stands out the bold 
massy form of Ai-no-take, while in 
the further distance appear the 
lofty mountains on the northern 
boundary of Suruga. To the r., the 
summits of Yakushi-dake and 
Kwannon-dake shut out the more 
distant prospect. The view on 
looking back includes Fuji, the 
Kofu plain, and suiTounding moun- 
tains. Yakushi-dake is not usually 
ascended by pilgrims. From Kwan- 
non-dake, which they do generally 
visit, there is a fine view of the 
ravine through which the Norokawa 
flows. The highest point — Ho-5- 
zan properly so called — is still fur- 
ther on, and may be scaled as far as 
the ledge which supports the two 
enormous blocks or pillars of 
gi'anite that form the actual summit. 
The view closely resembles that 
from Koma-ga-take described below. 
Ho-o-zan may also be ascended 
from Yanagi-za wa or Shintomi, near 
Dai-ga-hara on the Kdshu Kaido 
(see p. 277). The distance to the 
top of the gap between Jiz5-dake 
(a lower spur of the Kwannon-dake 
above mentioned) and Ho-o-zan, is 
called 5 ri. The path crosses the 
spur to the 1. of the vill., and 
descends to the bed of the Komu- 
kawa, which is followed up until 
the actual ascent of 2|- ri com- 


-The Koma-ga-take of 


Dai-ga-hara on the Koshu Kaido 
is the best starting-point for this 
grand movintain, 9,840 ft. above 
sea-level. The climb is so precipi- 

tous and difficult in parts as to 
have given rise among the pilgrims 
to the use of such terius as Oifa 
shirazu Ko shirazu (see p. 174), Ichi 
no Nanjo, or the " First Difficulty," 
Tchi no Kozoki, or the "' First Peep" 
(over a precipice), etc. The ascent 
is also so long — nominally 7 ri to 
the summit — as to necessitate 
sleeping one night at the Omuro or 
Umadome huts on the mountain 
side. Water should be taken up, 
as none can be procured except at 
these hilts. On the other hand, 
much of the way is in the shade, 
being through a wood. TTie siim- 
mit consists of two peaks, on one 
of which stands a bronze figure of 
the Shinto god Onamuji. On the 
second and higher peak, called Oku- 
no-in, is a small image of the Bud- 
dhist deity Marishi-ten. The sum- 
mit commands a magnificent view 
on every side. Looking S., the eye 
sweeps over the valleys of the Noro- 
kawa and Tashiro-gawa, to the 1. of 
which rises the long range of 
Shirane, the most conspicuous 
summits being the snow-streaked 
peak of Kaigane-san which stands 
in close proximity, and beyond, 
the bold mass of Ai-no-take, the 
central portion of the range. Below 
is the ravine through which the 
Norokawa flows, as it winds round 
the base of Kaigane ; the mountain 
to the r. is Senj6-ga-take. Beyond 
Shirane several high mountains 
are visible, being probably those 
that stand on the N. boundary of 
Siiruga. Towards the E. the valley 
of the Fujiliawa is seen between 
the near summit of H6-6-zan and 
the E. slope of Kaigane, and in the 
far distance can be distinguished 
the peninsula of Izu and the sea. 
The most strildng feature of the 
view is Fuji, to whose 1. a wide 
plain stretches far away to the E. 
Towards the N. and W. the fol- 
lowing mountains appear in succes- 
sion : — a portion of the Chichibu 
range, Kimpu-zan, Y'^atsu-ga-take, 
Asama-yama, the lofty mountains 
on the borders of Etchu and Hida, 

284 Boute 29. — Mountains between the Fujikawa (h Tenryu. 

Ontake, the Koma-ga-take of Shin- 
shvi, and Ena-san, wliile the nearer 
view includes the phxin of K5fu, the 
valley of the Kamanashi-gawa, Ta- 
teshina-yama, the mountains about 
the Wada Pass, Lake Suwa, and the 
valley of the Teni-yu-gawa. 

Rhododendrons grow in great 
quantities on Koma-ga-take. Diar- 
ing the latter part of July, when 
the trees, which attain to a con- 
siderable size, are in iwW bloom, 
they impart a charming hue to the 


This, though one of the highest 
peaks of the range separating the 
valleys of the Tenryu and the Oi- 
gawa, is little loiown, because not 
visible from any of the ordinary 
lines of travel. It is best approach- 
ed from Takato {Inn, Eiegami-ya), 
an important town situated in the 
valley of the Mibukawa, an affluent 
of the Tenryu. Those coming fi-om 
the E. may most expeditiously 
reach Takato via Kofu and Kami 
Tsutaki on the Koshu Kaido, 
whence it is a walk of about 7 ri, 
the path turning off 1. at the vill. 
of ^ezawa, 1 ri beyond Kami Tsu- 
taki, and crossing the Nyukasawa- 
toge and Shibiri-toge. Hill scenery 
alternates ^sith park-like stretches 
that recall England. Those from 
the W. reach it from Lm (Sakashita) 
(see p. 285), 2 ri. Travellers coming 
from the direction of Shimo-no- 
Suwa may also reach Takato fi-om 
Kanazawa on the Koshu Kaido, from 
which village it is a pleasant walk 
of some 3 ri to Midoiinitd (Inn, 
Echigo-ya), and then 3.} ri more to 
Takato. From Takato the road 
leads due S. up the valley of the 
Mibukawa, affording good views of 
the W. side of the Koshu Koma-ga- 
take, and over the Ichinose-toge 
(4,450 ft.) to Onna-taka 

This hamlet is said to derive its name 
from the fact that the women are here 
the heads of the households. It is also 
stated that if a man fmm any other place 

marries a woman belonging to this ham- 
let, he is sure soon to droop and die. 

and Ichiba, which latter is recom- 
mended as a halting-place. Places 
further on, where one may stay, are 
Okaicara {Inn by Imai Takijiro), 
Kamazawa, and the warm stUphur 
baths of Koshibu. 

The aetuiil ascent takes 11 hrs. 
from Koshibu, being an arduous 
scramble, during the first part of 
which the Koshibu-gawa has to be 
crossed and re-crossed more than a 
score of times. This is followed by 
a hard climb of 2 hrs. or so up the 
steep tree-clad slopes of a spur 
of Akaishi-san, the ascent then lead- 
ing over bare loose rocks of a red- 
dish colour for 2 hrs. more to a 
point where it is necessary to turn 
and go straight up to the final 
arete. This is a moderate climb of 
1 hr., and another hour is needed 
to walk up to the highest point of 
the peak (10,150ft.), Avhich affords 
a tine view of most of the high 
moiintains of Central Japan. A 
night has to be spent in what the 
hunter-guides call a gi'and cave, but 
is a bare shelter between two rocks. 
Water is not always easily found on 
the mountain side. About 1 m. 
from the summit is a hollow, where 
the climber who wishes to see the 
sunrise might sleep. 

Instead of returning to Takato, it 
might be possible to cross over into 
the valley of the Oigawa, and either 
descend to the Tokaido, or strike 
the head-waters of the Hayakawa 
across another range (see p. 279) ; 
but the country is rough in the 

Route 30. — Rapids of the Tenryu-gauoa. 


ROUTE 30. 

The Rapids op the Tenryxt-gawa. 

These r.apids, the finest in Japan, 
form a natural route connecting 
the Nakasendo and the Tokaido, — 
the two chief highways of the 
central portion of the Main Island. 
The village where one embarks is 
called Tokimata (Jnn, Umeno-ya). 
It is reached from the E. by travel- 
ling along the Nakasendd as far 
as the town of Shimo-no-Suwa, 
thence to Matsushima on another 
important highway called the Ina 
Kai/lo, and along that highway 
to lida (Inns, Shogodd, Ryushi- 
kwan), a large and flourishing 
town, formerly the residence of a 
Daimyo. The portion of the Ina 
Kaido inchided in this route is by 
no means lacking in the pictur- 
esque. It also brings the traveller 
into the vicinity of the Shinshu 
Koma-ga-tako, which may be 
ascended from Akao or from Saka- 
shita. — Those coming from the W. 
along the Nakasendo may leave 
that highway either at Azumn- 
bashi, whence 5 ri over the Odaira- 
toije to (Jdaira, and 3 ri 26 cho more 
to lida, all on foot or in jinrikishas 
with 3 men ; or else at ^Shiojiri, 
whence a jinrrkisha road leads to 
Matsushimn as above, — 5 ri 24 cho 
(13f m.). 



Bi Cho M. 

Matsushima G 5 15 

Sakashita (Ina) 2 IS 6 

Akao 3 6 Tij 

Hjima 1 31 U 

HDA .5 27 U 


Total 21 15 52i 

The best accommodation on the 
way to Tokimata is at Sakashita, 
also called Ina (Inn, Tomi-ya), and at 
Akao (hill, *Ton(>-oka). The whole 

way from Shimo-no-Suwa to Toki- 
mata is practicable for jinrikishas, 
and can be accomplished in two 
days ; but the occasional roughness 
of the latter part of the road 
necessitates the taking of two 
jiniikisha-men. The passage by 
boat from Tokimata down to the 
Tokaido generally occupies 12 hrs. 
Circumstances may render a break 
necessary. In this case, either 
Nishinoto or VidawMta lower down, 
will do for a night's halting-place. 
The total distance travelled by water 
is estimated at 36 ri, say 90 m.; — 
but the latter portion of this is 
along a comparatively sluggish cur- 
rent. The boat does not take the 
traveller actually to the Tokaido 
Railway. Whether bound up or 
down the line, he alights at Nakn- 
no-machi, for the station of Hama- 
matsu, 1 ri 28 cho distant. Some 
may prefer to alight at Kashima 
higher up (about 5 ri from Hama- 
matsu by jinrikisha or basha), or 
else at Ikeda for the station of 
Naka-izumi, or to go on to the 
station of Tenryii-ijawa ; but both 
these being small, the express does 
not stop at them. 

The official charge for a boat 
(1900) is 35 yen when the river is in 
a normal state, the justification of 
this high price being based on the 
fact that from 10 to 12 days are re- 
quired to tow the boat up stream 
again. In flood-time there is no 
limit to what may be asked. Boats 
not being always in readiness, it may 
be advisable to write beforehand (in 
Japanese, of course) to the inn- 
keeper at Tokimata, to order one 
mth 4 boatmen. Travellers are 
also recommended to time their 
movements so as to arrive at 
Tokimata on the afternoon previous 
to their descent of the rapids, which 
will enable them to make all ar- 
rangements overnight and to start 
early. It might also be jiossible to 
make .irrangements through the 
inn at lida. A necessary stipula- 
tion is that the boat shall take one 
(he whole iray, otherwise the men 


Roiif", 30. — Rapi'is of the Tenryu-gatva. 

are apt to shirk the last part of the 
voyage, where the sluggish stream 
makes the work arduons, and en- 
deavour to make the passengers 
land en route, where jinrikishas may 
or may not be obtainable. There 
also now is a daily omnibus boat 
from Tokimata at 7 A.M., 2h yen per 
head ; but most of the passengers 
alight at Kashima. One should be 
prepared for disappointment in the 
event of continued wet weather, 
when the river rises considerably. 
Nothing will induce the boatmen to 
undertake the journey if the water 
is above a certain height. Under 
such circumstance^^, one of the alter- 
native routes given below may be 
availed of. A spare hour at Toki- 
mata can be pleasantly spent in 
visiting the picturesque bridge less 
than 1 ri down the river, at the 
spot where the rough-and-tumble 
part of its course begins. 

The scenery of the Tenryu-gawa 
is most striking. After passsing 
the bridge mentioned above, the 
river enters a rocky ravins ; and 
from this point on to Nishinoto — a 
passage of some 6i hrs. — is almost 
one continued series of rapids 
and races. Walled in between 
mountains that rise abruptly 
to the height of from 1,000 ft. to 
2,000 ft., the river twists and tears 
along their rocky base, carving for 
itself a channel where there seems 
no possible outlet. It is in such 
places that the skill of the boatmen 
will be most admired, where the 
boat, which looks as if it must be 
dashed to pieces in another 
moment, is shot round the corner, 
only to be whirled on to some new 
danger equally exciting. 

Mr. Percival Lowell thus describes the 
scene below Mitsushima, one of the 
hamleta on the bank: — "The river, its 
brief glimpse at civilization over, relapsed 
again into utter navagery. Rocks and 
trees, as wild apparently as their first 
foreiunners there, wallod us in on the 
sides, and appeared to do so at the end.s, 
making exit seem an impossibility, and 
entrance to have been a dream. The 
stream gave short reaches, di8clo?ing 
every few minutes, as it took us round a 

fresh turn, a new variation on the old 
theme. Then, as we glirlel straight our 
few hundred feet, the wall behind us rose 
higher and liighe:-, stretching out at us as 
if to prevent our po.ssible escape. "We 
had thought it only a high cliff, and 
behold it was the whole mountain side 
that had stood barrier there." 

On approaching a rapid, the man 
forward strikes the bow of the boat 
■with his paddle, both as a signal 
to the others and in the supersti- 
tious belief tliat it will bring good 
luck. Of rapids properly so-called, 
there are upwards of thirty, the 
finest of which are : Yagura (the 
TuiTet), near Oshima ; Shin-taJci 
(New Cascade), 3 ri below Mitsu- 
shima ; Takaze (High Eapid); Chona 
(Adze), just beyond Otani; Kon- 
nyaku (Potato) ; Shiranami (White 
Waves); lori ga taki (lori's Cascade); 
and Yama-huro (Mountain Bath), 
the grandest of all, despite its 
homely name. 

In the event of flood or any other 
unforeseen circumstance prevent- 
ing the boat joui'ney down the 
Tenryii-gawa, the traveller may 
avail himself of the way over the 
Odaira-t5ge mentioned above to 
rejoin the Nakasendo ; or else he 
may strike the Tokaido Eailway by 
taking a road called the Chu Uma- 
kaido, which connects lida vriih. 
Nagoya, 30 ri. The point where 
this road would be joined is 2 J ri 
from Tokimata, and 2 ri from lida. 
The chief places passed on the way 
are Nebane, Akechi, Tsuruzato, and 

Nebane (Inn, Sumiyoshi-ya) is 
an emporium of trade between the 
provinces of Shinshu and Mikawa, 
the latter sending fish and raw 
cotton, for \\'hich Shinshu returns 
tobacco, hemp, and dried persim- 
mons. It is possible to reach Toyo- 
hashi on the Tokaidd Railway from 
Nebane by a road, some IG ri in 
length, wliich leads via the temple 
of Horaiji. 

Akechi (Inn, Sumiyoshi-ya), 
next in importance, is a small but 
thriving town, which produces 

Route 31. — Mountains of Hida and Etchu. 


porcelain, — chiefly tea-cups and 
rioe-bowls of no artistic value. 
For 8eto, a more famous ceramic 
centre, see p. 244. 


The Mountains of Hida and 

1. intkoductory bemaeks. 2. gifd 
to takayama in hida. 3. matsu- 
moto to takayama by the abo 


and kasa-dake. yakeyama-toge. 
4. yaei-ga-takk and hodaka- 
yama. 5. nagano to toyama over 
the haeinoki pass. 6. itoi-gawa 
to omachi and matsumoto. 
6-eenge-yama and jonen-dake. 
7. tateyama. 8. toyama to 
takayama by the valley of the 
takahaea-gawa. u. toyama oe 
kanazawa to takayama by the 
valley op the shieakawa. 10. 
haku-san. 11. takayama to 
fukoshima on the nakasendo. 
12. ontake and the koma-ga- 
take of shinshtt. 13. ena-san. 

1. — Inteoduotoey Remarks. 

The provinces of Hida and Etchu 
may be conveniently taken 
together, because hemmed in be- 
tween the same high mountain ran- 
ges which render this region ex- 
ceptionally difficult of access, and 
have prevented it from being much 
visited even by the natives of the 
surrounding provinces. No part of 
Japan has changed so little of late 

The range bounding these prov- 
inces on ttie E. is the most con- 
siderable in the empire, the only 
one that can compare Avith it being 
that between the Fujikawa and 
Tenryti - gawu (see Route 29). 
Many of the peaks are streaked 

vrith snow until the early autumn, 
while in some of the recesses and 
gorges, where it is partially screen- 
ed from the sun's rays, the snow 
never entirely disappears. Extend- 
ing almost due N. and S. for a 
length of 60 or 70 miles, with a 
breadth of from 5 to 10 miles, this 
range forms a well-nigh impene- 
trable barrier to communication 
from the S. and E. It consists chiefly 
of granite, overlaid in places with 
igneous rocks ; but Norikura and 
Tateyama are of volcanic oiigin. 
The highest and most conspicuous 
of the ntimerous peaks, beginning 
at the N., are as follows : 

_ FT. 

0-Renge-yama 10,100 

Tateyama 9,300 

Jonen-dake 10,400 

Kasa-dake 10,000 

Yari-ga-take 10,300 

Hodaka-yama 10,100 

Norikura 10,550 

Ontake 10,600 

Kouia-ga-take (Shinshii). 8,500 
Haku-san 8,950 

Tlie lower flanks of the chain are 
clothed with forests, in which the 
most common trees are beeches and 
oaks, conifers being also plentiful. 
Among the wild animals of this 
region may be mentioned bears, 
deer, a kind of chamois, and two 
kinds of boar. The streams abound 
with troiit. The scanty population 
consists of hardy, simple folk, 
supporting themselves by hunt- 
ing, wood-cutting, and charcoiil 
burning. In some parts the women 
wear a kind of baggy trowsers 
resembling bloomers, tied at the 
ankles. The staple food is buck- 
wheat and millet, while barley, 
hemp, beans, and mulberry-leaves 
form the other chief productions of 
the valleys. 

It will thus be seen that the 
mountaineer has but hard fare to 
expect, and will be wise to provide 
himself with as many tins of meat, 
preserved milk, etc., as can be pack- 
ed into a small compass. The re- 


Routp, 81. — Mountains of Hida and Elchii. 

commendation is advisedly framed 
in these terms ; for much luggage 
cannot be caixied, ow^ng to the 
general scarcity of men to carry it. 
Needless to add that the accom- 
modation is often of the roughest. 
Only at Toyama the capital of 
Etchii, at Taka.Aama the capital of 
Hida, at Matsumoto, and at a few 
other of the larger towns, is the 
ordinary standard of Japanese pro- 
vincial comfort attained. Should 
the varying efficiency of the carry- 
ing companies which undertake to 
forward goods from one portion of 
Japan to another permit, compara- 
tive comfort and plenty may be 
ensured by sending boxes of food, 
extra clothing, books, and whatever 
else may be required, ahead to the 
chief towns through which one ex- 
pects to pass. It is, however, 
always advisable to leave an ample 
margin of time, as the Japanese are 
not to be rehed on for punctuality 
or despatch. 

For practical convenience' sake, 
four mountains have been included 
in this route that do not topogi'aph- 
ically belong to it — Haku-san, On- 
take, the Koma-ga-take of Shin- 
shu, and Ena-san, because, though 
not actually forming part of the 
same range, they stand not far from 
it, and are likely to interest the 
same class of travellers and to be 
visited during the same trip. 

The district treated of in this 
route may be best approached from 
one of three sides, — from Ueda 
or Nagano, on the Karuizawa-Nao- 
etsu Railway ; from Gif u, on the 
Tokaido Railway ; or fi-om the Sea 
of Japan, on which last side To- 
yama is the natural starting-point. 
The first-mentioned approach is to 
be preferred by travellers from 
Yokohama, the last two by those 
coming from Kobe. Matsumoto and 
Fukushima make excellent centres 
for excursions among these moun- 

A road is in course of constnic- 
tion from Shimashima over the 
summit of the Tokugo-toge, a pass 

which crosses the range running 
parallel to the great ridge of which 
Yari-ga-take forms the highest 
point. Ultimately it will head down 
to the Azusa-gawa, and then proba- 
bly, crossing that river, come out on 
the Hirayu side of the chain. 
Should this be the case, it will 
afford a capital high-level route 
from Shinano into lOda, and great- 
ly facilitate travel through the 
vnldest district of Japan. 

2. — Feom (tifu on the Tokaido 



GIFU to :— m Cho M. 

Akutami 2 34 1\ 

SEKI 2 4 h\ 

Mabuld 5 29 14^ 

Asahari 2 7 5J 

Kiribora 2 3 5 

Kanayama 1 4 2f 

Shimohara 15 1 

Hoido 3 — 7J 

Gero 3 17 ^ 

Hagiwara 2 4 5|^ 

Osaka 3 1 7J 

Kukuno 3 32 9^ 


Total 35 10 8G 

This road, called the Uida Kaido, 
is practicable for jinriMshas 
throughout. Three passes — the 
Fukwo-zaka (fine view of Ontake), 
the Nagahora-toge close to the 
borders of IVIino and Hida, and the 
Miya-toge — have to be surmounted ; 
elsewhere the road has an easy 
gradient. The best accommoda- 
tion is at Seki {Inn, Yorozu-ya) and 
at Shi7nohara (Inn by Kato Sabiiro- 
emon). Fairly good accommodation 
may also be found at Tonomura 
between Seki and MabuM, at Oero, 
and at Osaka. 

The tame character of the land- 
scape during the early part of the 
joiu'ney,^ — low-l